world war ii: civilians

5

World War II: A Few Facts ‘n Stats


7.5 million military Soviet Union deaths = Nuking London

- Only 324 army troops were awarded medal of honor.
- 50 countries were involved in World War II.
- 11,500,000 Chinese civilian deaths
- 1,700 American civilian deaths
- 20 billion bullets were shot.

- 7,031 planes were lost at war
- 20,000,000 Nazis were involved in the Holocaust
- Number of Jewish population before World War II: 9,508,340
- 5,962,129 Jews were killed.

- 16 million Americans served in active duty
- 49 ships were destroyed at Pearl Harbor

- 1,500 concentration camps
- The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
- Location of Adolf Hitler’s suicide by gunshot (Berlin, Fuhrerbunker, 1945)

Finn’s disobedience and defection: Parallels to real-life resistance against Nazi Germany

Finn’s resistance against the First Order, both from within as a Stormtrooper and later as a Resistance fighter, reflect and parallel real-life dissent and resistance against fascism. This post will discuss some of those parallels.

I will confine my discussion of historical precedents to Europe in World War 2, partly because the First Order itself draws from Nazi imagery and history and, as @attackfish has pointed out, The Force Awakens uses Holocaust motifs quite effectively in depicting the First Order’s crimes. Another reason is that Finn’s actions in combination have the distinctive characteristics of resistance both from within and outside of Germany during World War 2.

The three main parallels in Finn’s actions to historical resistance are as follow: Conscientious objection to a criminal order, the rescue of a pilot from enemy territory, and direct action to rescue a prisoner. Below I will discuss each of these categories in more detail and end with a coda on parallels to German defectors who took up arms against the Nazis.

Keep reading

9

A day in infamy

December 7, 1941, started as a typical Sunday morning at Pearl Harbor, the US Navy’s Pacific Fleet Headquarters on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. That is, until shortly before 8:00 am, when Japan launched roughly 200 planes from six aircraft carriers in its first wave of Operation Hawaii—forever to be known by Americans as “the attack on Pearl Harbor” or just “Pearl Harbor.”

Today we remember the lives of approximately 2,400 Americans that were lost and more than 1,100 wounded. Marines, sailors, soldiers, airmen who paid the ultimate sacrifice. We remember the day that rallied our nation to enter World War II.

CIVILIANS

Yaeko Lillian Oda. Francisco Tacderan. John Kalauwae Adams. Joseph Kanehoa Adams. Nancy Masako Arakaki. Patrick Kahamokupuni Chong. Matilda Kaliko Faufata. Emma Gonsalves. Ai Harada. Kisa Hatate. Fred Masayoshi Higa. Jackie Yoneto Hirasaki. Jitsuo Hirasaki. Robert Yoshito Hirasaki. Shirley Kinue Hirasaki. Paul S. Inamine. Robert Seiko Izumi. David Kahookele. Edward Koichi Kondo. Peter Souza Lopes. George Jay Manganelli. Joseph McCabe, Sr. Masayoshi Nagamine. Frank Ohashi. Hayako Ohta. Janet Yumiko Ohta. Kiyoko Ohta. Barbara June Ornellas. Gertrude Ornellas. James Takao Takefuji, aka Koba. Yoshio Tokusato. Hisao Uyeno. Alice White. Eunice Wilson. Robert H. Tyce. Kamiko Hookano. Isaac William Lee. Rowena Kamohaulani Foster. Chip Soon Kim. Richard Masaru Soma. Tomoso Kimura.
 

FEDERAL WORKERS

August Akina. Philip Ward Eldred. Virgil P. Rahel. Tai Chung Loo. Daniel LaVerne.
 

FIREFIGHTERS

John Carreira. Thomas Samuel Macy. Harry Tuck Lee Pang.2
 

US ARMY

Henry C. Blackwell. Clyde C. Brown. Warren D. Rasmussen. Joseph A. Medlen. Claude L. Bryant. Eugene B. Bubb. Oreste DaTorre. Donat G. Duquette, Jr. Private Edward F. Sullivan. Arthur A. Favreau. William G. Sylvester. Paul J. Fadon. Theodore J. Lewis. Walter R. French. Conrad Kujawa. Torao Migita.
 

