world bank funds

Investing in Women and Girls is Investing in Our Future

In partnership with San Diego State University Graduate School of Public Health, Tumblr is hosting Scholars of Change, an op-ed series dedicated to featuring the voices of academic experts on the issues most impacting our communities. Today, we have Dr. Elizabeth Reed here to talk about the importance of investing in women and girls for the future.

Women and girls experience substantial economic, social, and health burdens due to being born a girl. Worldwide, women and girls receive fewer opportunities than males for education, employment, and political leadership.

In some places, women do not have access to banking or financial services, and are not allowed to own property. Globally, women are more likely to live in poverty and earn less than men for the same work. For example, in Bangladesh, women earn 12 cents for every dollar earned by men; women earn 62 cents per dollar of men’s income in Germany and 79 cents per dollar of men’s income in the US. 

Women and girls are also often deprived of their freedom of choice. Many women and girls have limited control over decisions related to marriage, sex, family planning, and their own health care. Additionally, 35% of females worldwide experience physical or sexual partner violence or non-partner rape. In multiple countries, up to 75% of females experience such violence. 

Other forms of violence include child marriage, honor killings, and sex trafficking. As a result of these deprivations of opportunity and freedom of choice, women and girls suffer from a number of poor health outcomes including malnutrition, mental health concerns, infectious diseases (e.g. HIV, other sexually transmitted infections), chronic health issues (e.g. cancers, asthma), unplanned pregnancy, and conditions such as fistula (caused by pregnancy complications). 

In addition, globally, 830 women and girls die every day from maternal mortality, yet almost all of these deaths are preventable with resources invested to ensure all women and girls have access to adequate medical care prior to and during delivery.

Altogether, it is a mistake to ignore these economic, social, and health burdens on women and girls. In places where there is more equity between males and females, we see the benefits on everyone in the community. Supporting human potential, progress, and health will require a future where the world invests fully in women and girls.

Want to take action?  Here are some organizations that support women and girls:

Global Giving

International Center for Research on Women

Women’s Empowerment International

World Pulse

- Elizabeth Reed 

Read more about Dr. Reed here.

The views and opinions expressed in this post are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of Tumblr.

References

United Nations Women. (2015). Progress of the World’s Women 2015-2016.

World Bank. (2012). World Development Indicators 2012: World Bank Publications.

UNICEF Development Fund. (2010). The World’s Women…: Trends and Statistics: United Nations.

Garcia-Moreno, Claudia et al. (2006). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. The Lancet, 368(9543):1260 – 1269.

World Health Organization (2016). 

For instance, the World Bank is essentially an American instrument, and the United States is a food-surplus nation threatened with loss of foreign markets for farm products as modernization of European agriculture proceeds. For the World Bank to finance such institutional reforms in developing nations as would lead them toward self-sufficiency on food account would run counter to American interests. U.S. farm surpluses would become unmanageable as the overseas market for U.S. farm products dwindled. Hence, the World Bank prefers perpetuation of world poverty to the development of adequate overseas capacity to feed the peoples of developing countries.

There is a yet more subtle point to be considered. Mineral resources represent diminishing assets. It is in the interest of developing peoples to conserve such assets for their own ultimate use in manufacturing industries, as these develop within the borders of nations rich in raw materials but backward in general development. In the short run such domestic use of mineral resources is not possible because of inadequate industrial capital and consumer markets place. The specter is thus raised that in the long run these countries will find themselves depleted of resources as World Bank programs accelerate the exploitation of their mineral deposits for use by other nations.

The long-term prospect is thus for these countries to be unable to earn foreign exchange on export account sufficient to finance their required food imports. The World Bank has foreseen this. Its proposals for population limitation in these countries is a cold-blooded attempt to extort from them their mineral resources, without assuming responsibility for the sustenance of these peoples once the industrialized West has stripped them of their fuel and mineral deposits.

Consider the alternative, that World Bank loans and technical assistance foster agricultural self-sufficiency among these peoples. Assume substantial success in this endeavor in, say, a decade. Thereafter, exportation of fuels and minerals would become a matter of choice by these peoples, not a necessity. Such export might continue at current levels; it might increase, or it might diminish. The decision to conserve or to dissipate exhaustible resources would be autonomous, a matter of choice by these peoples and their governments, not something imposed upon them from outside. The decision about desirable levels of population also would be a local matter, not something demanded among the terms on which capital resources are obtained from foreign suppliers. The peoples now dependent would escape that trap. This is not intended or desired either by the World Bank or by the government of the United States and its client regimes….

Excessive industrialization in the United States, coupled with increasingly wasteful uses of resources on armaments and on personal luxuries that are essentially trivial in terms of human well-being, makes essential the U.S. exploitation of the developing countries, their resources and peoples. The United States is in deficit on raw-materials account, but is unwilling to limit its industrial expansion correspondingly. It is in surplus on farm products account, but is unwilling to limit its agriculture accordingly. The peoples of developing countries therefore are to be turned into the instrument through which the otherwise untenable U.S. economic process is perpetuated.

