zygomatic arch

Diana’s Daily Lines - “Go Tell The Bees That I Am Gone” (Book 9)

#DailyLines #GoTELLTheBEESThatIAmGONE #Book9 #NoItsNotDone #PutThePossibilityOutOfYourMind#AllInGoodTime #migraine

“Lie down,” I said firmly, and pointed to my lap.

“Nay, I’ll be f—“

“I don’t care whether you’re fine or not,” I said. “I said, lie down.”

“I’ve work to—“

“You’ll be flat on your face in another minute,” I said. “Lie. Down.”

He opened his mouth, but a spasm of pain made him shut his eyes, and he couldn’t locate any words with which to argue. He swallowed, opened his eyes, and sat down beside me, very gingerly. He was breathing slowly and shallowly, as though drawing a deep breath might make things worse.

I stood up, took his shoulders and turned him gently so I could reach his plait. I undid his ribbon and unraveled the thick strands of auburn hair. It still was mostly red, though soft white threads caught the light here and there.

“Down,” I said again, sitting and pulling his shoulders toward me. He moaned a little, but stopped resisting and lowered himself very slowly, ‘til his head rested heavy in my lap. I touched his face, my fingers feather-light on his skin, tracing the bones and hollows, temples and orbits, cheekbones and jaw. Then I slid my fingers into the soft mass of his hair, warm in my hands, and did the same to his scalp. He let out his breath, carefully, and I felt his body loosen, growing heavier as he relaxed.

“Where does it hurt?” I murmured, making very light circles round his temples with my thumbs. “Here?”

“Aye…but…” He put up a hand, blindly, and cupped it over his right eye. “It feels like an arrow—straight through into my brain.”

“Mmm.” I pressed my thumb gently round the bony orbit of the eye, and slid my other hand under his head, probing the base of his skull. I could feel the muscles knotted there, hard as walnuts under the skin. “Well, then.”

I took my hands away and he let his breath out.

“It won’t hurt,” I reassured him, reaching for the jar of blue ointment.

“It does hurt,” he said, and squinched his eyelids as a fresh spasm seized him.

“I know.” I unlidded the jar, but let it stand, the sharp fragrance of peppermint, camphor and green peppercorns scenting the air. “I’ll make it better.”

He didn’t make any reply, but settled himself as I began to massage the ointment gently into his neck, the base of his skull, the skin of his forehead and temples. I couldn’t use the ointment so close to his eye, but put a dab under his nose, and he took a slow, deep breath. I’d make a cool poultice for the eye when I’d finished. For now, though…

“Do you remember,” I said, my voice low and quiet. “Telling me once about visiting Bird Who Sings in the Morning? And how his mother came and combed your hair?”

“Aye,” he said, after a moment’s hesitation. “She said…she would comb the snakes from my hair.” Another hesitation. “She…did.”

Clearly he did remember—and so did I recall what he’d told me about it. How she’d gently combed his hair, over and over, while he told her—in a language she didn’t speak—the trouble in his heart. Guilt, distress…and the forgotten faces of the men he’d killed.

There is a spot, just where the zygomatic arch joins the maxilla, where the nerves are often inflamed and sensitive….yes, just there. I pressed my thumb gently up into the spot and he gasped and stiffened a little. I put my other hand on his shoulder.

“Shh. Breathe.”

His breath came with a small moan, but he did. I held the spot, pressing harder, moving my thumb just a little, and after a long moment, felt the spot warm and seem to melt under my touch. He felt it too, and his body relaxed again.

“Let me do that for you,” I said softly. The wooden comb he’d made me sat on the little table beside the jar of ointment. With one hand still on his shoulder, I picked it up.

“I…no, I dinna want…” But I was drawing the comb softly through his hair, the wooden teeth gentle against his skin. Over and over, very slowly.

I didn’t say anything for quite some time. He breathed. The light came in low now, the color of wildflower honey, and he was warm in my hands, the weight of him heavy in my lap.

“Tell me,” I said to him at last, in a whisper no louder than the breeze through the open window. “I don’t need to know, but you need to tell me. Say it in Gaelic, or Italian or German—some language I don’t understand, if that’s better. But say it.”

His breath came a little faster and he tightened, but I went on combing, in long, even strokes that swept over his head and laid his hair untangled in a soft, gleaming mass over my thigh. After a moment, he opened his eyes, dark and half-focused.

“Sassenach?” he said softly.


“I dinna ken any language that I think ye wouldna understand.”

He breathed once more, closed his eyes, and began haltingly to speak, his voice soft as the beating of my heart.

Ridge - Roadkill to shelf

WARNING !! This post contains photos and descriptions of dead animals, skinned animals, decomposition, maggots, and the general gory details involved with cleaning up bones.