US ARMY AIR FORCES

Hans C. Christiansen. George A. Whiteman. Lawrence R. Carlson. Donald F. Meagher. Louis Schleifer. George P. Bolan. Richard A. Dickerson. Alfred Hays. Richard E. Livingston. George M. Martin, Jr. Harold W. Borgelt. Daniel A. Dyer, Jr. Sherman Levine. James M. Topalian. Robert L. Avery. Robert S. Brown. Edward J. Cashman. Donal V. Chapman. Monroe M. Clark. Robert H. Gooding. James A. Horner. George F. Howard. Lawrence P. Lyons, Jr. Wallae R. Martin. William W. Merithew. George A. Moran. Herman C. Reuss. Robert M. Richey. Harry E. Smith. Edward F. Vernick. Marion H. Zaczkiewicz. Jerry M. Angelich. Malcolm J. Brummwell. Jack A. Downs. Paul R. Eichelberger. Arnold E. Field. Joseph Jedrysik. Andrew J. Kinder. Herbert E. McLaughlin. Emmett E. Morris. Joseph F. Nelles. Willard C. Orr. Halvor E. Rogness. Leo H. Surrells. Joseph Bush. John H. Couhig. Harold C. Elyard. Willard E. Fairchild. Paul V. Fellman. Homer E. Ferris. Stuart H. Fiander. James J. Gleason. Otto C. Klein. Harry W. Lord, Jr. Joseph Malatak. Russell M. Penny. Allen G. Rae. George J. Smith. Elmer W. South. Hermann K. Tibbets, Jr. George W. Tuckerman. Martin Vanderelli. Walter H. Wardigo. Lawton J. Woodworth. Thomas M. Wright. Virgil J. Young. Garland C. Anderson. Manfred C. Anderson. Gordon R. Bennett, Jr. Frank G. Boswell. Frank B. Cooper. John E. Cruthirds. Robert C. Duff, Jr. Lyle O. Edwards. Russell E. Gallagher. James E. Gossard, Jr. Johon S. Greene. Earl A. Hood. Theodore K. Joyner. Edmund B. Lepper. Durward A. Meadows. LaVerne J. Needham. Paul L. Staton. Anderson G. Tennison. William T. Anderson. William T. Blakley. Russell C. Defenbaugh. Joseph H. Guttmann. John J. Horan. Carl A. Johnson. Olaf A. Johnson. Doyle Kimmey. James I. Lewis. William E. McAbee. Stanley A. McLeod. Walter D. Zuckoff. Arthur F. Boyle. Billy O. Brandt. Rennie V. Brower, Jr. William J. Brownlee. Brooks J. Brubaker. Weldon C. Burlison. Leroy R. Church. Jack H. Feldman. Leo E. A. Gagne. Allen E. W. Goudy. William E. Hasenfuss, Jr. James R. Johnson. Robert H. Johnson. Marion E. King, Jr. Roderick O. Klubertanz. John H. Mann. James J. McClintock. Horace A. Messam. Victor L. Meyers. Edwin N. Mitchell. Thomas F. Philipsky. William F. Shields. Ralph S. Smith. John B. Sparks. Merton I. Staples. Jerome J. Szematowicz. William F. Timmerman. Ernest M. Walker, Jr. Lee I. Clendenning. Richard L. Coster. Byron G. Elliott. William Hislop. Howard N. Lusk. Lionel J. Moorhead. Francis E. Campiglia. Herbert B. Martin. Joseph G. Moser. Frank St. E. Posey. Raymond E. Powell. William T. Rhodes. Maurice J. St. Germain. James E. Strickland, Jr. Joseph S. Zappala. Walter J. Zuschlag. Felix Bonnie. Clarence A. Conant. Frank J. DePolis. Patrick L. Finney. Elwood R. Gummerson. Vincent J. Kechner. Robert H. Markley. Jay E. Pietzsch. Antonio S. Tafoya. Robert H. Westbrook, Jr. Jack W. Fox. Frank J. Lango. William M. Northway. Felix S. Wegrzyn. William R. Schick. Leland V. Beasley. William Coyne, Jr. Eugene B. Denson. Robert R. Garrett. Charles l. Hrusecky. Joseph N. Jencuis. Robert R. Kelley. Hal H. Perry, Jr. Carey K. Stockwell. Ralph Alois. Louis H. Dasenbrock. John T. Haughey. Clarence E. Hoyt. Henry J. Humphrey. Lester H. Libolt. Harell K. Mattox. William H. Offutt. Edward R. Hughes. John J. Kohl. George Price. Louis G. Moslener, Jr. Daniel J. Powloski. Dave Jacobson. Mathew T. Bills. Joseph J. Chagnon. Carlton H. Hartford. Ardrey V. Hasty. Donald E. Bays. George K. Gannam. Andrew A. Walczynski. Eugene L. Chambers. John G. Mitchell. Robert L. Schott. Robert R. Shattuck. Russell P. Vidoloff. Lumus E. Walker. Theodore F. Byrd, Jr. James H. Derthick. Joseph C. Herbert. William H. Manley. George R. Schmersahl. Robert O. Sherman. Anson E. Robbins. Robert G. Allen. Robert P. Buss. Donald D. Plant. Gordon H. Sterling, Jr. John L. Dains. Edward J. Burns. Malachy J. Cashen. Dean W. Cebert. William C. Creech. James Everett. Paul B. Free. Joseph E. Good. James E. Guthrie. Robert L. Hull. George G. Leslie. John A. Price. James M. Barksdale. Vincent M. Horan. Morris E. Stacey.
 

US MARINE CORPS

John A. Blount, Jr. Roy E. Lee, Jr. Shelby C. Shook. Earl D. Wallen. George E. Johnson. Thomas A. Britton. Francis C. Heath. Orveil V. King, Jr. Jack L. Lunsford. Edward F. Morrissey. Keith V. Smith. Richard I. Trujillo. Marley R. Arthurholtz. Waldean Black. Walter L. Collier. Alva J. Cremean. Elmer E. Drefahl. Harry H. Gaver, Jr. Ted Hall. Otis W. Henry. Robert K. Holmes. Vernon P. Keaton. John F. Middleswart. Robert H. Peak. Raymond Pennington. Charles R. Taylor. Thomas N. Barron. Morris E. Nations. Floyd D. Stewart. Patrick P. Tobin. Jesse C. Vincent, Jr. George H. Wade, Jr. William E. Lutschan, Jr. William G. Turner. Edward S. Lawrence. Carlo A. Micheletto.
 

