world war ii: civilians

5

World War II: A Few Facts ‘n Stats


7.5 million military Soviet Union deaths = Nuking London

- Only 324 army troops were awarded medal of honor.
- 50 countries were involved in World War II.
- 11,500,000 Chinese civilian deaths
- 1,700 American civilian deaths
- 20 billion bullets were shot.

- 7,031 planes were lost at war
- 20,000,000 Nazis were involved in the Holocaust
- Number of Jewish population before World War II: 9,508,340
- 5,962,129 Jews were killed.

- 16 million Americans served in active duty
- 49 ships were destroyed at Pearl Harbor

- 1,500 concentration camps
- The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
- Location of Adolf Hitler’s suicide by gunshot (Berlin, Fuhrerbunker, 1945)

9

A day in infamy

December 7, 1941, started as a typical Sunday morning at Pearl Harbor, the US Navy’s Pacific Fleet Headquarters on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. That is, until shortly before 8:00 am, when Japan launched roughly 200 planes from six aircraft carriers in its first wave of Operation Hawaii—forever to be known by Americans as “the attack on Pearl Harbor” or just “Pearl Harbor.”

Today we remember the lives of approximately 2,400 Americans that were lost and more than 1,100 wounded. Marines, sailors, soldiers, airmen who paid the ultimate sacrifice. We remember the day that rallied our nation to enter World War II.

CIVILIANS

Yaeko Lillian Oda. Francisco Tacderan. John Kalauwae Adams. Joseph Kanehoa Adams. Nancy Masako Arakaki. Patrick Kahamokupuni Chong. Matilda Kaliko Faufata. Emma Gonsalves. Ai Harada. Kisa Hatate. Fred Masayoshi Higa. Jackie Yoneto Hirasaki. Jitsuo Hirasaki. Robert Yoshito Hirasaki. Shirley Kinue Hirasaki. Paul S. Inamine. Robert Seiko Izumi. David Kahookele. Edward Koichi Kondo. Peter Souza Lopes. George Jay Manganelli. Joseph McCabe, Sr. Masayoshi Nagamine. Frank Ohashi. Hayako Ohta. Janet Yumiko Ohta. Kiyoko Ohta. Barbara June Ornellas. Gertrude Ornellas. James Takao Takefuji, aka Koba. Yoshio Tokusato. Hisao Uyeno. Alice White. Eunice Wilson. Robert H. Tyce. Kamiko Hookano. Isaac William Lee. Rowena Kamohaulani Foster. Chip Soon Kim. Richard Masaru Soma. Tomoso Kimura.
 

FEDERAL WORKERS

August Akina. Philip Ward Eldred. Virgil P. Rahel. Tai Chung Loo. Daniel LaVerne.
 

FIREFIGHTERS

John Carreira. Thomas Samuel Macy. Harry Tuck Lee Pang.2
 

US ARMY

Henry C. Blackwell. Clyde C. Brown. Warren D. Rasmussen. Joseph A. Medlen. Claude L. Bryant. Eugene B. Bubb. Oreste DaTorre. Donat G. Duquette, Jr. Private Edward F. Sullivan. Arthur A. Favreau. William G. Sylvester. Paul J. Fadon. Theodore J. Lewis. Walter R. French. Conrad Kujawa. Torao Migita.
 

US ARMY AIR FORCES

Hans C. Christiansen. George A. Whiteman. Lawrence R. Carlson. Donald F. Meagher. Louis Schleifer. George P. Bolan. Richard A. Dickerson. Alfred Hays. Richard E. Livingston. George M. Martin, Jr. Harold W. Borgelt. Daniel A. Dyer, Jr. Sherman Levine. James M. Topalian. Robert L. Avery. Robert S. Brown. Edward J. Cashman. Donal V. Chapman. Monroe M. Clark. Robert H. Gooding. James A. Horner. George F. Howard. Lawrence P. Lyons, Jr. Wallae R. Martin. William W. Merithew. George A. Moran. Herman C. Reuss. Robert M. Richey. Harry E. Smith. Edward F. Vernick. Marion H. Zaczkiewicz. Jerry M. Angelich. Malcolm J. Brummwell. Jack A. Downs. Paul R. Eichelberger. Arnold E. Field. Joseph Jedrysik. Andrew J. Kinder. Herbert E. McLaughlin. Emmett E. Morris. Joseph F. Nelles. Willard C. Orr. Halvor E. Rogness. Leo H. Surrells. Joseph Bush. John H. Couhig. Harold C. Elyard. Willard E. Fairchild. Paul V. Fellman. Homer E. Ferris. Stuart H. Fiander. James J. Gleason. Otto C. Klein. Harry W. Lord, Jr. Joseph Malatak. Russell M. Penny. Allen G. Rae. George J. Smith. Elmer W. South. Hermann K. Tibbets, Jr. George W. Tuckerman. Martin Vanderelli. Walter H. Wardigo. Lawton J. Woodworth. Thomas M. Wright. Virgil J. Young. Garland C. Anderson. Manfred C. Anderson. Gordon R. Bennett, Jr. Frank G. Boswell. Frank B. Cooper. John E. Cruthirds. Robert C. Duff, Jr. Lyle O. Edwards. Russell E. Gallagher. James E. Gossard, Jr. Johon S. Greene. Earl A. Hood. Theodore K. Joyner. Edmund B. Lepper. Durward A. Meadows. LaVerne J. Needham. Paul L. Staton. Anderson G. Tennison. William T. Anderson. William T. Blakley. Russell C. Defenbaugh. Joseph H. Guttmann. John J. Horan. Carl A. Johnson. Olaf A. Johnson. Doyle Kimmey. James I. Lewis. William E. McAbee. Stanley A. McLeod. Walter D. Zuckoff. Arthur F. Boyle. Billy O. Brandt. Rennie V. Brower, Jr. William J. Brownlee. Brooks J. Brubaker. Weldon C. Burlison. Leroy R. Church. Jack H. Feldman. Leo E. A. Gagne. Allen E. W. Goudy. William E. Hasenfuss, Jr. James R. Johnson. Robert H. Johnson. Marion E. King, Jr. Roderick O. Klubertanz. John H. Mann. James J. McClintock. Horace A. Messam. Victor L. Meyers. Edwin N. Mitchell. Thomas F. Philipsky. William F. Shields. Ralph S. Smith. John B. Sparks. Merton I. Staples. Jerome J. Szematowicz. William F. Timmerman. Ernest M. Walker, Jr. Lee I. Clendenning. Richard L. Coster. Byron G. Elliott. William Hislop. Howard N. Lusk. Lionel J. Moorhead. Francis E. Campiglia. Herbert B. Martin. Joseph G. Moser. Frank St. E. Posey. Raymond E. Powell. William T. Rhodes. Maurice J. St. Germain. James E. Strickland, Jr. Joseph S. Zappala. Walter J. Zuschlag. Felix Bonnie. Clarence A. Conant. Frank J. DePolis. Patrick L. Finney. Elwood R. Gummerson. Vincent J. Kechner. Robert H. Markley. Jay E. Pietzsch. Antonio S. Tafoya. Robert H. Westbrook, Jr. Jack W. Fox. Frank J. Lango. William M. Northway. Felix S. Wegrzyn. William R. Schick. Leland V. Beasley. William Coyne, Jr. Eugene B. Denson. Robert R. Garrett. Charles l. Hrusecky. Joseph N. Jencuis. Robert R. Kelley. Hal H. Perry, Jr. Carey K. Stockwell. Ralph Alois. Louis H. Dasenbrock. John T. Haughey. Clarence E. Hoyt. Henry J. Humphrey. Lester H. Libolt. Harell K. Mattox. William H. Offutt. Edward R. Hughes. John J. Kohl. George Price. Louis G. Moslener, Jr. Daniel J. Powloski. Dave Jacobson. Mathew T. Bills. Joseph J. Chagnon. Carlton H. Hartford. Ardrey V. Hasty. Donald E. Bays. George K. Gannam. Andrew A. Walczynski. Eugene L. Chambers. John G. Mitchell. Robert L. Schott. Robert R. Shattuck. Russell P. Vidoloff. Lumus E. Walker. Theodore F. Byrd, Jr. James H. Derthick. Joseph C. Herbert. William H. Manley. George R. Schmersahl. Robert O. Sherman. Anson E. Robbins. Robert G. Allen. Robert P. Buss. Donald D. Plant. Gordon H. Sterling, Jr. John L. Dains. Edward J. Burns. Malachy J. Cashen. Dean W. Cebert. William C. Creech. James Everett. Paul B. Free. Joseph E. Good. James E. Guthrie. Robert L. Hull. George G. Leslie. John A. Price. James M. Barksdale. Vincent M. Horan. Morris E. Stacey.
 

