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5. Palaeo-Climate Change
5.1. I troductio Chapter 5 is a review of the major episodes of climate cha ge that have occurred through Earth history, prior to the adve t of the use of i strume tal data. Although the co temporary climate cha ge record spa s o ly a ti y fractio (10-7) of Earth history, i light of its curre t a d future implicatio s to the global society, it forms the basis of a separate chapter (chapter 6). This chapter begi s with a discussio of climate cha ges over the lo gest time scales (106 to 108 years), those associated with co ti e tal drift, followed by a i vestigatio i to the Quater ary glacials (last 2 Ma), assumed to be drive by orbital forci g mecha isms (see chapter 2). Fi ally, ce tury a d mille ia time scales of climate cha ge over the last 10,000 years will be reviewed. For all sectio s, the evide ce for climate cha ge will be draw from both empirical i vestigatio s (see chapter 3) a d modelli g studies (see chapter 4).