wooden tablets

When the Romans ate pepper at the Hadrian Wall

the photographs are of the Vindolanda wooden tablets at the British Museum which I took in 2013. these are about 6 inches long by about 4 tall, roughly the size of a modern postcard. These were used as letters - you write the letter on one side and then bend it over and fold it, and on the top, write the address. They were also used for lists, orders, memos, etc.

Vindolanda was a Roman Fort erected around 80AD on the frontier between Scotland and England, along the lines of where Hadrian’s wall will come up 30 years later. The Roman Soldiers here were from all corners of the Roman Empire. To learn more about this, click on this link.


These wooden tablets were found in a waterlogged rubbish heap, dating to somewhere around 100AD. And the link given below refers to the tablet 184. It is a damaged tablet, with lists of commodities and names, maybe the names of soldiers who purchased various commodities ranging from towels to footwear to tallow. And in one very interesting case, pepper.

This is what came as such a huge surprise. You now have clear and incontrovertible evidence that the Roman Army and Roman State had such giant and long supply lines ranging from pretty much one end of the known earth to the end of the other side of the Earth. India was known as a dim outpost but there was huge amount of trading which was carried out between Rome and India, more posts on this later.

And here we are, in the misty cold wet rainy frontier land, where you had Iberians and Syrians, Egyptians and Gauls, Germans and Greek and other auxiliary troops. Soldiers who would like to eat peppered meals. What an amazing journey the spices would have made, from the deep countryside of the Malabar area across the Indian Ocean to Eastern Egypt, across the desert to the Nile, down the Nile to Alexandria. And then by ship to the mouth of the Tiber into Rome where the remnants of the spice warehouses still exist. And from these warehouses, spices would then get distributed out to all the provinces, including to the Vindolanda fort in the most distant part of the Roman Empire. What a journey. What an image. What did they cook back then? well, for that you have to wait for another post.


Neskhons (“She Belongs to Khons”), once more commonly known as “Nsikhonsou”, was a noble lady of the 21st dynasty of Egypt.

She was the daughter of Smendes II and Takhentdjehuti, and wed her paternal uncle, High Priest Pinedjem II, by whom she had four children: two sons, Tjanefer and Masaharta, and two daughters, Itawy and Nesitanebetashru. These are named on a decree written on a wooden tablet, which was placed in her tomb in order to ensure her well-being in the afterlife and to prevent her doing harm to her husband and children. This suggests family problems around the time of her death.

She predeceased her husband and her mummy was placed with that of Pinedjem II in Tomb DB320 in the Theban Necropolis, in which it was rediscovered in 1881. She was buried in the 5th regnal year of Siamun in coffins that were originally made for Pinedjem’s sister and first wife Isetemkheb.

Neskhons’s mummy was partially unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on 27 June 1886; twenty years later, G. Elliot Smith removed the remainder of the wrappings. Neskhons did not have any gray hairs, so it is likely that she died young; according to Smith, she was either pregnant or giving birth at her death. The gold decoration of her coffin has been stolen in antiquity; her heart scarab was stolen by the Abd-el-Rassul family of grave robbers, but has been recovered and taken to the British Museum.

Wikipedia | http://facebook.com/EgyptianPast

Jolly Cafe

For @cinnamonduckling​ who thinks this is a fic where everyone dies and suffers and I make her cry, but no, it’s a fluffy and cute fic and I promise you Sofia, you will love it. 

Many thanks to @killiancygnus​ and @swanandapirate​ who helped with the story and were my betas. 

Based on this: 

“Omg I just went to get a latte from my regular coffee shop and I always have the same guy serving me and I must bug him so much as I would always ask for almond milk (I’m lactose intolerant) but they would just have lacto free so I could tell the difference in the milk and asked if they started serving almond milk and the guy just shyly said “well you always ask if we have it so I got it specially for you” this GUY BOUGHT THE MILK WITH HIS OWN MONEY I FEEL SO PREVILEDGED RIGHT NOW”


Words: 3220





And I would appreciate if you would let me know what you think, since this is the first fic I wrote after a few (five I think?) months.


