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America Occupies Japan
In September, 1945, General Douglas MacArthur became the Supreme Command of Allied Powers (SCAP) and assumed the task of rebuilding war-torn Japan. Initial Allied efforts (~1945-47) emphasized punishment of war crimes, reforms of the Japanese government and society, revival of the economy and establishment of a formal peace treaty and alliance. The Imperial Japanese Army was disbanded and war crimes trials were convened in Tokyo. Land reform policies, designed to benefit tenant farmers formerly under the control of rich landowners were instituted. Efforts were made to weaken large Japanese business conglomerates (zaibatsu) and establish a free capitalist market.