US NAVY

Howard L. Adkins. Moses A. Allen. Thomas B. Allen. Wilbur H. Bailey. Glen Baker. James W. Ball. Harold W. Bandemer. Michael L. Bazetti. Albert Q. Beal. Thomas S. Beckwith. Henry W. Blankenship. Edward D. Bowden. Robert K. Bowers. Robert L. Brewer. Samuel J. Bush. James W. Butler. Elmer L. Carpenter. Cullen B. Clark. Francis E. Cole. Kenneth J. Cooper. Herbert S. Curtis, Jr. Lloyd H. Cutrer. Edward H. Davis. John W. Deetz. Marshall L. Dompier. Norman W. Douglas. Guy Dugger. Billie J. Dukes. Thomas R. Durning, Jr. Robert W. Ernest. Alfred J. Farley. Marvin L. Ferguson, Jr. Stanley C. Galaszewski. Robert S. Garcia. Thomas J. Gary. George H. Gilbert. Tom Gilbert. Helmer A. Hanson. Gilbert A. Henderson. John A. Hildebrand, Jr. Merle C. J. Hillman. Paul E. Holley. Richard F. Jacobs. Ira W. Jeffrey. Melvin G. Johnson. Ernest Jones. Herbert C. Jones. Harry Kaufman. Arlie G. Keener. Harry W. Kramer. John T. Lancaster. Donald C. V. Larsen. John E. Lewis. James E. London. Howard E. Manges. John W. Martin. George V. McGraw. Clyde C. McMeans. Aaron L. McMurtrey. James W. Milner. James D. Minter. Bernard J. Mirello. William A. Montgomery. Marlyn W. Nelson. Wayne E. Newton. June W. Parker. Kenneth M. Payne. George E. Pendarvis. Lewis W. Pitts, Jr. Alexsander J. Przybysz. Roy A. Pullen. Edward S. Racisz. Thomas J. Reeves. Joseph L. Richey. Edwin H. Ripley. Earl R. Roberts. Alfred A. Rosenthal. Joe B. Ross. Frank W. Royse. Morris F. Saffell. Robert R. Scott. Erwin L. Searle. Russell K. Shelly, Jr. Frank L. Simmons. Tceollyar Simmons. Lloyd G. Smith. Gordon W. Stafford. Leo Stapler. Charles E. Sweany. Edward F. Szurgot. Frank P. Treanor. Pete Turk. George V. Ulrich. George E. Vining. David Walker. Milton S. Wilson. Steven J. Wodarski. John C. Wydila. Mathew J. Agola. Clarence A. Wise. Joseph I. Caro. Lee H. Duke. Clifton E. Edmonds. John W. Frazier. Nickolas S. Ganas. George H. Guy. Kenneth J. Hartley. Edward S. Haven, Jr. Anthony Hawkins, Jr. Thomas Hembree. Andrew Kin. Robert S. Lowe. James E. Massey. Maurice Mastrototaro. Jesse K. Milbourne. Dean B. Orwick. William J. Powell. Wilson A. Rice. Howard A. Rosenau. Benjamin Schlect. Joseph Sperling. J.W. Baker. Howard F. Carter. Roy A. Gross. Andrew M. Marze. James E. Bailey. Benjamin L. Brown. Marvin J. Clapp. Thomas W. Collins. Edward C. Daly. Albert J. Hitrik. George E. Jones. John A. Marshall. Nolan E. Pummill. William H. Silva. Perry W. Strickland. James Vinson. Mitchell Cohn. Fred J. Ducolon. Manuel Gonzalez. Leonard J. Kozelek. William C. Miller. Sidney Pierce. John H. L. Vogt, Jr. Walter M. Willis. Eric Allen, Jr. Frederick F. Hebel. Herbert H. Menges. Salvatore J. Albanese. Thomas E. Aldridge. Robert A. Arnesen. Loren L. Beardsley. Regis J. Bodecker. William J. Carter. Luther E. Cisco. Allen A. Davis. Ernest B. Dickens. Richard H. Dobbins. Robert N. Edling. Leland E. Erbes. Robert J. Flannery. Eugene D. Fuzi. Arthur J. Gardner. Robert D. Greenwald. Arvel C. Hines. Donald W. Johnson. Ernest G. Kuzee. Carl R. Love. Marvin W. Mayo. Orville R. Minix. Edo Morincelli. Hugh K. Naff. John C. Pensyl. Joe O. Powers. Ralph W. Thompson. Edward B. Uhlig. John J. Urban. Benjamin F. Vassar. Hoge C. Venable, Jr. Oswald C. Wohl. Michael C. Yugovich. Claire R. Brier. Howard D. Crow. James B. Ginn. Warren H. McCutcheon. Arnold L. Anderson. Zoilo Aquino. James R. Bingham. Herman Bledsoe. Lyle L. Briggs. Harold J. Christopher. Joseph W. Cook. Leon J. Corbin. Leo P. Cotner. Frederick C. Davis. Lonnie W. Dukes. Edward W. Echols. Harry L. Edwards. George L. Faddis. Kay I. Fugate. Samuel M. Gantner. Thomas R. Giles. Herman A. Goetsch. Arthur K. Gullachson. Johnie W. Hallmark. Charles W. Harker. Gerald L. Heim. Edwin J. Hill. Edgar E. Hubner. Robert C. Irish. Flavous B. M. Johnson. Kenneth T. Lamons. Wilbur T. Lipe. John K. Luntta. Andres F. Mafnas. Dale L. Martin. Frazier Mayfield. Lester F. McGhee. Edward L. McGuckin. William F. Neuendorf, Jr. Alwyn B. Norvelle. Elmer M. Patterson. Eugene E. Peck. Mark C. Robison. Emil O. Ronning. Harvey G. Rushford. Herbert