Innovation, Education, and Enterprise: The Way to Freedom and Prosperity
" . . . gets started with developments of a creative sort—innovation of products."—Andrew J. Galambos "Optimism is an essential ingredient of innovation. How else can the individual welcome change over security, adventure over staying in safe places?"—Robert Noyce INNOVATION—A PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF BETTERMENT OF HUMAN LIFE Innovation by means of discovery and invention has been a principal source of the progress of human civilization, since even before the advent of Homo Sapiens as a distinct species some 100,000 or more years ago. English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) described human life as "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." That was true of all human history up to Hobbes' time, and for the next two centuries as well. That Hobbes' gloomy observation is no longer true for a majority of human beings is due to innovation—discoveries and inventions—in science and technology. Globally, life expectancy at birth was generally less than forty years everywhere on earth