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“11. Res judicata.—No Court shall try any suit or issue in which the matter directly and substantially in issue has been directly and substantially in issue in a former suit between the same parties, or between parties under whom they or any of them claim, litigating under the same title, in a Court competent to try such subsequent suit or the suit in which such issue has been subsequently raised, and has been heard and finally decided by such Court. Explanation IV- Any matter which might and ought to have been made ground of defence or attack in such former suit shall be deemed to have been a matter directly and substantially in issue in such suit.”= In the present case, the appellants are strangers to the decree. They were required to get that claim adjudicated in the course of their Execution Application which was referable to the provisions of Order XXI Rule 97. Having failed to assert the claim at that stage, the deeming fiction contained in Explanation IV to Section 11 is clearly attracted. An issue which the appellants might and ought to have asserted in the earlier round of proceedings is deemed to have been directly and substantially in issue. The High Court was, in this view of the matter, entirely justified in coming to the conclusion that the failure of the appellants to raise a claim would result in the application of the principle of constructive res judicata both having regard to the provisions of Sections 4 and 5 of the Act of 1958 and to the provisions of Order XXI Rules 97 to 101 of the CPC.
Hon’ble Dr. Justice D.Y. Chandrachud REPORTABLE IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CIVIL APPEAL NO. 1500 OF 2019 (@SLP(C) No. 1216 OF 2016) ASGAR & ORS. Appellant(…