US MARINE CORPS

John A. Blount, Jr. Roy E. Lee, Jr. Shelby C. Shook. Earl D. Wallen. George E. Johnson. Thomas A. Britton. Francis C. Heath. Orveil V. King, Jr. Jack L. Lunsford. Edward F. Morrissey. Keith V. Smith. Richard I. Trujillo. Marley R. Arthurholtz. Waldean Black. Walter L. Collier. Alva J. Cremean. Elmer E. Drefahl. Harry H. Gaver, Jr. Ted Hall. Otis W. Henry. Robert K. Holmes. Vernon P. Keaton. John F. Middleswart. Robert H. Peak. Raymond Pennington. Charles R. Taylor. Thomas N. Barron. Morris E. Nations. Floyd D. Stewart. Patrick P. Tobin. Jesse C. Vincent, Jr. George H. Wade, Jr. William E. Lutschan, Jr. William G. Turner. Edward S. Lawrence. Carlo A. Micheletto.
 

US NAVY

Howard L. Adkins. Moses A. Allen. Thomas B. Allen. Wilbur H. Bailey. Glen Baker. James W. Ball. Harold W. Bandemer. Michael L. Bazetti. Albert Q. Beal. Thomas S. Beckwith. Henry W. Blankenship. Edward D. Bowden. Robert K. Bowers. Robert L. Brewer. Samuel J. Bush. James W. Butler. Elmer L. Carpenter. Cullen B. Clark. Francis E. Cole. Kenneth J. Cooper. Herbert S. Curtis, Jr. Lloyd H. Cutrer. Edward H. Davis. John W. Deetz. Marshall L. Dompier. Norman W. Douglas. Guy Dugger. Billie J. Dukes. Thomas R. Durning, Jr. Robert W. Ernest. Alfred J. Farley. Marvin L. Ferguson, Jr. Stanley C. Galaszewski. Robert S. Garcia. Thomas J. Gary. George H. Gilbert. Tom Gilbert. Helmer A. Hanson. Gilbert A. Henderson. John A. Hildebrand, Jr. Merle C. J. Hillman. Paul E. Holley. Richard F. Jacobs. Ira W. Jeffrey. Melvin G. Johnson. Ernest Jones. Herbert C. Jones. Harry Kaufman. Arlie G. Keener. Harry W. Kramer. John T. Lancaster. Donald C. V. Larsen. John E. Lewis. James E. London. Howard E. Manges. John W. Martin. George V. McGraw. Clyde C. McMeans. Aaron L. McMurtrey. James W. Milner. James D. Minter. Bernard J. Mirello. William A. Montgomery. Marlyn W. Nelson. Wayne E. Newton. June W. Parker. Kenneth M. Payne. George E. Pendarvis. Lewis W. Pitts, Jr. Alexsander J. Przybysz. Roy A. Pullen. Edward S. Racisz. Thomas J. Reeves. Joseph L. Richey. Edwin H. Ripley. Earl R. Roberts. Alfred A. Rosenthal. Joe B. Ross. Frank W. Royse. Morris F. Saffell. Robert R. Scott. Erwin L. Searle. Russell K. Shelly, Jr. Frank L. Simmons. Tceollyar Simmons. Lloyd G. Smith. Gordon W. Stafford. Leo Stapler. Charles E. Sweany. Edward F. Szurgot. Frank P. Treanor. Pete Turk. George V. Ulrich. George E. Vining. David Walker. Milton S. Wilson. Steven J. Wodarski. John C. Wydila. Mathew J. Agola. Clarence A. Wise. Joseph I. Caro. Lee H. Duke. Clifton E. Edmonds. John W. Frazier. Nickolas S. Ganas. George H. Guy. Kenneth J. Hartley. Edward S. Haven, Jr. Anthony Hawkins, Jr. Thomas Hembree. Andrew Kin. Robert S. Lowe. James E. Massey. Maurice Mastrototaro. Jesse K. Milbourne. Dean B. Orwick. William J. Powell. Wilson A. Rice. Howard A. Rosenau. Benjamin Schlect. Joseph Sperling. J.W. Baker. Howard F. Carter. Roy A. Gross. Andrew M. Marze. James E. Bailey. Benjamin L. Brown. Marvin J. Clapp. Thomas W. Collins. Edward C. Daly. Albert J. Hitrik. George E. Jones. John A. Marshall. Nolan E. Pummill. William H. Silva. Perry W. Strickland. James Vinson. Mitchell Cohn. Fred J. Ducolon. Manuel Gonzalez. Leonard J. Kozelek. William C. Miller. Sidney Pierce. John H. L. Vogt, Jr. Walter M. Willis. Eric Allen, Jr. Frederick F. Hebel. Herbert H. Menges. Salvatore J. Albanese. Thomas E. Aldridge. Robert A. Arnesen. Loren L. Beardsley. Regis J. Bodecker. William J. Carter. Luther E. Cisco. Allen A. Davis. Ernest B. Dickens. Richard H. Dobbins. Robert N. Edling. Leland E. Erbes. Robert J. Flannery. Eugene D. Fuzi. Arthur J. Gardner. Robert D. Greenwald. Arvel C. Hines. Donald W. Johnson. Ernest G. Kuzee. Carl R. Love. Marvin W. Mayo. Orville R. Minix. Edo Morincelli. Hugh K. Naff. John C. Pensyl. Joe O. Powers. Ralph W. Thompson. Edward B. Uhlig. John J. Urban. Benjamin F. Vassar. Hoge C. Venable, Jr. Oswald C. Wohl. Michael C. Yugovich. Claire R. Brier. Howard D. Crow. James B. Ginn. Warren H. McCutcheon. Arnold L. Anderson. Zoilo Aquino. James R. Bingham. Herman Bledsoe. Lyle L. Briggs. Harold J. Christopher. Joseph W. Cook. Leon J. Corbin. Leo P. Cotner. Frederick C. Davis. Lonnie W. Dukes. Edward W. Echols. Harry L. Edwards. George