That was the name Werner Goldberg was given by a German newspaper in 1939, shortly after WW2 began. Participated in invasion of Poland alongside his childhood friends. Irony is … he was half Jew. He was blond and blue-eyed. His image was even used for recruitment posters. In 1940 he was expelled from Wehrmacht for being a Jew. He went to work for a clothing company that was originally owned by a Jew and a German and supplied clothes to Army and Navy. In 1942, his father who was 100% Jew, was admitted into hospital, where Gestapo found about his heritage and sent him to a Jewish hospital/prison that was sending people away to Auschwitz. On Christmas eve, the guards at the prison were drunk and Werner managed to take his father away. Soon after his father got caught again and was scheduled for deportation. Werner told him not to show up at the deportation time (as we now know, many Jews willingly went away, thinking they only going to prison camps and not death camps). Werner’s father, alongside Werner himself, was the only surviving member of Goldberg’s side of the family.
Werner died in 2004 in Berlin. He was a part of documentary called Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers produced by Larry price.
On September 1, 1939, at 0448 local time, Germany began its invasion of Poland, starting World War II; the German Battleship SMS Schleswig-Holstein, positioned in the port of Danzig, moored close to the Polish ammunition depot at Westerplatte under the guise of a ceremonial visit in August, suddenly opened broadside salvo fire on the Polish garrison held by 182 soldiers and 27 civilian reservists.
These shots were the signal for ground troops to begin their assault on the installation though the first German ground attack in the Battle of Westerplatte was repelled shortly thereafter. A second assault began later that morning, again supported by SMS Schleswig-Holstein, though it too had failed to break into the installation by around noon.
On 1 September 1939, at 04:48 local time, the battleship Schleswig-Holstein, then on a “courtesy visit” to the Free City of Danzig, without warning opened fire on the Polish garrison. However, soon after crossing the artillery-breached brick wall, the attackers were ambushed by the Polish defenders, with small arms, mortar and machine gun fire from concealed and well-positioned firing points that caught them in a crossfire. Another two assaults that day were repelled as well, with the Germans suffering unexpectedly high losses.
Over the coming days, the Germans repeatedly bombarded Westerplatte with naval artillery and heavy field artillery along with dive-bombing raids by Junkers Ju 87 Stukas. Repeated attacks by the German soldiers were repelled by Polish soldiers for seven days. Major Henryk Sucharski had been informed that no help from the Polish Army would come. Cut off, with no reinforcements or chance of resupply, he continued his defense, keeping the main German force stalled at Westerplatte and so preventing further attacks along the Polish coast.
According to plans, Westerplatte was supposed to defend itself for six hours, and in reality fought for 7 days. During the fights, the Polish Radio continuously broadcast the message “Westerplatte still fights on” each morning of the battle.
Already during the war the defense of Westerplatte served as an inspiration for the Polish Army and people as the successful German advances continued elsewhere and even today is still regarded as a symbol of resistance to the invasion; a Polish Thermopylae.
July 28, 1917 - Austrian Forces Reach the Russian Border, Brusilov Sacked as Russian C-in-C, Replaced by Lavr Kornilov
Pictured - A bridge blown by the retreating Russians, August 3 1917.
During Napoleon’s invasion, and again during World War II, the Russian army gave ground to the enemy while it retreated and prepared safe in their nation’s massive interior. Perhaps that would have been the wise thing to do in World War I as well, but Russia had fought it out on the borders with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it had lost. Most of Russian Poland had been conquered by 1915.
When the Kerensky Offensive failed in July 1917, the Russian army again reeled back. The Kaiser personally came to watch the Austrians advance towards the border. Tarnopol fell on July 25. Three days later the Austrian reached the border of Russia at Husiatyn, opposed less by any defenders than by 4″0,000 Russian deserters fleeing eastward.” General Brusilov was sacked as Commander-in-Chief of the Russian armies and replaced by the strict, reactionary General Lavr Kornilov, whose first Order of the Day was to condemn the treachery of deserters.
Photo: I didn’t have any plans for September anyway
Colloquial word for sesja poprawkowa f
kampania wrześniowa f
In Poland we’ve got two exam sessions a year - first one in February-March, second one in June-July. Unfortunatelly, not all students pass their exams, especially during the second exam session - then we’re trying not to fail them once again in September. We call it (officially) sesja poprawkowaf - in September we retake the exams that we haven’t passed in June/July. Unofficial phrase for it is kampania wrześniowaf. It is connected with September Campaign (a joint invasion of Poland started on on 1 September 1939 by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, that marked the beginning of World War II). That’s why Polish students say “prawdziwi Polacy walczą we wrześniu“ - “true Polish people fight in September“. It is also said that you are not a true student, if don’t have your own kampania wrześniowa.