— 

Michael Hudson, Super-Imperialism

jp morgan fired him for writing this stuff in the early 70s

literallyizik-deactivated201609  asked:

Why do people dislike globalisation if it allows humans to exchange ideas and pushes the market, like an anarchist idea could reach other countries?

As Noam Chomsky stated in 2002: The term “globalization” has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental. That is why the business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the “free trade agreements” as “free investment agreements” (Wall St. Journal). Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as “anti-globalization”; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule. 

No sane person is opposed to globalization, that is, international integration. Surely not the left and the workers movements, which were founded on the principle of international solidarity—that is, globalization in a form that attends to the rights of people, not private power systems.

On the contrary, Neoliberal globalization conceives of the market and private capital as the main drivers for the “restructuring of economic, political and life” (this view is commonly associated with the economic principles espoused by former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her US counterpart Ronald Reagan).

Marx, in his 1867 work “Capital: Critique of Political Economy”, raised the idea of the fallibility of fetishism, including an “attribution of magical powers to the ‘global market’ as the Chief Good of all human action”. This theme became present to the so called ‘anti-globalization’ activists for the concerns regarding the inequity and commodification apparently necessary for the capitalist system to thrive.

After a decade of TINA (There is No Alternative) indoctrination, a momentous backlash emerged in the 1990s. Activists representing global civil society began to protest, with the intent to expose the internal conflicts and failures within a system that allowed the propagation of global stratification. This principally entailed targeting “large multinational corporations and the governments and international institutions at the service of those corporations’ interests”. Drawing global attention to the inequalities existing between the “core and periphery” of the global order, alter-globalization began to articulate visions for a more democratic future.

Organized and gathered around The World Social Forum (in the form of transnational protest summits and international democratic meetings), activists offered a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization, a strategy for revolutionary social transformation extracted to create counter-hegemony. 

The unprecedented changes in the global economy - what some commentators have defined as “turbo-capitalism” (Edward Luttwak), “market fundamentalism” (George Soros), “casino capitalism” (Susan Strange), and as “McWorld” (Benjamin Barber) - have been catalysts of a fundamental protest movement in Seattle in 1999. The mobilization on November 30, 1999, known as The battle of Seattle, when the World Trade Organization (WTO) convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in the State of Washington, helped define and put together the modern alter-globalization movement.

Activists were convinced that the WTO would be used by transnational corporate influencers as a forum in which to advance the global corporate agenda to the detriment of worldwide civil society and especially the interests of third-world countries. According to Ronnie Hall, trade campaigner at Friends of the Earth International, “The WTO seems to be on a crusade to increase private profit at the expense of all other considerations, including the well-being and quality of life of the mass of the world’s people.”

Since then, counter-globalization activists call for forms of global integration that better provide democratic representation, advancement of human rights, decentralization and sustainable development and therefore feel the term “anti-globalization” is misleading. Hence the more precise definition of ‘Alter Globalization’ or New Global movement.

What is shared is that participants oppose what they see as large, multi-national corporations having unregulated political power, exercised through trade agreements and deregulated financial markets. Specifically, corporations are accused of seeking to maximize profit at the expense of work safety conditions and standards, labor hiring and compensation standards, environmental conservation principles, and the integrity of national legislative authority, independence and sovereignty. 

The Porto Alegre Manifesto is a proposal for social change produced at the 2005 World Social Forum. It outlines “twelve proposals, which its authors believe, together, give sense and direction to the construction of another, different world.“ The signatures of the manifesto (so-called “Group of Nineteen”); signatories are Aminata Traoré, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Eduardo Galeano, José Saramago, François Houtart, Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Armand Mattelart, Roberto Savio, Riccardo Petrella, Ignacio Ramonet, Bernard Cassen, Samir Amin, Atilio Boron, Samuel Ruiz Garcia, Tariq Ali, Frei Betto, Emir Sader, Walden Bello, and Immanuel Wallerstein.

Economic measures are: 

  • 1. Debt cancellation for southern countries. 
  • 2. Implement international tax on financial transactions, i.e., Tobin tax. 
  • 3. Dismantle all tax havens and corporate havens (described as “paradises”). 
  • 4. Universal right to employment, social protection and pensions. 
  • 5. Promote fair trade and reject all free trade agreements and World Trade Organization laws, emphasizing the importance of education, health, social services and cultural rights over commercial rights. 
  • 6. Guarantee of food security to all countries by promoting rural, peasant agriculture. 
  • 7. Outlaw patenting of knowledge on living things and privatization of “common goods for humanity”, i.e., water. 

