yotte

‘In what did Melkor’s malice show itself?’ Darkness lies over that. Saelon (sc. Andreth) has little to answer. 'Some men say that he blasphemed Eru, and denied His existence, or His power, and that our fathers assented, and took Melkor to be a Lord and God; and that thereby our fëar denied their own true nature, and so became darkened and weakened almost to the death (if that be possible for fëar). And through the weakness of the fëar our hröar fell into unhealth, and lay open to all evils and disorders of the world.
—  Tolkien, J. R. R. The History of Middle-Earth X: Morgoth’s Ring. Ed. Christopher Tolkien. (London: HarperCollins, 2002.) 351 (Athrabeth Finrod Ah Andreth, Draft A)

anonymous asked:

Hi :) I was wondering if you could explain to me the difference between によって and ために? I understand they both mean reason, but is there any difference in nuance? I'm sorry if this was asked before, and thank you so much for answering our questions!

Sorry for my late reply, but this is actually a tricky question!

I went first to trusty goo辞書 and looked at the relevant parts of the the definitions for によって and ため:
によって:原因・理由を表す。…ので。…ために。「踏切事故―電車が遅れる」ため: 原因・理由。わけ。「雨の―に延期する」

As you can see this hasn’t really helped clear anything up.

Next I looked at the explanations from the Dictionary of Japanese Grammar series. They give the following examples where によって and のために are interchangeable:

1) 戦争(のために・によって)父を亡くした。
2) その青年は麻薬(のために・によって)青春時代を失ってしまった。
3) 彼は難病(のために・によって)再起不能になった。

But they also say “there are cases in which ni yotte is unacceptable for some unknown reason”, and give the following examples:

1) 仕事のためにとても疲れた。
2) 病気のために会社を休んだ。
3) 停電のために大変困った。

So we’re still kind of lost… After a bit more googling I found an academic paper on the difference/similarities in usage between によって and のために. which pretty much seals the deal on there not being a clear cut difference. So my advice is read a lot of example sentences.

Here is there list of six differences from the paper (NB I’m not a linguist so my translation may not be the best):

a)「によって」は契機的な因果関係を表すことができるが、「ため」は表しにくい。
によって can express a motivated causal relationship, but it’s difficult to do this with ため.

b)「によって」は前件の出来事が後件に直接動きかけるような文脈出ないと使いにくいが、「ため」には特にそのような制約はない。
It’s difficult to use によって where the effect is not directly linked to the cause. ため does not have this restriction.

c)「によって」は事実的か仮定的かが曖昧な表現である。これに対して、「ため」はあくまでも事実的であることを前提とする。
によって can be used in both concrete and hypothetical situations, whereas as ため is used for concrete situations.

d)「ため」は良くないことに使われる傾向があるが、「によって」には特にプラスマイナスどちらかにかたよる傾向は認められない。
ため tends to be used for negative situations, whereas によって is used with both positive and negative situations.

e)「ため」と「によって」では後者の方が従属度が高い。
Between ため and によって, the latter has a higher level of dependence. (I think this is referring to how ‘subordinate’ the clause that follows ため and によって is.)

f) 過去の事態を表す場合、「ため」節では習慣的な事柄にのみル形が現れうるが、「によって」節では一回生の出来事にも習慣的な事柄にもル形が現れうる。
When talking about a situation in the past, with ため clauses plain form can only be used with habitual events. With によって clauses, plain form can appear with both one-off and habitual events.

There is no clear cut answer that I could find, but I hope something here has helped!

Now Melkor sought for her, and he put on again the form that he had worn as the tyrant of Utumno: a dark Lord, tall and terrible. In that form he remained ever after. And when Ungoliante saw him coming she was afraid, knowing his hatred for all who tried to escape from him. She shrank into her deepest lair, and tried to shroud herself in new shadow; but such darkness as in her famine she could weave was no defence against the eyes of Melkor, Lord of Utumno and Angband.
—  Tolkien, J. R. R. The History of Middle-Earth X: Morgoth’s Ring. Ed. Christopher Tolkien. (London: HarperCollins, 2002.) 284-5 (The Later Quenta Silmarillion (II), Chapter 6 “Of the Darkening of Valinor” §56)
Humming Friend/ハミングフレンド
  • Humming Friend/ハミングフレンド
  • Aqours/アクア
Play

Kimetai no ni kime rarenakattara
Kimi ni soudan da yo

Dotchi no fuku ga niau ka na
Hito ga mitara onaji ni miechau?
Sarani ne jibun no kijun ga ayafuya
Sonna toki kotchi da yotte itte kureta My friend

Kotae wa tabun ryouhou de
Yureru kokoro no mayoi o waratte kureru
Kimi no koto ga kimi no koto ga daisuki sa

Humming day nani shiyou ka?
Humming day nandemo ii yo
Tatoeba motto ookina koto? sonna ki ga shiteru
Humming day tanoshii mirai
Humming day sagashi ni iku kedo
Nayanjau yo ne unazuite te o tsunaida

Kitto sa fujun na kimochi ni
Nantonaku wa kidzuiterunda yo
Kekkyoku jibun ni uso wa tsukenai
Sonna toki shikkarishi natte itte kureta My friend

Kakushite temo honto wa
Namida gumi sou na omoi o sasshite kureteru
Kimi no koto ga kimi no koto ga daisuki sa…
Kenka mo shichau kedo

Hello sky kenka no ato wa
Hello sky motto nakayoshi
Gomen tte nanka tsutawaru yo kotoba janakute
Hello sky tanoshii sekai
Hello sky ippai mitsukete
Omoshiroku shitai ne Humming my friend
Kimetai no ni kime rarenakattara
Kimi ni soudan da yo

Humming day nani shiyou ka?
Humming day nandemo ii yo
Kotae ga ippai atte sa mayotte ite mo ne
Humming day nani shiyou ka?
Humming day nandemo ii yo
Tatoeba motto ookina koto? sonna ki ga shiteru
Humming day tanoshii mirai
Humming day sagashi ni iku kedo
Nayanjau yo ne unazuite te o tsunaida

Kimetai no ni kime rarenakattara
Kimi ni soudan… da ne!