L. Faddis. Kay I. Fugate. Samuel M. Gantner. Thomas R. Giles. Herman A. Goetsch. Arthur K. Gullachson. Johnie W. Hallmark. Charles W. Harker. Gerald L. Heim. Edwin J. Hill. Edgar E. Hubner. Robert C. Irish. Flavous B. M. Johnson. Kenneth T. Lamons. Wilbur T. Lipe. John K. Luntta. Andres F. Mafnas. Dale L. Martin. Frazier Mayfield. Lester F. McGhee. Edward L. McGuckin. William F. Neuendorf, Jr. Alwyn B. Norvelle. Elmer M. Patterson. Eugene E. Peck. Mark C. Robison. Emil O. Ronning. Harvey G. Rushford. Herbert C. Schwarting. Donald R. Shaum. Adolfo Solar. Herman A. Spear. Delbert J. Spencer. George J. Stembrosky. Charles E. Strickland. Lee V. Thunhorst. Ivan I. Walton. Marvin B. Adkins. Willard H. Aldridge. Hugh R. Alexander. Stanley W. Allen. Hal J. Allison. Leon Arickx. Kenneth B. Armstrong. Daryle E. Artley. John C. Auld. John A. Austin. Walter H. Backman. Gerald J. Bailey. Robert E. Bailey. Wilbur F. Ballance. Layton T. Banks. Leroy K. Barber. Malcolm J. Barber. Randolph H. Barber. Cecil E. Barncord. Wilber C. Barrett. Harold E. Bates. Ralph C. Battles. Earl P. Baum. Howard W. Bean. Walter S. Belt, Jr. Robert J. Bennett. Harding C. Blackburn. William E. Blanchard. Clarence A. Blaylock. Leo Blitz. Rudolph Blitz. John G. Bock, Jr. Paul L. Boemer. James B. Booe. James B. Boring. Ralph M. Boudreaux. Lawrence A. Boxrucker. Raymond D. Boynton. Carl M. Bradley. Oris V. Brandt. Jack A. Breedlove. Randall W. Brewer. William Brooks. Wesley J. Brown. William G. Bruesewitz. James R. Buchanan. Earl G. Burch. Oliver K. Burger. Millard Burk, Jr. Rodger C. Butts. Archie Callahan, Jr. Raymond R. Camery. William V. Campbell. Murry R. Cargile. Harold F. Carney. Joseph W. Carroll. Edward E. Casinger. Biacio Casola. Charles R. Casto. Richard E. Casto. James T. Cheshire. Patrick L. Chess. David Clark, Jr. Gerald L. Clayton. Hubert P. Clement. Floyd F. Clifford. George A. Coke. James E. Collins. John G. Connolly. Keefe R. Connolly. Edward L. Conway. Grant C. Cook, Jr. Robert L. Corn. Beoin H. Corzatt. John W. Craig. Warren H. Crim. Samuel W. Crowder. William M. Curry. Glenn G. Cyriack. Marshall E. Darby, Jr. James W. Davenport, Jr. Francis D. Day. Leslie P. Delles. Ralph A. Derrington. Francis E. Dick. Leaman R. Dill. Kenneth E. Doernenburg. John M. Donald. Carl D. Dorr. Bernard V. Doyle. Stanislaw F. Drwall. Cyril I. Dusset. Buford H. Dyer. Wallace E. Eakes. Eugene K. Eberhardt. David B. Edmonston. Earl M. Ellis. Bruce H. Ellison. Julius Ellsberry. John C. England. Ignacio C. Farfan. Luther J. Farmer. Lawrence H. Fecho. Charlton H. Ferguson. Robert A. Fields. William M. Finnegan. Francis C. Flaherty. James M. Flanagan. Felicismo Florese. Walter C. Foley. George P. Foote. George C. Ford. Joy C. French. Tedd M. Furr. Michael Galajdik. Martin A. Gara. Jesus F. Garcia. Eugene Garris. Paul H. Gebser. Leonard R. Geller. George T. George. George H. Gibson. George E. Giesa. Quentin J. Gifford. George Gilbert. Warren C. Gillette. Benjamin E. Gilliard. Arthur Glenn. Mach. Daryl H. Goggin. Jack R. Goldwater. Charles C. Gomez, Jr. George M. Gooch. Clifford G. Goodwin. Robert Goodwin. Duff Gordon. Claude O. Gowey. Wesley E. Graham. Arthur M. Grand Pre. Thomas E. Griffith. Edgar D. Gross. Vernon N. Grow. Daniel L. Guisinger, Jr. William I. Gurganus. William F. Gusie. Hubert P. Hall. Robert E. Halterman. Harold W. Ham. Dale R. Hamlin. Eugene P. Hann. Francis L. Hannon. George Hanson. Robert J. Harr. Charles H. Harris. Daniel F. Harris. Louis E. Harris, Jr. Albert E. Hayden. Harold L. Head. Robert W. Headington. William F. Hellstern. Floyd D. Helton. Jimmie L. Henrichsen. William E. Henson, Jr. Harvey C. Herber. George Herbert. Austin H. Hesler. Denis H. Hiskett. Joseph P. Hittorff, Jr. Frank S. Hoag, Jr. Herbert J. Hoard. Joseph W. Hoffman. Kenneth L. Holm. Harry R. Holmes. James W. Holzhauer. Edwin C. Hopkins. Chester G. Hord. Frank A. Hryniewicz. Charles E. Hudson. Lorentz E. Hultgren. Robert M. Hunter. Claydon I. C. Iverson. Willie Jackson. Herbert B. Jacobson. Challis R. James. George W. Jarding. Kenneth L. Jayne. Theodore Q. Jensen. Jesse B. Jenson. Charles H. Johannes. Billy J. Johnson. Edward D. Johnson. Joseph M. Johnson. Jim H. Johnston. Charles A. Jones. Fred