I’ve seen lots of comments about Mewtwo’s teeth, but I haven’t seen anyone mention Pikachu’s. Interestingly, he doesn’t appear to have those big incisors characteristic of rodents (which would’ve looked very odd I think), but he does have canines.
I think it’s super cute! But, without having a clear view of the premolars/molars, this implies that Pikachu is, at the very least, an omnivore. Or at least that it was within recent evolutionary history.
Real-world rodents have a single pair of incisors, a big ol’ space where the canines and premolars would be, and several pairs of molars.
So yeah. Pikachu has teeth that would facilitate occasional meat-eating.
Can you explain like how necks work and how to draw them in different angles with the head, I'm having problems attaching the neck to the head and shoulders
The neck can be a little enigmatic until you get a hold of it. What’s most important to know is mostly what it’s range of motions is, and how two primary muscles move in tangent with the neck and throat itself. So let’s take a little dive.
The neck, as you probably know, is comprised out of the smallest vertebrae on our spine. Their limited size makes this part of our spinal cord highly mobile, save for a full 180 turn, and a complete backbend. The reason we can’t turn our head like owls is a combination of the cartilage sticking our vertebrae together, and the muscles in our neck simply not being long enough to pass our chin over our shoulder blades. We can’t snap our neck back to rest between our shoulder blades because of the little taps at the back of the vertebrae ( the spinous process ) interlock with each other when we bend back. One of the functions for these taps is for the body’s muscles to attach to and flex from.
As we can see, the throat and neck are comprised of relatively few larger muscles, and a good few smaller ones. Although, for the most part, these smaller muscles are not something we can see when the skin is laced on top since they sit underneath the larger muscles. So for the purpose of brevity, we’ll focus primarily on the Sternal Head and the Clavicular head. Which is the two long muscles that stretch from the base of the skull’s braincase, and respectively to the collarbone, and right between the collarbones?
As well as the Trapezius, which connects the outer clavicle to the back of the head ( this muscle also reaches all the way down between the shoulder blades on the back )
The Trapezius is a large muscle that smoothens down from the back of the base of your skull, and all the way down to the shoulder. In people with an average build, the Trapezius slopes very smoothy from A to B almost like a soft piece of fabric stretched out over the muscles. If you work with bulkier characters however, those with above-average muscle mass, you’ll find that the Trapeziuos grows into more of an outward curve when gaining mass.
The combination of the Sternal and Clavical head is typically what you see people depict in semi-realistic depictions of the human neck. This kind of V shape is very indicative of the throat’s overall structure, and can give precise information about how the head is turned exactly.
What’s so important to note about the two muscles is that, like any other muscles, they stay connected to their origin points. In this case, those two origin points are rather simple to find on your character as long as you know where the clavicles sit. They always connect to the same position on the skull though, right behind the ear.
The Sternal head, as indicated by the name ( Sternum) connects to the breastbone, right between the clavicles. While the Clavical head ( also as indicated by the name ) connects somewhere midway on the clavicle. Depending on the build of your character, the Clavical head can be more or less visible. If your character’s a muscular type, then it’s likely that there will be contours hinting at its presence under the skin. But if they’re of normal weight it’s unlikely they’ll be visible. If your character’s particularly skinny, they might also show a bit of definition due to the low amount of fat deposited around the muscle.
So no matter how we turn or bend our necks, these two muscles will always connect to the same points but warp accordingly to the posture of our head. And usually, if you can just place the Sternal heads, you can work off of them to find the point for your Clavical head.
Another important note, the back of the neck always connects to the back of the skull, not in the middle of it. We have a lot of artists come into our inbox who misplace the neck to the center of the skull. You can help yourself a great deal by remembering that the Trapezius connects to the back of the skull ( safe a slight curve-out from the skull’s base to the top ).
Additionally, if you want to get a little more “realistic” you can look for the triangular bit of tissue that connects from the centre of the throat, and out to the two corners of the jaw. This bit can be very useful to remember when you want to draw heads facing a slightly upwards angle, or in direct profile. It is nearly just as flexible as the other muscles we’ve gone over and will warp accordingly to the posture of the head contra the torso. But will always stay attached to the three points. This section bulks up when we tug the chin closer to our neck and stretches thin when we eject our chin from our neck.
I hope this gave some sort of clarity. There’s, of course, a little more to it if you want to get really technical with the muscle layout. But I recommend you looking into medical books or illustrations for more in-depth walkthroughs of the actual build. In terms of the neck’s/throat’s range of movement, I recommend you testing it ours on yourself. There’s a great variety to how flexible people are, so drawing one general conclusion from myself ( a person with a spinal disability and limited range of motion ) is not going to help you at all. But observe yourself and others and draw your own observations, and understand the structure of the bones and muscles to find out the extent of a character’s dynamic range.
