world factbook

10

Actually…

European Mexicans are Mexican citizens of European descent.[10] Despite that Mexico does not have a racial census, estimations from different international organizations regarding the number of this ethnic group within the country’s population range from 9% according to The World Factbook, to as high as 10-20% (approximately one-tenth to one-fifth) according to Encyclopædia Britannica.[5][6] Another group in Mexico, the “mestizos”, also include people with varying amounts of European ancestry, with some having a European admixture higher than 90%.[11] Although must be considered that the criteria to define mestizo might be different from study to study, and that in Mexico a good number of white people has been historically classified as mestizos, because the Mexican government defines ethnicy on cultural standards as opposed to racial ones.[12]

Important because…

Europeans began arriving to Mexico with the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, with the descendants of the conquistadors, along with new arrivals from Spain formed an elite but never a majority of the population. Intermixing would produce a mestizo group which would become the majority by the time of Independence, but power remained firmly in the hands of the elite, called “criollo.”[10]

Criollo resentment to the privileges afforded the Spain-born or peninsulares was part of the reason behind the Mexican War of Independence. When the war ended in 1821, the new Mexican government expelled the peninsulares in the 1820s and 1830s. However, Independence did not do away with economic and social privilege based on race as the Criollos took over those of Spanish birth. A division between “Spanish” and “indigenous” remained despite a majority mestizo or mixed-race population. However, biological features were often not enough to distinguish between the two in many cases and some mixing occurred even in the upper classes. The main distinction between criollos and mestizos became money and social class and less about biological differences. The Criollos distinguished themselves from the rest of society as the guardians of Spanish culture as well as the Catholic religion.[20]

Complicating the situation is the relationship between the European, and the mestizo population. Racial and ethnic identification is strongly associated with Mexico’s history, with descent more of a determining factor than biological traits.[10][15] Since the Mexican Revolution, the official identity promoted has been mestizo or a mix of European and indigenous, which has affected social and political policy in the country. However, these policies contradict internally and between theory and reality, with European characteristics remaining in favor to this day.[10] Since 1930, the Mexican governmenthas not included race as part of its census due to an ideology designed to stop making designations among “Mexicans”.[10] Today, there are no official counts, but unofficial estimates put the white population at about nine or ten percent.[5][10] In one survey based on self-identification, percentages of whites varied from six to 20 percent depending on when one considered biology, customs and/or origins.[22] However, due the emphasis put in the mestizo identity and culture (which was installed to eliminate divisions and create a unified identity that would allow Mexico to modernize and integrate into the international community)[15] a large part of persons biologically white are classified as mestizos by the specialists in the subject, for living in a country with dominant mestizo culture.[12]

Islam dan Minoritas

Di Australia, Islam adalah agama minoritas, hanya 2.2% dari jumlah populasi penduduknya. Maka tidak heran mencari tempat ibadah, menemukan makanan halal, dan mendapati kegiatan-kegiatan keagamaan tidak semudah di negara mayoritas berpenduduk Muslim seperti di Indonesia. Tetapi, meskipun minoritas, di sini hak-hak kami sangat dihargai. Pemerintah dan masyarakat Australia pada umumnya menghormati kebebasan kami dalam menjalankan ibadah dan hal-hal lainnya yang berhubungan dengan prinsip keyakinan kami. Meskipun memang ada beberapa orang atau kelompok yang bersikap anti-Islam, jumlahnya sangat sedikit sekali.

Di seluruh dunia, umat Islam juga bukan umat mayoritas. Islam adalah agama terbesar kedua. Menurut The World Factbook 2015, jumlahnya hanya 23.20% saja. Maka bayangkan berapa banyak umat muslim di seluruh dunia yang menjadi minoritas di negara tempat tinggalnya? Tentu saja, kita berharap agar mereka diperlakukan baik dan dijamin hak-haknya dalam menjalankan ibadah oleh pemerintah dan masyarakat di mana mereka tinggal. Kita akan ikut tersakiti jika mereka ditekan, dikekang, apalagi dilukai, kan?

Umat Muslim yang tinggal di Indonesia harus bersyukur karena Islam adalah agama mayoritas. Menurut sumber data yang beragam, jumlahnya sekitar 85.20% - 88.40%. Bagi umat Islam di Indonesia, pengalaman menjadi minoritas mungkin tidak terasa. Semua relatif serba mudah: Menemukan tempat ibadah, mendapatkan makanan halal, dan berbagai akses lain kepada kegiatan-kegiatan keagamaan. Sayangnya, kemudahan-kemudahan itu kadang-kadang membuat umat Muslim Indonesia kurang peka pada umat minoritas di sekelilingnya. Meski sedikit jumlahnya, beberapa kelompok yang kurang menghargai minoritas, bahkan cenderung melukai dan memusuhinya, perlu diingatkan juga: Bahwa kalau mereka yang jadi minoritas, mereka juga pasti ingin dihargai hak-haknya dalam menjalankan agama dan keyakinannya.

Suatu hari saya mengobrol dengan seorang Professor di kampus saya di Monash University, namanya Peter Lentini. Menurutnya, umat Islam Indonesia adalah salah satu contoh terbaik di dunia dalam hal menghormati keberagaman—menghormati umat lain. Sebenarnya hanya sedikit kelompok yang ‘keras’ dan tidak toleran, tetapi jika kelompok-kelompok seperti itu terus dibiarkan lama-lama akan mencoreng wajah Islam Indonesia yang sesungguhnya.

“Menurut Anda, memangnya bagaimana sih wajah Islam Indonesia itu?” Tanya saya. Penasaran.

“Islam yang ramah,” katanya.

Saya tersenyum mendengarnya.

“Seramah senyum itu.” Katanya sambil menunjuk senyum di wajah saya.

Belakangan saya mengetahui Pete juga merupakan seorang Muslim. Menurutnya, salah satu alasan mengapa ia memutuskan untuk memeluk agama Islam adalah karena agama ini sangat menghargai umat agama lain. Agama yang karena percaya bahwa dirinya merupakan agama yang paling benar, yang rahmat bagi semesta alam, maka ia memberi contoh kepada agama-agama lainnya.

Akhirnya, Islam itu sempurna, tetapi umatnya belum tentu sempurna. Semoga kita termasuk orang-orang yang senantiasa berusaha menjaga kesempurnaan Islam—dengan berupaya memasuki Islam secara sempurna dan menjadi sebaik-baik manusia. Siapakah sebaik-baik manusia? Kata Baginda Nabi: Yang memberi manfaat-kebaikan bagi manusia lainnya.


Melbourne, 10 April 2015

FAHD PAHDEPIE

*Foto: Suasana shalat Jumat hari ini di Sport Center Monash University, Clayton Campus.

anonymous asked:

You neglected to mention the reversal as Rhodesia became Zimbabwe. The whites were threatened, and killed, and pushed out of the land they had come to know as home. Such a compassionate man Mugabe is, hey? I am very much for equal rights, but this recent tragedy has unfortunately brought to light the weaknesses of Rhodesia without also mentioning the horrors of Mugabe's Zimbabwe.

Somebody asked me why that piece of garbage was wearing a Rhodesian flag badge, so I explained what Rhodesia was and I mentioned in passing that Rhodesia is present-day Zimbabwe. I wasn’t asked for the CIA World Factbook’s briefing on present-day Zimbabwe. I certainly didn’t mention Robert Mugabe, and if I had I definitely wouldn’t have called him compassionate. 

When I’m talking about a bad white man, I don’t immediately have to mention a bad black man in order to make you feel comfortable or keep from offsetting your perception of racial balance in the world.