Frustration, Fear, and the Fate of U.S.-Turkish Relations
Turkey’s purchase of Russian S-400 air-defense missiles represents a dramatic and undeniable shift in its foreign policy. In explaining the decision, Turkey’s policymakers and commentators have offered two distinct, if complementary, narratives: a softer version emphasizing frustration with the United States, and a harder version focused on reasons to feel threatened by it. Determining which narrative