C. Schwarting. Donald R. Shaum. Adolfo Solar. Herman A. Spear. Delbert J. Spencer. George J. Stembrosky. Charles E. Strickland. Lee V. Thunhorst. Ivan I. Walton. Marvin B. Adkins. Willard H. Aldridge. Hugh R. Alexander. Stanley W. Allen. Hal J. Allison. Leon Arickx. Kenneth B. Armstrong. Daryle E. Artley. John C. Auld. John A. Austin. Walter H. Backman. Gerald J. Bailey. Robert E. Bailey. Wilbur F. Ballance. Layton T. Banks. Leroy K. Barber. Malcolm J. Barber. Randolph H. Barber. Cecil E. Barncord. Wilber C. Barrett. Harold E. Bates. Ralph C. Battles. Earl P. Baum. Howard W. Bean. Walter S. Belt, Jr. Robert J. Bennett. Harding C. Blackburn. William E. Blanchard. Clarence A. Blaylock. Leo Blitz. Rudolph Blitz. John G. Bock, Jr. Paul L. Boemer. James B. Booe. James B. Boring. Ralph M. Boudreaux. Lawrence A. Boxrucker. Raymond D. Boynton. Carl M. Bradley. Oris V. Brandt. Jack A. Breedlove. Randall W. Brewer. William Brooks. Wesley J. Brown. William G. Bruesewitz. James R. Buchanan. Earl G. Burch. Oliver K. Burger. Millard Burk, Jr. Rodger C. Butts. Archie Callahan, Jr. Raymond R. Camery. William V. Campbell. Murry R. Cargile. Harold F. Carney. Joseph W. Carroll. Edward E. Casinger. Biacio Casola. Charles R. Casto. Richard E. Casto. James T. Cheshire. Patrick L. Chess. David Clark, Jr. Gerald L. Clayton. Hubert P. Clement. Floyd F. Clifford. George A. Coke. James E. Collins. John G. Connolly. Keefe R. Connolly. Edward L. Conway. Grant C. Cook, Jr. Robert L. Corn. Beoin H. Corzatt. John W. Craig. Warren H. Crim. Samuel W. Crowder. William M. Curry. Glenn G. Cyriack. Marshall E. Darby, Jr. James W. Davenport, Jr. Francis D. Day. Leslie P. Delles. Ralph A. Derrington. Francis E. Dick. Leaman R. Dill. Kenneth E. Doernenburg. John M. Donald. Carl D. Dorr. Bernard V. Doyle. Stanislaw F. Drwall. Cyril I. Dusset. Buford H. Dyer. Wallace E. Eakes. Eugene K. Eberhardt. David B. Edmonston. Earl M. Ellis. Bruce H. Ellison. Julius Ellsberry. John C. England. Ignacio C. Farfan. Luther J. Farmer. Lawrence H. Fecho. Charlton H. Ferguson. Robert A. Fields. William M. Finnegan. Francis C. Flaherty. James M. Flanagan. Felicismo Florese. Walter C. Foley. George P. Foote. George C. Ford. Joy C. French. Tedd M. Furr. Michael Galajdik. Martin A. Gara. Jesus F. Garcia. Eugene Garris. Paul H. Gebser. Leonard R. Geller. George T. George. George H. Gibson. George E. Giesa. Quentin J. Gifford. George Gilbert. Warren C. Gillette. Benjamin E. Gilliard. Arthur Glenn. Mach. Daryl H. Goggin. Jack R. Goldwater. Charles C. Gomez, Jr. George M. Gooch. Clifford G. Goodwin. Robert Goodwin. Duff Gordon. Claude O. Gowey. Wesley E. Graham. Arthur M. Grand Pre. Thomas E. Griffith. Edgar D. Gross. Vernon N. Grow. Daniel L. Guisinger, Jr. William I. Gurganus. William F. Gusie. Hubert P. Hall. Robert E. Halterman. Harold W. Ham. Dale R. Hamlin. Eugene P. Hann. Francis L. Hannon. George Hanson. Robert J. Harr. Charles H. Harris. Daniel F. Harris. Louis E. Harris, Jr. Albert E. Hayden. Harold L. Head. Robert W. Headington. William F. Hellstern. Floyd D. Helton. Jimmie L. Henrichsen. William E. Henson, Jr. Harvey C. Herber. George Herbert. Austin H. Hesler. Denis H. Hiskett. Joseph P. Hittorff, Jr. Frank S. Hoag, Jr. Herbert J. Hoard. Joseph W. Hoffman. Kenneth L. Holm. Harry R. Holmes. James W. Holzhauer. Edwin C. Hopkins. Chester G. Hord. Frank A. Hryniewicz. Charles E. Hudson. Lorentz E. Hultgren. Robert M. Hunter. Claydon I. C. Iverson. Willie Jackson. Herbert B. Jacobson. Challis R. James. George W. Jarding. Kenneth L. Jayne. Theodore Q. Jensen. Jesse B. Jenson. Charles H. Johannes. Billy J. Johnson. Edward D. Johnson. Joseph M. Johnson. Jim H. Johnston. Charles A. Jones. Fred M. Jones. Jerry Jones. Julian B. Jordan. Wesley V. Jordan. Thomas V. Jurashen. Albert U. Kane. John A. Karli. Howard V. Keffer. Ralph H. Keil. Donald G. Keller. Joe M. Kelley. Warren J. Kempf. Leo T. Keninger. William H. Kennedy. Elmer T. Kerestes. David L. Kesler. William A. Klasing. Verne F. Knipp. Hans C. Kvalnes. William L. Kvidera. D. T. Kyser. Elliott