Jan Mosdorf (1904-1943) was a Polish far-right nationalist politician. He was a director of the All Polish Youth (Młodzież Wszechpolska) and member of the illegal National Radical Camp (Obóz Narodowo Radykalny).
After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, Mosdorf took part in anti-German activities, leading to his arrest by the Gestapo. In 1941, he was sent from the Pawiak prison to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he learned about the extermination of Jews.
Formerly viewing Jews as enemies of the Polish nation, Mosdorf changed his attitude and began to help his Jewish inmates, organizing a group that provided them with food and clothing. He was eventually denounced to the Germans and executed on October 11, 1943.
HISTORY OF POLAND IN 10 STEPS: #7 World War II Photo:
Wojtek, the soldier bear playing with his brothers-in-arms, circa 1942
On the eve of World War II, Poland was far from ready to confront
Nazi Germany, which had been preparing for war for years. Hitler’s
invasion in September 1939, backed by Stalin’s army from the east,
erased Poland from the map in 27 days. The government
fled to Great Britain but continued working as a government-in-exile.
Polish armies and units still fought alongside the troops of the Western
allied forces, such as contributing considerably to victory in the
Battle of Britain and breaking the Enigma code. Poles organised the biggest underground army in Europe’s history – the Home Army.
Even though Poland ended the war on the winning side and was
re-established as a state, it fell under the influence of the Soviet
Union and was forced to adopt communism as its political system and a satellite government, strongly dependant on its sponsors in Moscow.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world’s nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries.
The Empire of Japan aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific and was already at war with the Republic of China in 1937,but the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Polandby Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
(…) on 1 September 1939, at 04:40, when the Luftwaffe attacked the Polish town of Wieluń, destroying 75% of the city and killing close to 1,200 people, most of them civilians. This invasion subsequently began World War II. Five minutes later, the old German pre-dreadnought battleship Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on the Polish military transit depot at Westerplatte in the Free City of Danzig on the Baltic Sea (Battle of Westerplatte). At 08:00, German troops—still without a formal declaration of war issued—attacked near the Polish town of Mokra. The Battle of the Border had begun.
A German motorized column, part of the invasion force, somewhere in Poland during September 1939, stops to ask direction from a group of Polish civilians. They do not look like refugees, just people along the road. The soldier in the dark uniform looks to be a Panzer commander as is the soldier on the extreme right, but this may be a supply column.
76 years ago,
the Invasion of Poland begun, also known as the September Campaign Germany
(German: Polenfeldzug), that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.
The French Invasion of Germany, World War II — The Saar Offensive
A footnote in World War II history, the Saar Offensive was a little known attack by the French Army into Germany while the Wehrmacht was busy invading Poland. The offensive began on September 7th, 1939, 7 days after the German invasion of Poland. The purpose of the offensive was to force the German Wehrmacht to divert troops away from Poland in order to defend Germany, and force Germany into a two front war it could not win. Originally the offensive was planned involving 40 French divisions. However the French Army was slow to mobilize, was not yet equipped and prepared for war, and because France had invested so much into the Maginot Line, was ill prepared to conduct an offensive operation. As a result only 11 French Divisions were involved.
The bulk of the invasion occurred in the Saarland of Southwestern Germany. For the most part the German Army fell back behind the Siegfried line, Germany’s version of the Maginot Line, and offered little resistance. However, there were some skirmishes and half hearted German counterattacks. In these small battles, the French Army performed badly and suffered heavy casualties. French soldiers had been trained and equipped to man static defenses, not conduct assaults in towns and open fields. The offensive drove 5 miles into German territory, resulting in the capture of 12 German villages and towns. However, by the 12th of September the offensive had mostly halted when the French encountered heavily mined areas and stiff resistance.
France had hoped that Poland would hold out for months. Unexpectedly, the German Wehrmacht quickly made mincemeat of the Polish military, laying siege to Warsaw on September 8th. Rather than being forced to draw away badly needed soldiers from Poland, Germany was able to redirect large amounts of soldiers who were no longer needed in the east. By the time the Saar Offensive had stalled, tens of thousands of German soldiers were reinforcing defensive positions along the German border. Unprepared to fight a full blown war against Germany, France decided to withdraw its troops back to the Maginot Line in order to arm, train, and prepare for a much larger and longer war. German forces suffered 196 dead, 114 missing, and 356 wounded. The French suffered around 2,000 dead and wounded.