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Find the number of distinct Islands OR connected components. | Algorithms

Objective: Given a 2d grid map of '1's (land) and '0's (water), count the number of distinct or unique islands. Island: An island is surrounded by water and is formed by connecting adjacent lands horizontally or vertically. Assume all four edges of the grid are all surrounded by water. Given such a grid, write an algorithm to find the number of distinct islands in it. This problem can also be also as find the number of distinct or unique connected components in the given graph.