D. Larsen. Johnnie C. Laurie. Elmer P. Lawrence. Willard I. Lawson. Gerald G. Lehman. Myron K. Lehman. Lionel W. Lescault. Harold W. Lindsey. John H. Lindsley. Alfred E. Livingston. Clarence M. Lockwood. Adolph J. Loebach. Vernon T. Luke. Octavius Mabine. Howard S. Mrs. Michael Malek. Algeo V. Malfante. Walter B. Manning. Henri C. Mason. Joseph K. Maule. Edwin B. McCabe. Donald R. McCloud. James O. McDonald. Bert E. McKeeman. Hale McKissack. Lloyd E. McLaughlin. Earl R. Melton. Herbert F. Melton. Archie T. Miles. Wallace G. Mitchell. Charles A. Montgomery. John M. Mulick. Ray H. Myers. George E. Naegle. Elmer D. Nail. Paul A. Nash. Don O. Neher. Arthur C. Neuenschwander. Sam D. Nevill. Wilbur F. Newton. Carl Nichols. Harry E. Nichols. Frank E. Nicoles. Arnold M. Nielsen. Laverne A. Nigg. Joe R. Nightingale. Charles E. Nix. Camillus M. O’Grady. Charles R. Ogle. Eli Olsen. Jarvis G. Outland. Lawrence J. Overley. Alphard S. Owsley. Millard C. Pace. James Palides, Jr. Calvin H. Palmer. Wilferd D. Palmer. George L. Paradis. Isaac Parker. Dale F. Pearce. Walter R. Pentico. Stephen Pepe. SCharles F. Perdue. Wiley J. Perway. Milo E. Phillips. James N. Phipps. Gerald H. Pirtle. Rudolph V. Piskuran. Herbert J. Poindexter, Jr. Brady O. Prewitt. Robert L. Pribble. George F. Price. Lewis B. Pride, Jr. Jasper L. Pue, Jr. Paul S. Raimond. Eldon C. Ray. Dan E. Reagan. Leo B. Regan. Irvin F. Rice. Porter L. Rich. Clyde Ridenour, Jr. David J. Riley. Russell C. Roach. Joseph M. Robertson. Harold W. Roesch. Walter B. Rogers. Joseph C. Rouse. Charles L. Ruse. Edmund T. Ryan. Roman W. Sadlowski. Kenneth H. Sampson. Dean S. Sanders. Charles L. Saunders. Lyal J. Sav. John E. Savidge. Paul E. Saylor. Walter F. Schleiter. Herman Schmidt. Aloysius H. Schmitt. Andrew J. Schmitz. John H. Schoonover. Bernard O. Scott. Chester E. Seaton. Verdi D. Sederstrom. William L. Sellon. Everett I. Severinson. William K. Shafer. William J. Shanahan, Jr. Edward J. Shelden. William G. Silva. Eugene M. Skaggs. Garold L. Skiles. Edward F. Slapikas. Leonard F. Smith. Merle A. Smith. Rowland H. Smith. Walter H. Sollie. James C. Solomon. Maurice V. Spangler. Kirby R. Stapleton. Ulis C. Steely. Walter C. Stein. Samuel C. Steiner. Charles M. Stern, Jr. Everett R. Stewart. Lewis S. Stockdate. Donald A. Stott. Robert T. Stout. James Stouten. Milton R. Surratt. Charles H. Swanson. Edward E. Talbert. Rangner F. Tanner, Jr. Monroe Temple. Houston Temples. Benjamin C. Terhune. Arthur R. Thinnes. Charles W. Thompson. Clarence Thompson. George A. Thompson. Irvin A. R. Thompson. William M. Thompson. Richard J. Thomson. Cecil H. Thornton. Robert L. Thrombley. David F. Tidball. Lloyd R. Timm. Lewis F. Tindall. Dante S. Tini. Henry G. Tipton. Everett C. Titterington. Neal K. Todd. Natale I. Torti. Orval A. Tranbarger. Harold F. Trapp. William H. Trapp. Shelby Treadway. William D. Tucker. Victor P. Tumlinson. Billy Turner. Louis J. Tushla. Russell O. Ufford. Lowell E. Valley. ADurrell Wade. Lewis L. Wagoner. Harry E. Walker. Robert N. Walkowiak. Eugene A. Walpole. Charles E. Walters. James R. Ward. Edward Wasielewski. Richard L. Watson. James C. Webb. William E. Welch. Alfred F. Wells. Ernest R. West. John D. Wheeler. Claude White. Jack D. White. Alton W. Whitson. Eugene W. Wicker. Lloyd P. Wiegand. George J. Wilcox, Jr. Albert L. Williams. James C. Williams. Wilbur S. Williams. Bernard R. Wimmer. Everett G. Windle. Starring B. Winfield. Rex E. Wise. Frank Wood. Lawrence E. Woods. Winfred O. Woods. Creighton H. Workman. John L. Wortham. Paul R. Wright. Eldon P. Wyman. Martin D. Young. Robert V. Young. Joseph J. Yurko. Thomas Zvansky. Robert E. Arnott. Henry E. Baker, Jr. Charles Braga, Jr. Evan B. Brekken. Frederick A. Browne. Harold K. Comstock. James E. Craig. Clarence F. Haase. Dancil J. McIntosh. Joseph A. Muhofski. James P. Owens. Joseph W. Pace. Damian M. Portillo. Richard R. Rall. William H. Rice. Martin R. Slifer. Payton L. Vanderpool, Jr. Claude B. Watson, Jr. George R. Keith. Frank J. Annunziato. Anthony Bilyi. Albert