I’ve gotten a couple asks about the methods I use to clean bones, so I thought I’d put together a quick summary of the journey of my female Badger, Ridge, from road to shelf. It’s not really a tutorial, but I have almost kind of written it like one - keep in mind this is just Ridge’s personal cleanup journey, and all the steps she went through while being processed (it’s pretty similar for all my roadkill though) It’s a bit garbled and I haven’t really clarified anything… Hm. Maybe I will put together a proper tutorial in the future. For now, this is Ridge~

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Is it true that the larger the ridge on the back of an animal's skull, the stronger the jaws?

Typically, yes. The temporalis muscle, one of the main muscles responsible for chewing, attaches to the sides of the skull. The bigger that muscle is, the more space it needs to attach and a large sagittal crest is a good indicator of an animal with exceptional mastication muscles. But there are other factors to consider when trying to determine the strength of an animal’s bite.

Animals like opossums

and fishers

have especially large sagittal crests and very strong jaws to go with them but they don’t necessarily have a bite force that translates to being the strongest for their size in the animal kingdom. I read one study recently that said that fishers have a very similar bite force to that of red foxes and lynx, even with that enormous crest.

Gorillas, hippos, hyenas, and bears have some of the strongest jaws for mammals and I believe salt water crocodiles have the most powerful of all. But look at hyena and bear 

skulls. They do have noticeable sagittal crests (kodiak, polar, and grizzly bears even more so than this black bear) but they also have large, strong teeth, thick zygomatic arches which are also where jaw muscles attach, an overall very dense bone structure, and massive neck muscles. All of that adds up to a devastating, bone-crushing bite. 

What I like most about sagittal crests is how helpful they can be in identifying the sex of an animal. Male fishers like the one above can get huge crests, as do male sea lions, male gorillas, and males of many other species. Generally, the males of most species are larger and stronger than the females. Their bodies produce testosterone, a hormone that encourages the growth of larger muscles and with those larger muscles, like the temporalis, they’ll need bigger bone structures, like sagittal crests, to support them. How else are they gonna show off how fit and fiiine they are for the ladies (and the competition!)? 

Below are a couple of examples.

Female raccoons (and subadult males but you can usually tell age by bone sutures) have smooth craniums while males typically have small sagittal crests. The fellow on the right here has one of the largest crests I’ve come across on a raccoon. 

You can tell the gender of canid skulls similarly. Females can have smooth craniums but often they do have a fairly well-developed sagittal crest (dogs have very strong jaws) but it is never quite as pronounced as it is on male animals. 

Here’s a pair of very large domestic dog skulls. The top I know for certain is from a male Rottweiler but the lower one’s history is unknown. But, based on the shape of the skull (not as wide through the eyes, smaller sagittal crest), I would bet that it came from a female dog. 

These two skulls came from a male and female Carolina Dog. A friend of mine used to raise them and after these two passed he was kind enough to let me have their skulls.  

These skulls are very similar in appearance but again, pay attention to the shape of the skulls. The female has a slightly smaller sagittal crest than the male and the male’s skull is wider and more robust in appearance. 

Sexual dimorphism is apparent in the skull shape of many other species as well. The size of a sagittal crest is definitely one of the biggest giveaways on lots of carnivores and many omnivores. Not so much with herbivores but they often have handy-dandy tells like antlers and horns. 

So there you go, Anon. Way more information than I’m sure you wanted, but hopefully it was helpful! Thanks for the ask! 

haxuss  asked:

??? ~


Uuuugh, that fucking furry lizard. Stupid Cheekbones and his stupid smug face and his stupid pointy teeth. That stupid ‘I art holier than thou’ grin. I just want to punch him right in the face. Slam it into a wall repeatedly until his nose is dust and at least one of his zygomatic arches just snap. See how he feels about that! Then he can be all puffy faced and bleeding.

And I’ll ‘there’s consequences for your actions’ him right back. See how he likes that.

Fucking… Snooty fucker…

All that said… I don’t hate him as much personally as say… the Warden. He’s a good lieutenant… loyal, hardworking, willing to go the extra mile for his Commander. It’s admirable in a way and interesting. I would not call it respect, though. That’s definitely taking it too far.

It’s just that, generally, his behaviour is all things I had aspired to be back when I had a life. When I had a command to follow and a team to protect. An ideal to aim for. Back when my life wasn’t forfeit. Ultimately I failed, didn’t I? I don’t know anymore if I was good at my role and it was unavoidable in the circumstances or if I was a disaster and plummeted everyone off a cliff. I just wanted to protect them…

But I can recognize that he is good at it. He holds up his Commander and this fleet. He handles more than he ought and still manages to bend enough to not break under the pressure while still being firm and ruthless. I wouldn’t classify him as ‘not cruel’ but he is not… always unreasonable. He thinks logically. Sometimes it seems like he’ll take a blip of a second to consider something said before he dismisses it. Which is something. Sendak does too but he tends to do it to twist things to his amusement more, while the Lieutenant-Commander tends to twist it to the situation’s advantage. Neither is good in my position, but one is slightly more predictable or at least logical and thus less… terrifying?