I wish we taught children more about the homology between genitals I feel like that would help
like I cannot STAND the idea of being seen as ‘opposite’ from someone with a penis and no breasts when our bodies are more alike than they are different it’s SO grating.
But genitals specifically ppl see as so opposite to each other and we end up with men who think vaginas are like just inconceivably and mythically different than a dick and women who are made to idealize that their organ is solely receptive when the glans to their own erectile tissue is RIGHT THERE.
So someone may have external testes while someone else may have internal ovaries but it really doesn’t stop there. The labia minora are homologous to the scrotum, and there are actually two bulbs inside the body alongside the vaginal canal that can expand during sexual arousal. Of course at their base are the bartholin’s glands. Every layer from skin to secretory tissue to reproductive gland that exists in the testes exist internally in the vulva.
We’re SO similar. Clitoral tissue isn’t just that little nub, it’s actually a whole shaft tucked along the top of the vagina that splits to fork around it:
So let’s look at penile reproductive anatomy:
The structures are externalized and/or often larger, but you can see all of the same shapes.
The erectile tissue and glans we saw above in the clitoris is straightened, but you can see how the two parts instead of splitting here continue in paired bodies down the shaft.
All of the let’s say ‘ovoid’ tissues from the vaginal anatomy are seen here collapsed into one organ as the testes. The scrotal skin, the tunica vaginalis, the reproductive testis themselves, and the excretory epididymis.
We all have the same origin tissues.
So fundamentally, our genital structure looks like this in the land of ideals:
and changes shape and structure as we mature.
Idk it just really bugs me how differently people see each other first off based on their bodies/genitals but in that vein in a sexual context. We’re not ‘opposites’. Our anatomical differences are more like NS magnets and we are throughout all that the same material.
Just some stuff to remember idk. The fact that there are ppl with vaginas who think their sexuality is more about being fillled than about getting clitorial stimulation is absurd but also the fact that I know of ppl with penises who either see vaginas as a puzzle box or some alien structure and just can’t fathom how to interact with or please one just bugs me like wtf we’re not different animals.
Sorta-Medical question: Why are we the only apes with chins?
This question has destroyed me…are you telling me other primates don’t have mental tubercles or protuberances!? Are we the only ones with chins!? What other animals even have chins – because apparently dogs and cats don’t have them either!? This is fucking me up
I am absolutely in LOVE with your artwork! I hope I can be half as good as you are if I keep practicing, the hardest thing for me to do is the human figure, i’ve been using references but I am having little to no improvement, do you have any advice on how to break the human form into simpler shapes?
Thank you so much !! And I wish you good luck in your art journey :D For anatomy and basically anything I think, I believe you have to try to understand how something works + practising. Because practising without understanding (just copying) leads to little improvement.Sure at first when you learn and you sketch you have to simplify stuff like this :
(source) (And I still do these simplified shapes to get the flow of the pose then add details) But in my opinion you always have to look and understand what is what and where, why there is a curve there, why there is a gap here. For this, écorchés are my favourites.
(source) Obviously you don’t need to learn all the muscles and their name, but seeing how the body is made will help you. Drawing écorchés (as well as skeletons) is what helped me the most in anatomy, because then you just draw them with skin on while keeping in mind the curves, shadows. And seeing where the muscles are, you understand where to put these curves and shadows.
(source) And you can also simplify them with groups like this. I’m still learning as well, but I hope this helped you a little bit !
hey! so I just started (and finished) reading this comic and I'm really interested in the anatomy of your dragons. all of the six limbed creatures look so natural! I love the wings, especially how they look folded (something I've always had trouble drawing). what was your thought process behind designing everything (wings in particular)?
The wings and anatomy in general is all just simplified to be fit into shapes (lines, circles, cylinders, squares etc) but the fundamental study of anatomy from irl animal is good to know as well. I’ve studied and practiced to draw dragon anatomy for years and now it’s very easy for me to draw my characters without too much fuzz.
I can show you some helpful tips,
If I want a limb to move in 3D space I usually use cylinders or the coiling technique. Mostly, I just use lines and dots to set the limbs and the snake-like shape for the body.
If you like wings, I just suggest drawing them as much as you can. Just fill a whole page with wings, study them from pictures of animals and use your imagination to make different shapes and sizes.