M. Jones. Jerry Jones. Julian B. Jordan. Wesley V. Jordan. Thomas V. Jurashen. Albert U. Kane. John A. Karli. Howard V. Keffer. Ralph H. Keil. Donald G. Keller. Joe M. Kelley. Warren J. Kempf. Leo T. Keninger. William H. Kennedy. Elmer T. Kerestes. David L. Kesler. William A. Klasing. Verne F. Knipp. Hans C. Kvalnes. William L. Kvidera. D. T. Kyser. Elliott D. Larsen. Johnnie C. Laurie. Elmer P. Lawrence. Willard I. Lawson. Gerald G. Lehman. Myron K. Lehman. Lionel W. Lescault. Harold W. Lindsey. John H. Lindsley. Alfred E. Livingston. Clarence M. Lockwood. Adolph J. Loebach. Vernon T. Luke. Octavius Mabine. Howard S. Mrs. Michael Malek. Algeo V. Malfante. Walter B. Manning. Henri C. Mason. Joseph K. Maule. Edwin B. McCabe. Donald R. McCloud. James O. McDonald. Bert E. McKeeman. Hale McKissack. Lloyd E. McLaughlin. Earl R. Melton. Herbert F. Melton. Archie T. Miles. Wallace G. Mitchell. Charles A. Montgomery. John M. Mulick. Ray H. Myers. George E. Naegle. Elmer D. Nail. Paul A. Nash. Don O. Neher. Arthur C. Neuenschwander. Sam D. Nevill. Wilbur F. Newton. Carl Nichols. Harry E. Nichols. Frank E. Nicoles. Arnold M. Nielsen. Laverne A. Nigg. Joe R. Nightingale. Charles E. Nix. Camillus M. O’Grady. Charles R. Ogle. Eli Olsen. Jarvis G. Outland. Lawrence J. Overley. Alphard S. Owsley. Millard C. Pace. James Palides, Jr. Calvin H. Palmer. Wilferd D. Palmer. George L. Paradis. Isaac Parker. Dale F. Pearce. Walter R. Pentico. Stephen Pepe. SCharles F. Perdue. Wiley J. Perway. Milo E. Phillips. James N. Phipps. Gerald H. Pirtle. Rudolph V. Piskuran. Herbert J. Poindexter, Jr. Brady O. Prewitt. Robert L. Pribble. George F. Price. Lewis B. Pride, Jr. Jasper L. Pue, Jr. Paul S. Raimond. Eldon C. Ray. Dan E. Reagan. Leo B. Regan. Irvin F. Rice. Porter L. Rich. Clyde Ridenour, Jr. David J. Riley. Russell C. Roach. Joseph M. Robertson. Harold W. Roesch. Walter B. Rogers. Joseph C. Rouse. Charles L. Ruse. Edmund T. Ryan. Roman W. Sadlowski. Kenneth H. Sampson. Dean S. Sanders. Charles L. Saunders. Lyal J. Sav. John E. Savidge. Paul E. Saylor. Walter F. Schleiter. Herman Schmidt. Aloysius H. Schmitt. Andrew J. Schmitz. John H. Schoonover. Bernard O. Scott. Chester E. Seaton. Verdi D. Sederstrom. William L. Sellon. Everett I. Severinson. William K. Shafer. William J. Shanahan, Jr. Edward J. Shelden. William G. Silva. Eugene M. Skaggs. Garold L. Skiles. Edward F. Slapikas. Leonard F. Smith. Merle A. Smith. Rowland H. Smith. Walter H. Sollie. James C. Solomon. Maurice V. Spangler. Kirby R. Stapleton. Ulis C. Steely. Walter C. Stein. Samuel C. Steiner. Charles M. Stern, Jr. Everett R. Stewart. Lewis S. Stockdate. Donald A. Stott. Robert T. Stout. James Stouten. Milton R. Surratt. Charles H. Swanson. Edward E. Talbert. Rangner F. Tanner, Jr. Monroe Temple. Houston Temples. Benjamin C. Terhune. Arthur R. Thinnes. Charles W. Thompson. Clarence Thompson. George A. Thompson. Irvin A. R. Thompson. William M. Thompson. Richard J. Thomson. Cecil H. Thornton. Robert L. Thrombley. David F. Tidball. Lloyd R. Timm. Lewis F. Tindall. Dante S. Tini. Henry G. Tipton. Everett C. Titterington. Neal K. Todd. Natale I. Torti. Orval A. Tranbarger. Harold F. Trapp. William H. Trapp. Shelby Treadway. William D. Tucker. Victor P. Tumlinson. Billy Turner. Louis J. Tushla. Russell O. Ufford. Lowell E. Valley. ADurrell Wade. Lewis L. Wagoner. Harry E. Walker. Robert N. Walkowiak. Eugene A. Walpole. Charles E. Walters. James R. Ward. Edward Wasielewski. Richard L. Watson. James C. Webb. William E. Welch. Alfred F. Wells. Ernest R. West. John D. Wheeler. Claude White. Jack D. White. Alton W. Whitson. Eugene W. Wicker. Lloyd P. Wiegand. George J. Wilcox, Jr. Albert L. Williams. James C. Williams. Wilbur S. Williams. Bernard R. Wimmer. Everett G. Windle. Starring B. Winfield. Rex E. Wise. Frank Wood. Lawrence E. Woods. Winfred O. Woods. Creighton H. Workman. John L. Wortham. Paul R. Wright. Eldon P. Wyman. Martin D. Young. Robert V. Young. Joseph J. Yurko. Thomas Zvansky. Robert E. Arnott. Henry E. Baker, Jr. Charles Braga, Jr. Evan B. Brekken. Frederick A. Browne. Harold K. Comstock. James E. Craig. Clarence F. Haase. Dancil J. McIntosh. Joseph A. Muhofski. James P. Owens. Joseph W. Pace. Damian