J. Bolen. Guy W. Carroll. Leon Egbert. Fred Fugate. Joseph L. B. Gaudrault. Paul G. Gosnell. Rodney W. Jones. John S. McAllen. Robert C. McQuade. Clyde C. Moore. Chester L. Parks. George A. Penuel, Jr. Robert A. Petz. Ernest C. Porter, Jr. Daniel P. Platschorre. Edward J. Quirk. John T. Rainbolt. Benjamin N. Russell. Johnnie H. Spaeth. Frank W. Stief, Jr. Palmer L. Taylor. James R. Westbrook. Clyde Williams. Warren P. Hickok. Jesse L. Adams. Alfred W. Hudgell. J.B. Delane Miller. Eugene O. Roe. Gerald O. Smith. John A. Bird. John W. Pence. Laddie J. Zacek. William D. Arbuckle. Joseph Barta. Rudolph P. Bielka. Virgil C. Bigham. John E. Black. John T. Blackburn. Pallas F. Brown. William F. Brunner. Feliciano T. Bugarin. George V. Chestnutt, Jr. Lloyd D. Clippard. Joseph U. Conner. John R. Crain. David L. Crossett. Billy R. Davis. Leroy Dennis. Douglas R. Dieckhoff. William H. Dosser. Vernon J. Eidsvig. Melvyn A. Gandre. Kenneth M. Gift. Charles N. Gregoire. Herold A. Harveson. Clifford D. Hill. Emery L. Houde. David W. Jackson. Leroy H. Jones. William A. Juedes. John L. Kaelin. Eric T. Kampmeyer. Joseph N. Karabon. William H. Kent. George W. LaRue. John G. Little III. Kenneth L. Lynch. William E. Marshall, Jr. Rudolph M. Martinez. Charles O. Michael. Marvin E. Miller. Donald C. Norman. Orris N. Norman. Edwin N. Odgaard. Elmer A. Parker. Forrest H. Perry. James W. Phillips. Walter H. Ponder. Frank E. Reed. Ralph E. Scott. Henson T. Shouse. George R. Smith. Robert D. Smith. Joseph B. Sousley. Gerald V. Strinz. Peter Tomich. Elmer H. Ulrich. Michael W. Villa. Vernard O. Wetrich. Glen A. White. Harold R. Arneberg. William Duane. Lowell B. Jackson. Charles W. Jones. Raymond J. Kerrigan. Guy E. Long. William H. Reid. Welborn L. Ashby. Benjamin E. Bargerhuff, Jr. William L. Barnett. Frank J. Bartek, Jr. Mervyn S. Bennion. Charlie V. Booton. Fred H. Boyer. George O. Branham. Ennis E. Brooks. Charles D. Brown. Riley M. Brown. John E. Burgess, Jr. William C. Campbell. William G. Christian. Harold K. Costill. Louis A. Costin. Charles E. Cottier. Howard D. Cromwell. Eugene V. Downing. Donald L. Drum. George S. Dunn, Jr. Edward N. Durkee. Clement E. Durr. Tommy Dye. Roland W. Edwards. Ronald B. Endicott. Richard B. England. Woodrow W. Evans. Jose S. N. Flores. Jack Foth. Gilbert R. Fox. Neil D. Frye. Angelo M. Gabriele. Claude R. Garcia. Bibian B. Gonzales. Myron E. Goodwin. Arthur Gould. Harry J. Halvorsen. Hugh B. Harriss. Hadley I. Heavin. Fred A. Hilt. Howard D. Hodges. Joseph E. Hood. William D. Horton. Ira D. Hudson. William C. Jackson. Carl S. Johnson. Sanford V. Kelley, Jr. Chester F. Kleist. Milton J. Knight, Jr. William P. Kubinec. Henry E. LaCrosse, Jr. Thomas F. Leary. Joseph S. L. Lemire. Eugene V. Lish. Royle B. Luker. Donald W. Lynch. Arnold E. Lyon. Charles W. Mann. Jesus M. Mata. Donald J. Mathison. Luther K. McBee. Thomas A. McClelland. Lawrence J. McCollom. Clarence W. McComas. Quentin G. McKee. John A. Meglis. John R. Melton. Enrique C. Mendiola. Joe E. Mister. Wallace A. Montgomery. William F. Morris. Albin J. Mrace. Clair C. Myers. Earl T. Nermoe. Paul E. Newton. Emile S. Noce. Maurice M. O’Connor. Clifford N. Olds. Arnold J. Owsley. Walter J. Paciga. James A. Paolucci. Andrew A. Pinko. Jack A. Pitcher. Roy W. Powers. George B. Reid. Albert Renner. Leonard C. Richter. Ernest C. Rose. Glenn D. Sahl. Theodore H. Saulsbury. Richard M. Schuon, Jr. George W. Scott. Gordon E. Smith. Ernest E. Speicher. Otis D. Sterling. George E. Taber. Ernie E. Tibbs. Keith W. Tipsword. Albert P. VanderGoore. Joseph Vogelgesang, Jr. Thomas G. Wagner. Bethel E. Walters. Harold Wilbur. Clyde R. Wilson. Lester F. Zobeck. Theodore W. Croft. Stanley D. Dosick. John D. Buckley. Clarence M. Formoe. Rodney S. Foss. Milburn A. Manning. James H. Robinson. Joseph G. Smartt. Luther D. Weaver. Walter S. Brown. Lee Fox, Jr. Daniel T. Griffin. George W. Ingram. Charles Lawrence. Carl W. Otterstetter. Robert K. Porterfield. Robert W. Uhlmann. Raphael A. Watson. Laxton G. Newman. Arthur W. Russett. John H. Thuman.