Honestly, it hard to all classify. Calling anything in this situation ‘less terrifying’ still feels like I’m making it sound not awful enough. It’s like comparing a poisonous snake bite to severe lacerations. I’d really love to just not have either. I have a feeling he’d watch both too. For amusement or behavioural research, that part is uncertain, but equally terrible either way.

And yet despite it all, I sometimes wonder if professionally, that’s what I was or… ought to have been.


Red fox (Right, elderly female, roadkill) and Tanuki/raccoon dog (Left, young adult, unknown origin) comparison post.

I have seen these two species confused with eachother a lot, so here are some tips that you can use for identification!

1: Tanuki skulls are shorter than red fox skulls. The average length of a Tanuki skull is around 12cm long while a red fox skull is usually around 15cm long. Age and genders do have impacts on the size and shape, of course.

2: The nose slope would be more prominent on a Tanuki, which often gives the skull a ‘triangle’ appearance. Red fox noses tend to be slender and straight. This usually means that the fox would have a flatter cranium and the Tanuki cranium is slightly rounder (as seen in picture 5.)

3: Tanuki jaws have a very steep curve at the Base and it is definetly more noticeable than a red fox’s (as seen on photo 2.)

4: They have an equal amount of teeth so this isn’t an indication of species identification. Any missing teeth are likely missing due to infection or natural causes.

5: Red fox skulls usually have wider and thicker zygomatic arches, while the Tanuki would have thinner and more narrow arches, again this would give it more of a ‘triangle’ or 'arrow’ shaped appearance.

6: They are both members of the canidae family, raccoon dogs are not actually in the raccoon family, so their skull will not be similar to a raccoon skull and it wouldn’t be a good idea to compare either of these skulls to a raccoon skull for identification.

You are welcome to use these photos for reference or guidance!

anonymous asked:

Hey, I have a question that I hope you can answer! Are bat eared fox skulls diagnostic compared to other fox species? Can you easily ID/tell the difference? Thank you!

Hi Anon!

Bat-Eared Foxes have pretty neat skulls. They are similar to grey fox skulls but there are a few minor differences that help with telling them apart. Unfortunately I only have one Bat-Eared Fox skull to use for comparison so keep in mind that there can be variation between individuals of the same species but these photos will hopefully help give you a general idea of the difference between Bat-Eared Foxes and other species.

Here’s a Bat-Eared Fox, a Red Fox, and a Grey Fox. As you can see, both the Bat-Eared and the Grey have wide temporal ridges (the lines on top of the skull; they are usually U-shaped and very pronounced).

Now here’s the Bat-Eared Fox next to Two Grey Foxes. Very similar shapes and sizes and the Bat-Eared Fox’s temporal ridges are extremely similar in appearance to those of the Grey on the far right.

The Grey Foxes have slightly rounder foramen magums (the hole where the spinal cord attaches) than the Bat-Eared Fox which has a more oval-shaped opening.

Their noses have some variation too. The ends of the nasal bones have different shapes and the shape of the incisive foramina (those two holes at the end of the snout) have a shorter, less curved shape in the Bat-Eared’s skull.

The Bat-Eared Fox also has different-shaped eye sockets than the Grey Fox. Slightly more rounded and the postorbital processes on the frontal bones and the zygomatic arches (at least in this specimen) curve further inward toward each other than in the Grey Foxes.

The Bat-Eared Fox has a larger auditory meatus (the opening on side of the auditory bullae)  too. You can see it in these profile shots. Sorry this one is blurry—Tumblr keeps resizing it poorly.

Hope that helps, Anon! Best of luck!

EDIT: And thanks to @chamorchis for pointing out that Bat-Eared foxes have more teeth than other foxes! They have 50 teeth whereas most other foxes have 42. Mine is missing most of its teeth and I didn’t even think about counting the root holes so my bad!


Snagged a cute lil opossum from a B and C grade rummage bin at a skeleton museum gift shop the other day. It’s run by skulls unlimited so I was able to get a really nicely processed skull with a few broken pieces (the zygomatic arches needed to be glued back together/in place) and two missing teeth for a great price. I love her already.

naxios10  asked:

If it's not a bother, could I ask you what kind of animal (roughly) the Stalkids from OoT/MM are based on? I mean, yeah, they're not realistic but is there any particular form you can see?

