Head of the Black Hand is Executed

Apis (right) in a more playful moment before the war.

June 26 1917, Salonika–The Black Hand, the Serbian secret society that had provided the spark for war, was still very much active in the Serbian military even in exile. Prime Minister Pasic and Regent Alexander were increasingly concerned about the Black Hand’s influence, and in late 1916 decided to arrest Dragutin Dimitrijević (codename Apis), for a supposed assassination plot against the Regent. Much of early 1917 was spent rooting out the Black Hand within the army; one in every thirty officers was removed from the front and sent to Tunisia. The officers of the Third Army had such a high proportion of Black Hand members that the whole army had to be broken up just weeks before a planned offensive.

Apis’ trial was largely a sham; it was revealed in the 1950′s that the testimony against him regarding the assassination plot was entirely fabricated.  On June 26, he and two other leading Black Hand members were executed by a firing squad.  The Allies were somewhat concerned by all this, worrying that it was a prelude to negotiations with Austria (very belatedly satisfying the original ultimatum), but there is little hard evidence to suggest that this was the case.

Today in 1916: Germans Threaten Swiss Coal Supplies
Today in 1915: Russian War Minister Sukhomlinov Sacked

Sources include: Alan Palmer, The Gardeners of Salonika.

anonymous asked:

Mustard gas questions. What does it do and what medical treatment would be needed to survive? Do you know how much of that treatment is new vs available around WWI? And would any of the treatment be complicated by a serious fall and/or burn wounds from an explosion? (I saw Wonder Woman yesterday and need whump that it looks like I have to write.)

Mustard gas answers.

Mustard “gas” is kind of a misnomer. Its actually a liquid (a chemical irritant called sulfur mustard) that gets aerosolized and sprayed throughout an area either by specially designed bomb or by airplane. The droplets hang in the air for quite a while, and cause burns and severe blistering when they come into contact with skin or mucous membranes, which they can do even through clothing or latex gloves.

The “gas” is yellow/brown and settles in low-lying areas, but since the burns and blisters don’t show up immediately (they can take up to 24 hours to appear), most people don’t know they’ve been exposed until they’ve had a high dose of the chemical. Sometimes the gas is odorless, though it can smell like mustard (hence the name), garlic, or horseradish.

The blistering can be severe, with golf ball-sized blisters called bullae filled with yellow fluid. The gas kills either by opening up a route to severe infection from the burns (it can take up to 3 weeks for these burns to heal), or by getting into the mucous membranes and either closing the airway with swelling, or by causing blisters and swelling in the lungs. This lung and airway involvement is why it is so important to wear a gas mask if a mustard attack is suspected. The gas is also a mutagen, meaning that people exposed to it have a much higher chance of cancer later in life if they survive the attack.

The quickest and most readily available treatment is to flush the person’s skin with soapy water and then with a 1% bleach solution before the blisters appear. This would have been available during WWI. Bleach helps deactivate any of the sulfur mustard remaining on the person’s skin and decreases the severity of burns that will appear. Other products, like fuller’s earth and the more modern reactive skin decontamination lotions may also aid in decontamination. None of these, unfortunately do anything for the lung and airway problems.

There is no antidote for mustard gas exposure (either now or during WWI). The main treatment is the decontamination as listed above, and then supportive therapies- cool mist or steam to help keep the airways open, painkillers, IV fluids, antibiotics (most of which would not have been available in WWI… though that’s a whole other post), and if necessary intubation and ventilation (also unavailable during WWI).

During WWI, only 5% of those exposed to mustard gas died. It was less terrifying for its deadlyness and more because it was really painful and put people out of commission for a long time. Other gases used during WWI (especially phosgene) were far more deadly and claimed far more lives.

And pretty much any treatment would be complicated by traumatic injuries sustained during an explosion/fall. The traumatic injuries could be treated (lifesaving treatment rendered and surgery performed) long before the skin and airway problems from the gas manifested, but could put rescuers in harm’s way if they didn’t know to decontaminate the victim first.

Repost from @jakeparker ・・・ Wonder Woman! Loved the movie, but was bummed she didn’t use her invisible plane at all. Still, the lasso was way too cool! Did for the #artsnackschallenge this month! If you want try @artsnacks out, use my code JAKEPARKER for 10% off your first month. Original in my shop (link in profile) #WonderWoman #GalGadot #DC #DCComics #justiceleague #WWI #ink #drawing #artistsoninstagram #tombowusa

27 June 1917 - Field Service Postcard to Edith

A whizbang sent on 27 June 1917 from France arrived in Brombury, Saskatchewan on 23 July 1917, having taken almost a full month to travel overseas and across Canada. 

Fred indicates that he is fine, had recently received a letter or package from Edith, and that he will write as soon as he is able.

i just happened to read the other day about how WWI was the time of great disillusionment - everyone thought it would be The War To End All Wars, the Last Big War, after which there would be an end to wars forever. young boys eagerly joined the war for what they thought would be their last opportunity to take part in a battle, and fight for the glory of their country. imagine the huge disillusionment that happened when the reality of the war set in. death, pain, injury, ugly and horrible, not knowing who’s right and who’s wrong. great acts of evil on both sides of the war, and the death of millions as if nothing mattered. the entire WWI generation experienced an ugly realisation about war and about humanity. it led to a generation of cynicism and pessimism. imagine their horror when, less than 50 years later, another war began again. 

and that’s xactly what wonder woman was meant to go through over the course of the movie. she thought that she was going to kill ares and that would be the end of war forever. she charged in, so eager to seize what she thought would be the last chance for a battle. so what better time period to set this in than right then, for wonder woman to experience this great disillusionment together with the rest of humanity. this choice was a genius move. *applauds dc*


In the years leading up to WWII, Adolf Hitler spent the majority of his time painting. He produced hundreds of paintings and even attempted to make a living out of his art. In his youth, Hitler had aspired to become a professional artist. However, he was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. The institute were displeased by how Hitler had much preferred painting architecture to people.

Shortly before the outbreak of WWII, Hitler told British ambassador Nevile Henderson: “I am an artist and not a politician. Once the Polish question is settled, I want to end my life as an artist.” Even while serving in WWI, Hitler continued to paint during his downtime. One can’t help but question whether Hitler had succeeded in his childhood dreams, then maybe he could have gone down a different and positive path.

Though Phoebe Chapple was recognised as a skilled doctor, the Australian government’s policies precluded her from military service. Undaunted, the Adelaide-born Chapple travelled to Britain in 1917 and joined the Royal Army Medical Corps, becoming one of the first two woman doctors sent to France. During a bombing raid near Abbeville in May 1918, her care for those wounded around her, regardless of personal danger, led to her being awarded the Military Medal – the first woman doctor ever to receive this decoration for bravery.

(Australian War Memorial)


The photo on the left is Eddie Rickenbacker who was a member of the 94th Aero “Hat in the Ring” Squadron, a group of American pilots who volunteered to serve in WWI before the U.S.’s official involvement in WWI. On the right is the picture of Steve Trevor was hanging up on the memorial during the Armistice Day scene. 

I think it’s fitting that Steve Trevor was involved in WWI before his country’s official involvement because, like Diana, Steve saw injustice in the world and in Diana’s words “could not stand by while innocent lives are lost.”