In popular memory zoot suiters are often associated with African Americans and Chicanos during World War II, but many Nikkei (second generation Japanese-Americans) also participated in this cultural movement. While it is not possible to determine the exact numbers of Japanese-American zoot suiters, the available historical evidence suggests that they were a visible presence in 1940’s California.
(Pt.2) #チカーノ #Chicano
The #loveAffair between #Japanese youth and #ChicanoCulture ..
First off, WHAT IS #CHICANOstyle?
Our style has evolved as a resistance to the mainstream culture that continually demanded that we #assimilate. 🔹The earliest Chicano style was #Pachuco #ZootSuit style of the 1940s ..there was a great deal of pride taken in our appearence, but not everyone was happy for us. In 1942 War Time Productions Board regulated the amount of fabric used on suits, and the Zoot Suiter was considered #unAmerican and became the target of hate crimes. 🔹 The Chicano style evolved into the #Cholo style of the 70s and 80s and many Chicanos avoided the cholo style because they were not #gangRelated and did not want to be confused for #gangsters.
Today the Chicana Chicano style is more dynamic than what is stereotypical, but it continues to retain a certain level of nostalgia. 🔹 Chicanos wear styles from the 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s, and 80s with little regard for what is going on in the mainstream fashion world, there is also a great deal of pride in representing indigenous textiles, traditional dresses, #guayaberas, etc.
4 Books on Latin American and Latino
art A Shelfie from Selene Preciado, Program Assistant
I’m Selene Preciado, program assistant at the Getty Foundation. Outside of my
work at the Getty, I am an independent curator of Latin American and Latino
anticipation of Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA, this selection of books is
inspired by the initiative’s effort on advancing the fields of Latin American
and Latino art history by promoting their dialogue, as these are often
perceived as separate fields of study albeit sharing narratives and historical
contexts. One of the strongest points of convergence between the two fields is
in the strategies of conceptual artists, particularly in arte de acción or performance, which has been a significant area of
production in the Americas since the sixties.
exhibition catalogue for Arte No es Vida:
Actions by Artists of the Americas at El Museo del Barrio is one of the
most comprehensive compilations on performance art by Latino and Latin American
artists, and it includes a detailed chronology of the most important actions
since 1957 until the year 2000. The exhibition was also a curatorial laboratory
for exploring the problem of exhibiting performance—a time-based medium—through
documentation, video, ephemera, and objects.
432-page tome is the most important document on the East Los Angeles collective
ASCO (1972–1987), produced on the occasion of the major retrospective organized
as part of the Getty’s Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A., 1945–1980 in 2011.
But don’t let its girth intimidate you—the exhibition catalogue is very
dynamic, fully illustrated, and contains about twenty essays of different
lengths and topics, such as ASCO’s walking murals, collaborations, or
“No-movies,” as well as a section on documents and extensive bibliographic information.
book was edited by theorist, curator, and artist Coco Fusco, whose work since
the 1980s has explored postcolonial, gender, and race issues. Corpus Delecti is an excellent resource
and one of the very first performance art surveys that bridged together regions
and movements by including art from Latin American, Chicana/o, and Caribbean
artists, as well as genres that blurred the lines between fine arts, theater,
vaudeville, and staged political protest.
ASCO: Elite of the Obscure, this catalogue
was published in conjunction with the groundbreaking exhibition MEX/LA, part of
Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A., 1945–1980, and organized by the Museum of
Latin American Art. Just like the exhibition, this catalogue is an
unconventional and thought-provoking approach to telling the story of the
relationship between Mexico and Los Angeles.
Departing from forked origins—from
the mythological location of Aztlán, the founding of L.A. as a “Latin American city” (since it was Mexican territory back in 1781), to the presence of Mexican
muralists in the 1930s who ignited local production—it visits chapters in L.A.’s
history that explore exchange, remix, appropriation, and ongoing negotiations
of race, class, and gender. Through the work of Chicana/o artists like ASCO, Barbara
Carrasco, Yolanda López, and Ricardo Valverde, as well as Americans such as
Wallace Berman, the Eames, or Millard Sheets, MEX/LA pushed boundaries also in
exhibition making. Its non-chronological, non-thematic approach consisted in
connecting artists and artworks through ideas.
While this book doesn’t solely focus on performance art, the
MEX/LA catalogue might be the unifying thread of this list, in
that it offers a critical view on hybrid and shifting identities as performative
constructs. You only have to take a look into the performativity of figures
such as Robert Stacy-Judd, the Zoot Suiters (a counterculture of the
1930s–40s), or even the borrowed Maya elements in the architecture of Frank
Lloyd Wright—all included in the particular universe of MEX/LA. The concepts
explored in the exhibition and catalogue of MEX/LA are part of the origin story
of what is now Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA.
Rioting servicemen stripped some zoot suiters of their clothes in public. According to the Examiner’s caption, this arrested teenager took the turn of events ‘philosophically.’ Courtesy of the Los Angeles Examiner Collection, USC Libraries.
So what was the “Zoot Suit” riots?
The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of attacks in June 1943 in Los Angeles, California, United States, by white American servicemen stationed in Southern California against Mexican American youths and other minorities who were residents of the city.
White servicemen and civilians attacked and stripped youths who wore zoot suits ostensibly because they considered the outfits to be unpatriotic during wartime, as they had a lot of fabric. Rationing of fabric was required for the World War II war effort. While most of the violence was directed toward Mexican American youth, the whites also attacked young African American and Filipino Americans who were wearing zoot suits.
The Zoot Suit Riots were related to fears and hostilities aroused by the coverage of the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial, following the killing of a young Latino man in a barrio near Los Angeles. The riot appeared to trigger similar attacks that year by whites against Latinos in Chicago, San Diego, Oakland, Evansville, Philadelphia, and New York City.
While doing research for a talk on the history and future of vanity, I found this incredible photograph by Max Yavno of “las pachucas” – Chicana zoot suiters, in pant suits! This archive already holds several photographs of women zoot suiters but they’re wearing skirt suits or just the pants and a top. This is such a detailed photo of the entire look of las pachucas from the hair to the shoes. Beautiful!
The photo is called “Two Women”. It was taken in Los Angeles, California in 1946.