The lore in MM states that Stalchildren are the long-dead soldiers of Ikana, and the theory among the community is that–due to their small size–they were child soldiers. Stalchildren being of Ikanan heritage makes a lot of sense, when you compare the shape of their skulls and bodily proportions to that of their king, Igos du Ikana. How did soldiers of the canyon kingdom make it to Hyrule? Your guess is as good as mine.

Since their skeletons are roughly human in appearance, we might assume that the Ikanans themselves were humanoid. Humanoid, but not quite human. 

Let’s take a look at the OoT/MM Stalchild:

First thing that strikes me is the shape of the skull. The zygomatic arches are absurdly broad for being on a human skull, and the nasal bone and maxilla show extreme prognathism. Stalchildren have a snout

Broad zygomatic arches are usually associated with a stronger biteforce. One of the muscles associated with closing the jaw, the temporalis, passes under the zygomatic arch; a stronger bite requires a bigger muscle, which in turn requires a wider space beneath the zygomatic arch to fit through.

But also associated with a stronger bite is a structure called the sagittal crest, a ridge of bone along the top of the skull, where the temporalis muscle attaches in those species that have it. The basic idea is that the muscle is so powerful that it needs a big chunk of bone to anchor itself to so that it can do its job right. You mostly see sagittal crests in predatory species who use their mouths to kill their prey–lions,  bears, wolves, etc.

Humans do not have a sagittal crest and have very narrow zygomatic arches–and a biteforce that is nothing to write home about. This all makes sense, because we as a species do not need a strong bite to hold or kill our prey; in our early days, we were persistence hunters who doggedly chased our prey to exhaustion and then used handheld tools to finish it off.

Stalchildren have broad zygomatic arches, but no defined sagittal crests. Additionally, their teeth are… not really all that great. They basically have a mouth full of incisors, which are teeth used for gripping and ripping. This is not the skull of a herbivore or omnivore–no grinding surfaces–but it might belong to a carnivore who is capable of using tools or non-bite methods to dispatch its prey. And this would make sense, as the Stalchild’s primary method of attack is to swipe with its claws.

Let’s talk some more about that now.

Looking at the upper body of the Stalchild, one can see that it’s fairly robust. Broad shoulders and a barrel chest. It appears to have only one forearm bone (we have two, the radius and the ulna) which I believe means these creatures are incapable of pronation–a movement of the hand and forearm which turns the palm downwards. 

Humans, and other ape species, are capable of pronating their wrists due to the arrangement of the bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles of the forearm. When your palm faces upwards, the radius and ulna lay side-by-side; when you turn your hand over and face your palm down, the radius actually crosses over the ulna, forming an X-shape.

So Stalchildren basically have their hands permanently in a pronated position. I’m sitting here trying to work out how they do the claw swipes, given that, and the best I can figure is that they have some limited supination ability, but are incapable of completely supinating their wrists. In other words, high-fives between Stalchildren would always have to be “up high”.

 But. But. From what we see of Igos du Ikana during the fight against him, he and his lackeys have a full range of mobility in their arms. It’s possible that Stalchildren are young Ikanans who, as they grew, would have experienced an osteological shift, and perhaps the development of more refined musculature, that would allow them a full range of arm mobility. (After all, Igos has a radius and ulna.) Or maybe they were a kind of sub-race, less developed, looked down on and used as foot soldiers because they were less dexterous. Who knows.

Anyway, let’s go back to the bones.

Proportionally, their arms are very long. Were they to lower their shoulders and let their hands fall to their sides, their elbows would probably be in line with their pelvic bones. This is somewhat uncommon, proportion-wise, for a human, although that’s about how long my arms are. Compared to their arms, their legs are… quite short. Their walk is also very cumbersome, awkward, unsteady. 

Broad skull, broad zygomatic arches, prognathism, long forelimbs, short hind limbs, long digits, awkward upright gait… All of these things put me in mind of…

The skeleton of a chimpanzee.

So there you have it.


how i hang the skulls 
Just wrap twine/cord or string around the back of the eye socket and around the slender bone connecting the eye socket to the base of the skull ( zygomatic arch?) 
Then just continue weaving your twine in and out, even though the base of the skull if you can to ensure extra security. 
From there just knot and hang<3

Each skull line a language
I am Guernica plastered beside lightning strikes
we breathe the mint of each other
in the methane we squash cups
we insert our membranes
we love as snakes love
the rattle grows silent
we write words across each other like birds in flight
our migrations are opposite
this is not about you
nothing I have ever done is
please do not think of yourself as my backdrop
I forget the words from your tear ducts
I forget your eyelids and arches zygomatic
love dissipates like all good perspectives
snake skin hanging on a dead shed
moon fangs curving tectonically
—  Stimie