3v17p1n34pp73  asked:

Are there any pieces of media you think are surprisingly accurate from a historical standpoint? Stuff that clearly isn't catering to a market that cares about that sort of thing but does a great job anyway.

I’m having difficulty thinking of any, to be honest.  I think it’s the sort of thing that’s hard to do unless you really put some effort into it.  You don’t casually get all of those details right.

As for pieces of media that strive for historical accuracy, I’ve always appreciated Umberto Eco’s work (especially The Name of the Rose and Baudolino), but he was actually a historian.  I think the film adaptation of The Name of the Rose is pretty good and I also think it’s unfairly maligned for not being as in-depth on the philosophical and religious themes as the book.

The Sharpe’s series can get a little over the top, but it’s cool that it deals with an under-represented conflict (The Peninsular War).

Cadfael may be the most liberal Benedictine in the history of the order and the star-crossed lovers plots can be a bit formulaic, but it’s still a cool series.

Foyle’s War is slow-paced but fantastic.  The premise of a civilian detective dealing with domestic crimes during World War II is really cool.

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I always thought that when you join the military, your uniform is issued by the organization that you join - end of discussion. This, from 1944, notes that “when a Wac arrives at the training center she is issued complete clothing and equipment,” but also that “when a Wac becomes an officer, she is given a clothing allowance of $250 cash to cover the purchase of her uniforms.” It doesn’t say where she would go to buy those articles.

In the U.K., at least, it seems that those who could afford it had the option of ordering a (possibly better-quality?) uniform from some fairly high-end clothing makers. Note that Simpson was making a point of marketing to women as well as men, and that both of the Austin Reed ads are directed specifically at women. Not only that, but Austin Reed made uniforms for some of the civilian women’s uniformed services - including the M.T.C.!

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August 10th 1988: Reparations for Japanese-Americans

On this day in 1988, U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 into law, apologising and providing reparations to Japanese-Americans who were interned in camps during the Second World War. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which prompted the United States to join World War Two on the Allied side, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order allowing the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. The order withstood a Supreme Court challenge, and ultimately nearly 120,000 people were held in such camps. Those imprisoned suffered great material and personal losses, with most losing property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of sentries. There were frequent calls for reparations for this crime against people of Japanese descent, and in 1988 the government officially apologised and provided for $20,000 in compensation for each survivor, with payments beginning in 1990. The 1988 Civil Liberties Act bill received primarily Democratic votes, with many Republican members of Congress voting against it.

“The Congress recognizes that…a grave injustice was done to both citizens and permanent residents of Japanese ancestry by the evacuation, relocation, and internment of civilians during World War II”

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“NO MORE WAR”  //  “NIGDY WIĘCEJ WOJNY”

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world’s nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries.

The Empire of Japan aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific and was already at war with the Republic of China in 1937,but the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.

(…) on 1 September 1939, at 04:40, when the Luftwaffe attacked the Polish town of Wieluń, destroying 75% of the city and killing close to 1,200 people, most of them civilians. This invasion subsequently began World War II. Five minutes later, the old German pre-dreadnought battleship Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on the Polish military transit depot at Westerplatte in the Free City of Danzig on the Baltic Sea (Battle of Westerplatte). At 08:00, German troops—still without a formal declaration of war issued—attacked near the Polish town of Mokra. The Battle of the Border had begun. 

Photos: Westerplatte, peninsula in Gdańsk, Poland.
Model: Bambosh ( rhabbyv​)

Submitted by Ed Jelley
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Paracord. You’ve probably seen it in countless EDCs (they’re almost ubiquitous in outdoorsy ones) in various shapes, colors, and sizes. It’s the community’s favorite cordage, found in the form of lanyards, bracelets, keychains, and much more. In this Carry Smarter guide, you’ll learn more about what paracord is, what makes its ideal for EDC, and some great ways to incorporate some into your everyday carry.

Some background on EDC’s favorite cordage…

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550 Parachute cord, more commonly shortened as paracord, is widely used in tons of everyday carry situations. The “550” is derived from the fact that it’s rated to hold 550 lbs.

Paracord is a slim nylon rope with 7-9 inner strands of nylon. Composed of 2-3 threads, the inner strands and can be unraveled for many different uses.

This versatile material was originally used for suspension lines on parachutes. It’s been issued to several military branches due to its versatility in a variety of situations. Paracord was even used by astronauts to help repair the Hubble Space Telescope.

The cord was strictly used in the military, but after World War II it became available to civilians as military surplus. Since its release to the public, paracord has been used for a variety of survival, retention, and rigging applications.

There are several different types of paracord out there, the best of which is MILSPEC rated. This type has a stronger inner core with more strands inside.

5 Reasons to Carry Paracord

  1. It’s Invaluable in Emergency Situations

    Arguably the most common reason why people carry paracord is for its use in emergency situations. Rig a shelter by tying branches together when there’s nowhere else to sleep. Cut the cord, pull out the inner threads, attach a hook and you have a makeshift fishing line. Break a bone while out in the bush? Use the cord and a stiff branch to fashion a splint until you can seek further medical help. Simple sprain? It’s easy to make a sling to keep weight off the hurt appendage. If the situation is really serious, use the cord as a tourniquet to stop bleeding.

  2. It Gives a Good Grip

    If it’s not an emergency sitution, paracord can still come in handy. The material is slightly elastic. This allows for easy and snug wrapping around EDC gear. Some small fixed blade knives employ a skelteon frame handle. Wrapping a length of paracord around it not only provides grip, but keeps an unbroken length of the material at hand.

  3. It Personalizes Your Carry in a Practical Way

    Paracord is available in a huge range of colors and patterns, allowing you to accessorize and personalize your EDC. It can be used to set off a certain color theme or let you carry your own DIY handiwork. At its core, it still provides the functionality of paracord.

  4. It Makes Retrieving Gear from Your Pocket Easier

    Most knives have a lanyard hole, and paracord is the perfect match for it. A paracord lanyard is great if you’d prefer to carry a pocket knife without a clip. It’s as easy as slipping some through the hole and tying it off. With some knot-tying skills, you can whip up lanyards of different shapes and patterns to carry more cordage or fine tune extra material for grip on your tool. Pulling on this extra length can produce gear from your pocket more conveniently than digging around for it, while still keeping a low profile carry.

  5. It Adds Visibility to Your Essentials

    Brightly colored paracord increases visibility, making your essentials easier to find and harder to lose. This is especially useful in bags, pouches, and organizers with interiors that don’t contrast your gear.

