Distant healing: two new systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Distant healing is one of the most bizarre yet popular forms of alternative medicine. Healers claim they can transmit 'healing energy' towards patients to enable them to heal themselves. There have been many trials testing the effectiveness of the method, and the general consensus amongst critical thinkers is that all variations of 'energy healing' rely entirely on a placebo response. A recent and widely publicised paper seems to challenge this view. This article has, according to its authors, two aims. Firstly it reviews healing studies that involved biological systems other than 'whole' humans (e.g., studies of plants or cell cultures) that were less susceptible to placebo-like effects. Secondly, it presents a systematic review of clinical trials on human patients receiving distant healing. All the included studies examined the effects upon a biological system of the explicit intention to improve the wellbeing of that target; 49 non-whole human studies and 57 whole human studies were