M. Portillo. Richard R. Rall. William H. Rice. Martin R. Slifer. Payton L. Vanderpool, Jr. Claude B. Watson, Jr. George R. Keith. Frank J. Annunziato. Anthony Bilyi. Albert J. Bolen. Guy W. Carroll. Leon Egbert. Fred Fugate. Joseph L. B. Gaudrault. Paul G. Gosnell. Rodney W. Jones. John S. McAllen. Robert C. McQuade. Clyde C. Moore. Chester L. Parks. George A. Penuel, Jr. Robert A. Petz. Ernest C. Porter, Jr. Daniel P. Platschorre. Edward J. Quirk. John T. Rainbolt. Benjamin N. Russell. Johnnie H. Spaeth. Frank W. Stief, Jr. Palmer L. Taylor. James R. Westbrook. Clyde Williams. Warren P. Hickok. Jesse L. Adams. Alfred W. Hudgell. J.B. Delane Miller. Eugene O. Roe. Gerald O. Smith. John A. Bird. John W. Pence. Laddie J. Zacek. William D. Arbuckle. Joseph Barta. Rudolph P. Bielka. Virgil C. Bigham. John E. Black. John T. Blackburn. Pallas F. Brown. William F. Brunner. Feliciano T. Bugarin. George V. Chestnutt, Jr. Lloyd D. Clippard. Joseph U. Conner. John R. Crain. David L. Crossett. Billy R. Davis. Leroy Dennis. Douglas R. Dieckhoff. William H. Dosser. Vernon J. Eidsvig. Melvyn A. Gandre. Kenneth M. Gift. Charles N. Gregoire. Herold A. Harveson. Clifford D. Hill. Emery L. Houde. David W. Jackson. Leroy H. Jones. William A. Juedes. John L. Kaelin. Eric T. Kampmeyer. Joseph N. Karabon. William H. Kent. George W. LaRue. John G. Little III. Kenneth L. Lynch. William E. Marshall, Jr. Rudolph M. Martinez. Charles O. Michael. Marvin E. Miller. Donald C. Norman. Orris N. Norman. Edwin N. Odgaard. Elmer A. Parker. Forrest H. Perry. James W. Phillips. Walter H. Ponder. Frank E. Reed. Ralph E. Scott. Henson T. Shouse. George R. Smith. Robert D. Smith. Joseph B. Sousley. Gerald V. Strinz. Peter Tomich. Elmer H. Ulrich. Michael W. Villa. Vernard O. Wetrich. Glen A. White. Harold R. Arneberg. William Duane. Lowell B. Jackson. Charles W. Jones. Raymond J. Kerrigan. Guy E. Long. William H. Reid. Welborn L. Ashby. Benjamin E. Bargerhuff, Jr. William L. Barnett. Frank J. Bartek, Jr. Mervyn S. Bennion. Charlie V. Booton. Fred H. Boyer. George O. Branham. Ennis E. Brooks. Charles D. Brown. Riley M. Brown. John E. Burgess, Jr. William C. Campbell. William G. Christian. Harold K. Costill. Louis A. Costin. Charles E. Cottier. Howard D. Cromwell. Eugene V. Downing. Donald L. Drum. George S. Dunn, Jr. Edward N. Durkee. Clement E. Durr. Tommy Dye. Roland W. Edwards. Ronald B. Endicott. Richard B. England. Woodrow W. Evans. Jose S. N. Flores. Jack Foth. Gilbert R. Fox. Neil D. Frye. Angelo M. Gabriele. Claude R. Garcia. Bibian B. Gonzales. Myron E. Goodwin. Arthur Gould. Harry J. Halvorsen. Hugh B. Harriss. Hadley I. Heavin. Fred A. Hilt. Howard D. Hodges. Joseph E. Hood. William D. Horton. Ira D. Hudson. William C. Jackson. Carl S. Johnson. Sanford V. Kelley, Jr. Chester F. Kleist. Milton J. Knight, Jr. William P. Kubinec. Henry E. LaCrosse, Jr. Thomas F. Leary. Joseph S. L. Lemire. Eugene V. Lish. Royle B. Luker. Donald W. Lynch. Arnold E. Lyon. Charles W. Mann. Jesus M. Mata. Donald J. Mathison. Luther K. McBee. Thomas A. McClelland. Lawrence J. McCollom. Clarence W. McComas. Quentin G. McKee. John A. Meglis. John R. Melton. Enrique C. Mendiola. Joe E. Mister. Wallace A. Montgomery. William F. Morris. Albin J. Mrace. Clair C. Myers. Earl T. Nermoe. Paul E. Newton. Emile S. Noce. Maurice M. O’Connor. Clifford N. Olds. Arnold J. Owsley. Walter J. Paciga. James A. Paolucci. Andrew A. Pinko. Jack A. Pitcher. Roy W. Powers. George B. Reid. Albert Renner. Leonard C. Richter. Ernest C. Rose. Glenn D. Sahl. Theodore H. Saulsbury. Richard M. Schuon, Jr. George W. Scott. Gordon E. Smith. Ernest E. Speicher. Otis D. Sterling. George E. Taber. Ernie E. Tibbs. Keith W. Tipsword. Albert P. VanderGoore. Joseph Vogelgesang, Jr. Thomas G. Wagner. Bethel E. Walters. Harold Wilbur. Clyde R. Wilson. Lester F. Zobeck. Theodore W. Croft. Stanley D. Dosick. John D. Buckley. Clarence M. Formoe. Rodney S. Foss. Milburn A. Manning. James H. Robinson. Joseph G. Smartt. Luther D. Weaver. Walter S. Brown. Lee Fox, Jr. Daniel T. Griffin. George W. Ingram. Charles Lawrence. Carl W. Otterstetter. Robert K. Porterfield. Robert W. Uhlmann. Raphael A. Watson. Laxton G. Newman. Arthur W. Russett. John H. Thuman.