How to EDC It

While long lengths of paracord consume a lot of space, there are efficient ways to EDC smaller amounts. It’s not hard to make a “survival bracelet” out of paracord and a clip. If you’re not feeling crafty, they’re available from several companies pre-made in tons of colors. Use similar braiding methods to make belts, camera straps, keychains and more. It’s not uncommon to see paracord used in place of bootlaces. If you have some room to spare in your bug out bag, throw in a hank of paracord and keep it organized with a carabiner. Keeping a spare length in the trunk of your car makes it easy to tie down large packages that are too big to close the trunk on.

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MIL-C-5040-H Paracord

First place to start is the paracord itself. It’s available in a dozen colors in multiple lengths. Whether it’s olive drab green or bright orange, there’s sure to be an option for everyone. This particular cord is made to MIL-C-5040-H specs, meaning it’s the toughest out there. It’s tested for 750lbs of breaking force, making it ideal for every EDC situation.

BUY ($9)

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The Friendly Swede Trilobite Paracord Bracelet

The Friendly Swede has done all of the work for you with their Trilobite paracord bracelets. Available in several colors and sporting a heavy duty shackle closure mechanism, this bracelet packs a lot of paracord in a small package. This weaving method makes the cord more easily retrievable than other braiding methods, allowing you access to the cord as soon as you need it.

BUY ($12)

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The Spool Tool

The Spool Tool is the ultimate solution for carrying and finishing paracord. Wrap up to 100 feet of cord around the spool and use the integrated tools for cord finishing. There’s a razor blade for cutting and a holder for a small lighter for finishing the frayed ends of the cord. Made of light weight plastic, the frame lessens the impact on your EDC.

BUY ($17)

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Izule ESEE Knife / Survival Kit

The Izula by ESEE is a popular EDC blade with an open frame handle, making it well-suited for paracord wrapping. This survival kit includes a black powder coated knife, a length of paracord, a cord lock, several split rings, a frustrater rod, an emergengy whistle and a plastic snap hook. This is everything you’d need should something go wrong.

BUY ($62)

To Wrap It Up…

We’ve shown you what paracord is, why it can be useful in everyday situations, and some great ways to carry it. If you’ve been on the fence about adding some paracord to your EDC, there are several easy ways to do so. Whether you’re wearing a paracord bracelet or keep a 100’ hank in your trunk, this cordage is sure to come in handy. Do you already incorporate paracord into your EDC? Let us know how and why in the comments below!

German mother and child in Hamburg after the bombing in 1943.

The attack during the last week of July 1943, Operation Gomorrah, created one of the largest firestorms raised by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces in World War II, killing 42,600 civilians and wounding 37,000 in Hamburg and practically destroying the entire city.

Royal Air Force Bomber Command, 1942-1945. Oblique aerial view of ruined residential and commercial buildings south of the Eilbektal Park (seen at upper right) in the Eilbek district of Hamburg, Germany. These were among the 16,000 multi-storeyed apartment buildings destroyed by the firestorm which developed during the raid by Bomber Command on the night of 27/28 July 1943 (Operation GOMORRAH). The road running diagonally from upper left to lower right is Eilbeker Weg.

An Avro Lancaster of No. 1 Group, Bomber Command, silhouetted against flares, smoke and explosions during the attack on Hamburg, Germany, by aircraft of Nos. 1, 5 and 8 Groups on the night of 30/31 January 1943. This raid was the first occasion on which H2S centimetric radar was used by the Pathfinder aircraft to navigate the force to the target. The pilot of the photographing aircraft (Lancaster ‘ZN-Y’ of No. 106 Squadron, based at Syerston) was Flt Lt D J Shannon who, as a member of No. 617 Squadron, took part in Operation CHASTISE (the “Dams Raid”) during the following May.

Memorial for Second World War bomb victims, Hamburg, Germany. Inscript: “In the night of 30 July 1943, 370 people died in an air raid bunker building on Hamburger Street. The dead command us: never again totalitarianism, never again war.”

Cure Moderator Speaks: On Body-Diversity and Black/Darker Pretty Cure

Although the issue that sparked this essay has passed for quite a while, Cure Moderator could not just sit down and not say anything.
Some time ago, there were several confessions concerning dark-skinned/overweight fanCures. Some of them said that the lack of any in canon prompted them to make their own fan-characters, some said they made them to spite people who said a heavy/dark-skinned girl probably wouldn’t be shown as a Cure in canon, but everyone said – whether directly or not – that they just wanted more diverse Cures in some form.
Some people got angry about this, and tried to argue that dark or heavy Cures in canon was highly unlikely – people were free to make their fanCures overweight or darker-skinned, but it was unlikely to happen in canon, because of Japan’s low obesity rate and because, so several people have told me: “Japan isn’t as diverse as the US. Most Japanese are fair-skinned, so the Cures we see will be fair-skinned too!”

This bothered me for several reasons, and today, I’d like to explain why this way of thinking is colorist, sizeist, and just all-around misguided.
We’ll also be talking about the appalling lack of diversity in the International Cures in the series Happiness Charge Pretty Cure.

Before we begin, however, I want to say one thing:
If you reblog this just to argue with me, or to throw what I’ve said into the garbage, to yell back at me that none of my points matter and Pretty Cure should and can keep on being colorist and size-ist, you will be ignored.
I do not have the time nor the energy to engage with such bull-headed individuals, and if anything I say here bothers you, the Unfollow button is right up in the corner, and you can simply Ignore me.

Keep reading

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RUSSIA. Chechnya. Grozny. July 1996. The Chechen capital at the end of the First Chechen War (1994-1996). The battle for Grozny caused enormous destruction and casualties amongst the civilian population and saw the heaviest bombing campaign in Europe since the end of World War II.

Photographs: Thomas Dworzak/Magnum Photos