On 25 July, the Union of Polish Patriots, in a broadcast from Moscow, stated: “The Polish Army of Polish Patriots … calls on the thousands of brothers thirsting to fight, to smash the foe before he can recover from his defeat … Every Polish homestead must become a stronghold in the struggle against the invaders … Not a moment is to be lost.”
In shepherding a Judas Goat is a special goat picked to lead other goats to the slaughterhouse. Judas Goat’s have also been used to attract herds of feral goats for culling. During World War II a Judas Goat was a special bomber used to help wings of bombers, often from different airfields, to get into formation before flying towards a target. The planes employed to act as Judas Goat’s were mostly worn out bombers no longer suitable for combat. They were painted in bright colors with noticeable patterns such as zig zags, polka dots, or checker board patterns in order to be easily recognized by other bombers. Once the fleet of bombers was in proper formation, the Judas Goat would return home, leaving the rest of the bombers to complete the bombing run.
If we take the generally accepted definition of bravery as a quality which knows not fear, I have never seen a brave man. All men are frightened. The more intelligence they are, the more they are frightened.
George S. Patton, an American general during World War II, c. 1945
Being able to make accurate weather predictions is important for modern warfare. During World War II, Germany set up a number of weather stations throughout the arctic, even clandestinely setting up an unmanned station as far as the Canadian Arctic. On the 9th of September of 1944 eleven German soldiers arrived by submarine at Svalbard, a remote chain of islands a short distance from the North Pole.
Called Operation Haudegen, the men set up a weather station and sent daily weather reports to Germany. For a year the man of Operation Haudegen were forced to bear loneliness, harsh arctic weather, 23 hours a day of daylight or 23 hours a day of night depending on the season, and boredom. As the war raged in Europe and the Third Reich collapsed, they became more isolated as they were forgotten by the German government. Finally on September 4th, 1945, they were rescued by a crew of Norwegian fishermen, four months after the German surrender. They became known as they last German soldiers to surrender after World War II.
The following photos are from the archives of Lt. Dr. William Dege, commander of the Haudegen expedition. He is the man with the beard and glasses.