Submitted by Ed Jelley
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Paracord. You’ve probably seen it in countless EDCs (they’re almost ubiquitous in outdoorsy ones) in various shapes, colors, and sizes. It’s the community’s favorite cordage, found in the form of lanyards, bracelets, keychains, and much more. In this Carry Smarter guide, you’ll learn more about what paracord is, what makes its ideal for EDC, and some great ways to incorporate some into your everyday carry.

Some background on EDC’s favorite cordage…

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550 Parachute cord, more commonly shortened as paracord, is widely used in tons of everyday carry situations. The “550” is derived from the fact that it’s rated to hold 550 lbs.

Paracord is a slim nylon rope with 7-9 inner strands of nylon. Composed of 2-3 threads, the inner strands and can be unraveled for many different uses.

This versatile material was originally used for suspension lines on parachutes. It’s been issued to several military branches due to its versatility in a variety of situations. Paracord was even used by astronauts to help repair the Hubble Space Telescope.

The cord was strictly used in the military, but after World War II it became available to civilians as military surplus. Since its release to the public, paracord has been used for a variety of survival, retention, and rigging applications.

There are several different types of paracord out there, the best of which is MILSPEC rated. This type has a stronger inner core with more strands inside.

5 Reasons to Carry Paracord

  1. It’s Invaluable in Emergency Situations

    Arguably the most common reason why people carry paracord is for its use in emergency situations. Rig a shelter by tying branches together when there’s nowhere else to sleep. Cut the cord, pull out the inner threads, attach a hook and you have a makeshift fishing line. Break a bone while out in the bush? Use the cord and a stiff branch to fashion a splint until you can seek further medical help. Simple sprain? It’s easy to make a sling to keep weight off the hurt appendage. If the situation is really serious, use the cord as a tourniquet to stop bleeding.

  2. It Gives a Good Grip

    If it’s not an emergency sitution, paracord can still come in handy. The material is slightly elastic. This allows for easy and snug wrapping around EDC gear. Some small fixed blade knives employ a skelteon frame handle. Wrapping a length of paracord around it not only provides grip, but keeps an unbroken length of the material at hand.

  3. It Personalizes Your Carry in a Practical Way

    Paracord is available in a huge range of colors and patterns, allowing you to accessorize and personalize your EDC. It can be used to set off a certain color theme or let you carry your own DIY handiwork. At its core, it still provides the functionality of paracord.

  4. It Makes Retrieving Gear from Your Pocket Easier

    Most knives have a lanyard hole, and paracord is the perfect match for it. A paracord lanyard is great if you’d prefer to carry a pocket knife without a clip. It’s as easy as slipping some through the hole and tying it off. With some knot-tying skills, you can whip up lanyards of different shapes and patterns to carry more cordage or fine tune extra material for grip on your tool. Pulling on this extra length can produce gear from your pocket more conveniently than digging around for it, while still keeping a low profile carry.

  5. It Adds Visibility to Your Essentials

    Brightly colored paracord increases visibility, making your essentials easier to find and harder to lose. This is especially useful in bags, pouches, and organizers with interiors that don’t contrast your gear.

How to EDC It

While long lengths of paracord consume a lot of space, there are efficient ways to EDC smaller amounts. It’s not hard to make a “survival bracelet” out of paracord and a clip. If you’re not feeling crafty, they’re available from several companies pre-made in tons of colors. Use similar braiding methods to make belts, camera straps, keychains and more. It’s not uncommon to see paracord used in place of bootlaces. If you have some room to spare in your bug out bag, throw in a hank of paracord and keep it organized with a carabiner. Keeping a spare length in the trunk of your car makes it easy to tie down large packages that are too big to close the trunk on.

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MIL-C-5040-H Paracord

First place to start is the paracord itself. It’s available in a dozen colors in multiple lengths. Whether it’s olive drab green or bright orange, there’s sure to be an option for everyone. This particular cord is made to MIL-C-5040-H specs, meaning it’s the toughest out there. It’s tested for 750lbs of breaking force, making it ideal for every EDC situation.