90% machine? -Closed RP-

*Continued from: sandilesmuses.tumblr.com/post/147826462687/are-those-mechanical-prosthetics-made-from-an *

“Watashi wa Kajiya dakedenaku, konohagakure kara dokuritsu shita hīrā o shite imasu. Watashinonamaeha hōhō ni yotte sakura Gureketsueki Harunodesu. Watashi wa watashi no maeashi to watashi no hidarite no ryōhō o sa rete iru kikai-tekina hotetsu buhin jibun jishin o, tsukurimashita. Watashi wa chōdo sorera no bubun ga kikaidearu kansetsu ni yotte iu koto ga dekimasu.“ [I am an blacksmith, as well as an independent healer from Konohagakure. My name is Sakura Gureketsueki Haruno by the way. I have made mechanical prosthetic parts myself, which are both my forelegs and my left hand. I could tell just by the joints that those parts are machine.]

The ‘Pink Lioness’ takes off her left black glove to reveal the left hand of iron and pull up her pant legs to show Guy most of her two iron forelegs. Then, she continues, when the pants legs are put down and the glove gets put back on.

“Watashi wa Kajiya dakedenaku, konohagakure kara dokuritsu shita hīrā o shite imasu. Watashinonamaeha hōhō ni yotte sakura Gureketsueki Harunodesu. Watashi wa watashi no maeashi to watashi no hidarite no ryōhō o sa rete iru kikai-tekina hotetsu buhin jibun jishin o, tsukurimashita. Watashi wa chōdo sorera no bubun ga kikaidearu kansetsu ni yotte iu koto ga dekimasu.” [So, you mean to tell me you are 90% mechanical? If 10% of your flesh still remains, it means you are still alive, I think, mister Shishioh. The only way I can say you are legally dead is if everything in your body can’t function anymore and can be used to make an chimera of dead parts using ‘science’, or make chakra-powered mechanical ‘paths’, like the leader of an terrorist shinobi group, Akatsuki, did. He made my village into an giant crater one time.]

“Dakara anata wa jigoku wa nani ga okotta no ka mite mitai onrain baai wa, chiiki betsu, konoha ya hoka no shinobu no kuni ga setsuzoku sa rete iru `Roshia’ to yoba reru kuni kara tonde sharyō ga sonohi no `takai kūki reberu’ no eizō, soko ni yoba rete imasu ao ga, saishūtekini `jinrui no itami no subete ni watashi no itami o hikaku shite, kurushin `shippaishita detarame keikaku no itami no uchi-chū. Itami wa tada norowa rokudenashideshita. Hotondo subete no akatsukino deki sokonaimashita.“ [There is so called ‘high air level’ footage of that day, by an flying vehicle from an country called ‘Russia’, which Konoha and the other shinobi countries are connected to, by geography, online if you want to see what the hell happened during Pain’s out of the blue, but ultimately failed ‘comparing my pain to all of mankind’s pain and suffering’ bullshit plan. Pain was just an damned bastard. Almost all of the Akatsuki were bastards.]

There is more to the Pain thing. But, like Guy, Sakura rather keep the details and twist to herself. Then, she pulls out an long pole otsuchi hammer with her left hand, and held it straight up, though it looks heavy due to being made of an steel and iron alloy, with kanji of its name on the side.

“Arigatai koto ni, watashi wa watashi no chīmu no pātonā, naruto, sai, to watashi no saiai no 600-pondo no hanmā, buraddosumasshā to tomoni, sorera no 3 no sewa o shimashita. Watashi wa mitomezaru o emasendeshita. Watashi wa anata ga karera no bodīpiasu o fukume, watashi no bubun no tame ni karera no kowareta buhin o shiyō shi, sonogo, chīsana bitto ni, sorera o yobidasu to, onaji yō, rokudenashi andoroido’ o kowashite watashinojinsei no jikan o sugoshimashita. Sore wa watashi no ro no tame no fīrudo no tsuitachideshita!” [Thankfully, I took care of three of them, along with my team partner, Naruto, Sai, and my beloved 600 pound hammer, Blood Smasher. I had to admit. I had the time of my life smashing bastard androids’, as you would call them, to tiny bits, and then use their broken parts for my parts, including their body piercings. It was an field day for my furnace!]

Now Morgoth, having achieved his malice against Valinor, and escaped from bondage, gathered again all his servants that he could find; and through all the North ran the news that he had returned. From near and far, from the ruins of Utumno, and from deep dales and shadows under the mountains and from all dark and hidden places they crept back to him.

Then swiftly they began to delve anew the vast vaults of Angband and to uplift its pillared halls of stone amid smoke and fire, and above them were reared the reeking towers of Thangorodrim.
—  Tolkien, J. R. R. The History of Middle-Earth X: Morgoth’s Ring. Ed. Christopher Tolkien. (London: HarperCollins, 2002.) 297 (The Later Quenta Silmarillion (II), Chapter 7 “Of the Thieves’ Quarrel”)