Amino acids contain a carboxyl functional group (-COOH), an amine functional group (Nitrogen atom connected to hydrogen atoms and up to 3 R groups), and a side chain. The alpha carbon is connected to each of these, as well as a hydrogen atom. Amino acids have the ability to donate and accept protons (H+ ions) as the amine group can accept them, and the carboxyl group can donate them. Under neutral conditions, amino acids undergo self ionisation and the carboxyl group donates a proton to the amine group, resulting in a dipolar ion, known as a zwitterion. The zwitterion has separate regions with opposite charges, but overall does not carry a charge. 

May 18th, 18.30pm

Trying out some new style chemistry notes!! I am useless at polymers and synthesis so I’m rewriting my revision notes onto paper but putting the key points for each section in different coloured fineliners. This is actually fun to me unlike most other note making methods so I might even manage to finish it and learn some stuff about amides and zwitterions in the meantime!