BUY ($9)

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The Friendly Swede Trilobite Paracord Bracelet

The Friendly Swede has done all of the work for you with their Trilobite paracord bracelets. Available in several colors and sporting a heavy duty shackle closure mechanism, this bracelet packs a lot of paracord in a small package. This weaving method makes the cord more easily retrievable than other braiding methods, allowing you access to the cord as soon as you need it.

BUY ($12)

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The Spool Tool

The Spool Tool is the ultimate solution for carrying and finishing paracord. Wrap up to 100 feet of cord around the spool and use the integrated tools for cord finishing. There’s a razor blade for cutting and a holder for a small lighter for finishing the frayed ends of the cord. Made of light weight plastic, the frame lessens the impact on your EDC.

BUY ($17)

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Izule ESEE Knife / Survival Kit

The Izula by ESEE is a popular EDC blade with an open frame handle, making it well-suited for paracord wrapping. This survival kit includes a black powder coated knife, a length of paracord, a cord lock, several split rings, a frustrater rod, an emergengy whistle and a plastic snap hook. This is everything you’d need should something go wrong.

BUY ($62)

To Wrap It Up…

We’ve shown you what paracord is, why it can be useful in everyday situations, and some great ways to carry it. If you’ve been on the fence about adding some paracord to your EDC, there are several easy ways to do so. Whether you’re wearing a paracord bracelet or keep a 100’ hank in your trunk, this cordage is sure to come in handy. Do you already incorporate paracord into your EDC? Let us know how and why in the comments below!

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August 10th 1988: Reparations for Japanese-Americans

On this day in 1988, U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 into law, apologising and providing reparations to Japanese-Americans who were interned in camps during the Second World War. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which prompted the United States to join World War Two on the Allied side, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order allowing the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. The order withstood a Supreme Court challenge, and ultimately nearly 120,000 people were held in such camps. Those imprisoned suffered great material and personal losses, with most losing property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of sentries. There were frequent calls for reparations for this crime against people of Japanese descent, and in 1988 the government officially apologised and provided for $20,000 in compensation for each survivor, with payments beginning in 1990. The 1988 Civil Liberties Act bill received primarily Democratic votes, with many Republican members of Congress voting against it.

“The Congress recognizes that…a grave injustice was done to both citizens and permanent residents of Japanese ancestry by the evacuation, relocation, and internment of civilians during World War II”

German mother and child in Hamburg after the bombing in 1943.

The attack during the last week of July 1943, Operation Gomorrah, created one of the largest firestorms raised by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces in World War II, killing 42,600 civilians and wounding 37,000 in Hamburg and practically destroying the entire city.

Royal Air Force Bomber Command, 1942-1945. Oblique aerial view of ruined residential and commercial buildings south of the Eilbektal Park (seen at upper right) in the Eilbek district of Hamburg, Germany. These were among the 16,000 multi-storeyed apartment buildings destroyed by the firestorm which developed during the raid by Bomber Command on the night of 27/28 July 1943 (Operation GOMORRAH). The road running diagonally from upper left to lower right is Eilbeker Weg.

An Avro Lancaster of No. 1 Group, Bomber Command, silhouetted against flares, smoke and explosions during the attack on Hamburg, Germany, by aircraft of Nos. 1, 5 and 8 Groups on the night of 30/31 January 1943. This raid was the first occasion on which H2S centimetric radar was used by the Pathfinder aircraft to navigate the force to the target. The pilot of the photographing aircraft (Lancaster ‘ZN-Y’ of No. 106 Squadron, based at Syerston) was Flt Lt D J Shannon who, as a member of No. 617 Squadron, took part in Operation CHASTISE (the “Dams Raid”) during the following May.

Memorial for Second World War bomb victims, Hamburg, Germany. Inscript: “In the night of 30 July 1943, 370 people died in an air raid bunker building on Hamburger Street. The dead command us: never again totalitarianism, never again war.”

Cure Moderator Speaks: On Body-Diversity and Black/Darker Pretty Cure

Although the issue that sparked this essay has passed for quite a while, Cure Moderator could not just sit down and not say anything.
Some time ago, there were several confessions concerning dark-skinned/overweight fanCures. Some of them said that the lack of any in canon prompted them to make their own fan-characters, some said they made them to spite people who said a heavy/dark-skinned girl probably wouldn’t be shown as a Cure in canon, but everyone said – whether directly or not – that they just wanted more diverse Cures in some form.
Some people got angry about this, and tried to argue that dark or heavy Cures in canon was highly unlikely – people were free to make their fanCures overweight or darker-skinned, but it was unlikely to happen in canon, because of Japan’s low obesity rate and because, so several people have told me: “Japan isn’t as diverse as the US. Most Japanese are fair-skinned, so the Cures we see will be fair-skinned too!”

This bothered me for several reasons, and today, I’d like to explain why this way of thinking is colorist, sizeist, and just all-around misguided.
We’ll also be talking about the appalling lack of diversity in the International Cures in the series Happiness Charge Pretty Cure.

Before we begin, however, I want to say one thing:
If you reblog this just to argue with me, or to throw what I’ve said into the garbage, to yell back at me that none of my points matter and Pretty Cure should and can keep on being colorist and size-ist, you will be ignored.
I do not have the time nor the energy to engage with such bull-headed individuals, and if anything I say here bothers you, the Unfollow button is right up in the corner, and you can simply Ignore me.

Keep reading

[non Shadowhunters/Clace related]

Today, on Remembrance of the Dead (dodenherdenking), we remember those, members of the armed forces of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and innocent civilians, who died during World War II. The whole country went silent for 2 minutes at 8 pm to pay their respect. Thank you for fighting, thank you for everything you’ve done. Thank you that we get to celebrate Liberation Day on May 5th, marking the end of the occupation by Nazi Germany. The day that you fought for. You will never be forgotten.

I will forever be grateful.