Peace and justice:

  • 8. Use public policies to fight discrimination, sexism, xenophobia, antisemitism and racism and fully recognize the political, cultural and economic rights of indigenous peoples. 
  • 9. Take steps to end environmental destruction and the greenhouse effect using alternative development models. 
  • 10. Dismantle all foreign military bases and the removal of troops from all countries except those under the explicit mandate of the United Nations. 

Democracy:

  • 11. Guarantee the right to information and the right to inform through legislation that would end concentration of media ownership, guarantee the autonomy of journalists, and favor alternative media. 
  • 12. Reform international institutions based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and incorporate the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and WTO into the United Nations.

Two events must be highlighted since the turn of the century to provide historical context to alter-globalization’s current political challenge.
Despite significant moments occurred in the 1990s have provided a foundation for the movement’s rise, two events in particular severely altered the movement’s direction.

The first is the summit of the heads of government of the 8 major industrialized countries, held in Genoa on Friday, July 20 to Sunday July 22. In the earlier days, the anti-globalization movements and peace associations gave rise to demonstrations of dissent, followed by serious riots, with clashes between police and protesters. The police charges were as violent as unjustified, coming to a nocturne assault against the innocent hosted in school Diaz; the activists were massacred without mercy. Other protesters were abused and beaten in the barracks of Bolzaneto, just outside Genoa. The death of 22 years old autonomist Carlo Giuliani, which was shot in the head by italian police, was a point of no return for the movement. 
What Amnesty International called “the most serious suspension of democratic rights in a Western country since the Second World War”, was nothing more than the most ferocious face of global capitalism, which approached Genoa with the clear intention to destroy once for all a movement always more dangerous for its continuous growth.

The latter is the historical breakdown of neo-imperial coercion in the years following September 11, 2001. The assault to confidence globally in the prosperity of the neo-liberalist world consequent of ‘9/11’ appeared to provide apposite timing for activists who fought against this hegemony, supporting the creation of the World Social Forum (WSF) in 2001. However, the global atmosphere of uncertainty in the aftermath of September 11 allowed labels of terrorism and disloyalty to be ascribed to such activists. This significantly undermined the legitimacy of the demands of anti-globalization. 

Moreover, the Global Justice Movement has experienced shortcomings in mounting a challenge to the dominant ranks of the international political, social and economic world order. Above all it was the lack of a common interpretation of the movement’s objectives that hindered its search for an alternative hegemonic ideology resulting in the absence of a centralizing element to unify disparate voices. 

Although the life of the Social Forum has continued until 2013, many activists spread out in other movements such as those against austerity in Europe and finance in the US (Occupy Wall Street).

The renewed feeling of urgency ensuing the 2008 ‘Global Financial Crisis’ (GFC) sparked attention towards finding a ‘humane heir’ to neoliberal globalization. This crisis, as it was predicted to “consume the real economy of jobs and welfare,” was argued to be an opportunity for social movement to get their foot in the door. However, while the dominant global arrangements fell into crisis, the failure to conceive a rapid and popular alternative, the sudden state support to the banks, the splitting of the working class and the triumph of media propaganda, resulted in an elitist reaction retaining its dominance, which was favorable to capital becoming dominant in the aftermath of the Global Crisis.

Nevertheless the hegemony that the alter-globalization movement contended (the existing dominance of the dismantling of the welfare state and privatization introduced by Reagan and Thatcher) is tied to the struggle against the financial austerity measures within the current Global Financial Crisis, that have caused ubiquitous inequities to pervade the global structure. 
In this sense you have to consider the movement which opposes capitalist globalization, and favor an alternative form of globalization based on new values, not as finished but as constantly able to upgrade and reappear according to new global challenges.

Another World Is Possible!

"Always believe in yourself."

Souraya Hassan, Social Policy Specialist, UNICEF Burundi

Tell us a bit about your background

I was born in a small town in Djibouti, near the border with Ethiopia. I was born into a family of 5: 4 girls and 1 boy. I was lucky to grow up in a family with caring parents who gave equal opportunities to all of us without any distinction, with - I must confess! - a particular encouragement to us girls to develop confidence and pursue long studies. From the age of 18 I traveled abroad to France to do my higher education for almost 8 years. That long stay opened my eyes to the world. Just after that I joined my university of Djibouti, determined to contribute to the development of my country via education, the most valuable channel in my point of view. I stayed there 11 years in order to serve my compatriots before joining UNICEF.

Keep reading

The Lazarus Timeline (Part 1)

As has been noted elsewhere, the first LAZARUS TPB did not contain the backmatter that was included in the four issues the volume collected. This was due to price concerns more than anything else; we want the initial trades, in each volume, to be as cheap as feasible.

Eventually, when the book has progressed enough to justify it, Michael and I want to release a hardcover edition that will include bells and whistles a-plenty, including the supplemental material of the backmatter, as well as other things.