My Guide to Tumblr

A guide to who i follow and who i think you should follow too

Assorted military blogs:

@enrique262 @historywars @historicaltimes @retrowar @m4a1-shermayne @gruene-teufel @pra-vda @apostlesofmercy @ultimate-world-war-ii @thebeautyandthehorror @bmashina @greasegunburgers @hanspanzer @ourforgottenwars  @militaryhistoryvisualized 

Military and Civilian Aviation:

@spectre-130 @fcba @flytofight @aviationgifs @thevickers @theworldairforce @beautifulwarbirds @full-afterburner @longislandairpower @fcbairways @usaac-official @i-like-props

Tanks:

@tanks-a-lot

Ships:

@lex-for-lexington @navyhistory @navalarchitecture @sixfrigates

Mainly Guns:

@peashooter85  @qsy-complains-a-lot @historicalfirearms

British history:

@britishimerialglory @bantarleton 

Imperial Japanese history:

@fujisan-ni-noboru-hinode

WW1:

@greatwar-1914 @thegreatwardaybyday @battleofverdunpodcast @today-in-wwi @justanotherww1 @jasta11 @guns-gas-trenches @meninroad @friedrich-barbarossa

Art:

@lamb-art @ttyto-alba @dale-art

Cool blogs:

@lee-enfeel @graf-spectre @elisabeth-brown @coffeeandspentbrass @a-40k-author @lacepantsu @uss-edsall @dieselfutures @steampunkvehicles  @vultures-over-cadia @kompanie-mutter @aber-flyingtiger @la-volpe-bianca @supermarketsecurity @trenchmints @girlintheshade @colonel-kurtz-official @fictional-sailor 


i think that’s all, so yeah i love all these blogs and i think you should follow them if you’re interested in those subjects, sorry if i missed anyone.

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America’s Forgotten Soldier, Heinrich Schwindler

At the age of 7, Heinrich Schwindler, a recent immigrant, ran away from home. With minimal command of the English language, he was having quite a hard time, but was taken under the wing of a ethnic German soldier in the US Army, serving in the 3rd US Infantry Regiment, and was soon integrated into the regiment as something of a mascot. He trained as a drummer boy, and that year headed to Mexico with the Regiment, where he earned a mention in dispatches for his nerves under even the heaviest fire. Army life suited him, and at the age of 16 he traded in his drum for a long arm, seeing some action against the Native American population in the west serving in New Mexico. (The Third American: The Life and Times of Heinrich Schwindler, by Albern Schwindler, 1972)

By the outbreak of the Civil War, he was a veteran sergeant, and the massive need for expansion of the Army meant that he was able to secure a commission as a Lt. in a unit of volunteers, serving with the 195th New York Volunteer Infantry. Composed of so many recent immigrants, his command of both English and German was seen as a major asset, and by the end of the war he was a brevet Colonel in command of the entire Regiment! Not bad for a young man still in his twenties! It of course didn’t hurt that he had an agile mind and was unflappable in battle. He always led from the front, and took any risk he expected of his men. He had the distinction of never seeing his men break in battle, and his greatest achievement was undoubtedly saving the entire Army of the Wabash when his Regiment - placed alone on the extreme right flank - repelled numerous attacks by superior Confederate forces. Had they broken, it is assured that the Union line would have been entirely rolled up, and the Battle of Mount Carmel would have been a crippling defeat to the American efforts in the theater (The Civil War: A Tale, Hands 1967).

With the end of the war, he lost his brevet, and but he had risen in Regular Army rank as well, and served as a Captain of Cavalry in the Plains Wars, fighting Sioux and Shawnee with the same pluck and panache he had shown against the Rebs (A. Schwindler) . His continued success meant that, at the age of 58, he was a Brigadier General by the time the Spanish-American War broke out, and while his rank and age precluded him from battle, his role in planning out the Battle of Frying Pan Hill simply can’t be overlooked, as it is a text book assault plan, and still taught at West Point as an example of small unit tactics successfully taking prepared positions despite being outnumbered (Atlas of American Military Tactics, Pasman de Croire, 1984).

Following the end of the fighting in Cuba, he was sent to the Philippines to help fight the continuing insurgency, but took temporary leave from there when he received orders to divert to China where he partook in the relief effort of the Peking Legation during the Boxer Rebellion. He returned to the Philippines, where he was stationed for two more years. and his work there really revolutionized American counter-insurgency doctrine. Finally in 1904, he retired at the age of 64. Settling in Columbus, New Mexico, as he had fallen in love with the state (then territory) while serving there as a young man in the 3rd US Regiment. As fate would have it, in 1916 he would be out hunting with his grandson in the wee hours of the morning when Pancho Villa and his men made a cross border raid on the town. He fired a warning shot, which alerted the town garrison who were able to rouse themselves and repel the attackers. It is thought that the raid would have been much more disastrous without Heinrich’s intervention. He and his grandson (Albern) of course had exposed themselves with the shot, but took up a strong position in a rocky outcropping, and fought of the band of Villistas who attempted to charge them. Heinrich, always humble, insisted it was a lone raider that they killed, but Albern always insisted it was at least a half dozen (A. Schwindler), and the Army’s after action report stated there were five bodies in the vicinity, and indication that 3 more were wounded and either escaped or were carried off by their comrades (The Columbus Report, Library of Congress collection F1234 .C33).

By the 1930s, Heinrich was starting to slow down in his old age, a man in his nineties after all! Albern, now an Army Captain himself, insisted that Heinrich move to be closer to him so that Albern’s wife could look after him, so Heinrich moved to Hawaii, where his grandson was stationed, and took up residence with his family there. Heinrich was there on Dec. 7th, 1941, and true to form, refused to cower in the basement, although he rushed - rather hobbled, he was, afterall, 101 - the rest of the family there. He grabbed his old .29-31 Winchester (The rifle was later donated to the National Firearms Museum, where it is now on display!), and stood in the middle of the street taking potshots at Japanese planes. I wish I could tell you he downed one, but odds are against it, and truth is, we simply can’t be sure (Answering the Call of Duty: Civilian Military Involvement in World War II, Ben Chichoski 2003). Nevertheless, he was certainly out there. He passed away peacefully in his sleep two years later, at the ripe old age of 103. One of the more decorated of Army officers ever, not to mention one with a span of combat experience from the 1850s to 1940s, he was buried with full honors at Arlington National Cemetery (Section 46 Lot 366-11 Grid O/P-22.5 if you ever care to pay your respects).