For now, though, I’ve been threatening to repost the timeline that ran in issues 2 through 4. I’m making good on the threat.

X -45 Malcolm Carlyle born, Seattle WA

X -24 Malcolm Carlyle graduates from Harvard w/ Degree in Econometrics

X -21.5 Malcolm Carlyle earns doctorate at M.I.T. w/ Degree in Economics & Urban Studies and Planning

X -19 Malcolm Carlyle begins post-doc sturdies at London School of Econimics & Political Science in Mathematics & Economics

X -18 Malcolm Carlyle meets/courts Abigail Beckett.

X -16 Malcolm Carlyle and Abigail Beckett marry. Malcolm completes post-doctorate work.

X -13 Malcolm Carlyle forms Carlyle Capital Investment, specializing in commodities and debt purchase/resale.

X -12 CCI posts $2.2 billion dollars (US) in profit.

X -11 Malcolm Carlyle authors Natural Selection: Morality in Business During Economic Contraction. The book is hailed as “visionary” and “groundbreaking” by many in the financial industry, though some scholars claim it paints a “grim, predatory portrait of our economic future.”

X -10 Carlyle is rumored to write a private document, called “The Benevolence Memorandum.” He denies it publicly, but speculation persists in the fringe and mass media.

X -10 CCI completes purchase of Monsanto, rebranding it as the Carlyle Future Foundation.

X -7 Stephen Donovan Carlyle born to Malcolm and Abigail (London).

X -6Natural Selection becomes required reading at Harvard.

X -4 Bethany Elizabeth Carlyle born to Malcolm and Abigail (Zurich).

X -4 Carlyle Future Foundation and related subsidiaries are recruited as consultants in various economically troubled nations. With agricultural and financial investments from CFF, the Greek government enacts legislation which effectively privatized (under Carlyle management) the Greek economy. Within 6 months, Portugal follows suit. Despite concern from the U.N. and many world governments, Greek and Portuguese economies show signs of stabilization.

X -3 Hoping to benefit from CFF investment, several nations and nation-states throughout Africa and Central America seek economic assistance. CFF begins widespread relief programs.

X -3 Carlyle and Bittner-SBC engage in armed conflict (through military proxies) in Indonesia. SABR Solutions, Inc., retained by CFF, defeat government forces backed by Bittner-SBC.

X -1 The downturn of the Chinese economy causes panic in global markets. In response, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other global financial organizations (both public and private) grant unprecedented controls to numerous independent firms, including Carlyle, Inamura, Bittner-SBC, Morray, Hock and D'Souza holdings.

X -1 Unrest across Asia and Europe, accompanied by protests throughout North and South America, follows market declines and continued devaluation of currency in the face of record inflation. These incidences turn violent when Roman Bittner is recorded using the word “waste” to describe those suffering financial “inconvenience.” Social media, used in the face of corporate news blackout, reports facts as well as wildly inaccurate rumors. “Waste” becomes a rallying cry to the disenfranchised, who turn out to protest in record numbers.

Widespread rioting occurs in Paris, Hamburg, London, Odessa, Sao Paolo, Caracas, Montreal, Toronto, Portland OR, New York, and other cities. These riots last for weeks in some instances. Final death toll is estimated at 3.9 million globally. Due to the widespread nature of the uprising, a damage assessment will not be presented for another four years.

Year X The heads of the sixteen most financially powerful Families from around the globe gather in Macao to establish rules which will solidify their holdings and help avoid “unfortunate overlap” like the brief conflict in Indonesia. These negotiations result in the “Macao Accords,” effectively marking the end of government control.

The 16 Families declare Year X to “commemorate our world’s fresh start, and to put the ghosts of failed government in the past.”

Year X Malcolm Carlyle relocates his family, in secret, to a private estate on the Puget Sound, nicknamed “The Center” by CFF upper management.

Year X Malcolm Carlyle forms limited partnership with Jakob Hock, re-energizing the long-believed dormant CFF project, “The Longevity Group.” CFF advances in stem and iPS cell therapies combine with Hock’s bleeding-edge pharmaceuticals to produce immediate healthcare benefits within only a few months.

Before the end of the year, Malcolm Carlyle establishes a “special initiative” headed by Doctor James Mann, called “Project: Lazarus.”

YANGON, MYANMAR - The Shangri-La hotel in downtown Yangon is ostentatiously luxurious. From a buffet with every world dish imaginable to the well-stockedperiod bar, the 5-star hotel is an oasis of affluence amidst the povertyoutside its shiny exterior.

But it is actually part of bringing the people sleeping rough with their children on the streets of Yangon out of poverty, according to the World Bank. With an $80m investment (through a loan and equity stake) the International Finance Corporation (IFC), one of the five arms of the World Bank, is a key player in the Shangri-La.

Keep reading