The first time Emma Swan stepped into Jolly’s Cafe, she was stunned by the nautical theme that was all around. The walls were covered by old maps, anchors, pictures of the sea and different ships, wooden tablets decorated with ship’s wheels and even a replica of a ship on a wall. She fell in love with the place, not just because of the way it looked but also because it was near the beach (which Emma thought was part of the reason why everything was so… nautical) and their drinks were better than Starbucks or even Granny’s.  Another important thing that made Emma go back to the coffee shop, was the presence of the two brothers that worked there: Liam Jones, who was the owner of the shop which she found out thanks to Elsa and Killian Jones, Liam’s brother which found out about that thanks to his big mouth.

Elsa was the one who discovered Jolly’s Cafe and started to develop a crush on the owner since her first time there. Starting from the second time she went there, Elsa took Emma with her both for support and because she wanted to have her best friend there with her to talk about “the hot owner of the place”. Secretly, Elsa hoped that Emma would see something in the “even hotter brother of the owner’s business” (Emma’s words, not hers) too, but since Emma was very good at spotting a lie, and Elsa a really bad liar, Emma found out very soon what Elsa’s real intentions were.

“I’m not going to fall in love with him as soon as I lay eyes on him, Elsa. That’s you, not me,” Emma told her friend.

“But he’s hot,” Elsa whispered to her.

“And I thought you had a thing for his brother,” Emma added hoping that Elsa would stop.

“I do, but I also have eyes, Emma.”

“Still not going to happen. So stop.”

The two began to go to Jolly’s daily, sometimes even twice a day, when they had their breaks, but Killian Jones mostly stayed out of their discussions.

Emma rarely asked for something that wasn’t a normal coffee, a hot chocolate in the morning or an iced tea in the afternoon so when she asked for a latte one morning, she should’ve expected to see a look of surprise on Killian’s face. And yet, she did not.

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Rongorongo Tablets from Easter Island

No one knows the meaning of the symbols carved into these 25 ancient wooden tablets found on Easter Island. The pictographs seem to be arranged in patterns, such as a genetic code, calendar, or incantation.

Carved Wooden Gope Board

Gope boards are carved wooden tablets made by groups in the Gulf of Papua. They represent ancestral spirits who protect members of the clan from bad luck, sickness, and death. This particular board from the museum’s hidden collection is from Morigio Island. The photographic scale in the image is about 8 inches long. It was photographed in the diagonal in order to best show the board’s details.

Deb Harding is a collection manager in Carnegie Museum of Natural History’s Section of Anthropology. She frequently blogs and shares pieces of the museum’s hidden anthropology collection, which is home to over 100,000 ethnological and historical specimens and 1.5 million archaeological artifacts.

Roman Tablet Recording the Sale of the Slave Girl Victoria, Dated 19th May,  274 AD

A wooden tabula with and handwritten ink text recording the sale of a ten-year-old slave girl; a rare and exceptional legal document, providing a fascinating insight into the functioning of Roman society and its economy. The contract follows standard Roman legal formulae.

Translated as “On May 19th, AD 274. Apertius Florus buys from Masuna, son of Masincthanis, the Egyptian-Garamantican girl ++MG/AM who lives at Auluemi Maior, who from now on is called Victoria, 10 years old, for 31 thousand denarii. (…) Masuna said that he received and has this sum from Apertius Florus. … He has (the girl?) on May 29th …”,

Roman Stylus and Ligula , 2nd-3rd Century AD

A tapering bronze round-section stylus with baluster and angled scraper; secured by a length of chain to an equal-arm cross plaque and a triangular hooked ligula.

A stylus was a metal pen used for scratching words into wax on wooden tablets. A ligula was an  instrument with a narrow cup-shaped scoop, which may have been used as a medical probe, an ear scoop or for picking up small quantities of ointment.




School Grade: 5th (10 years old)

This character was formerly written 檢, a combination of 木 wood and 僉 a Chinese-only character meaning whole/all. In compounds 僉 often lends connotations of things like combine, examine, discuss, etc. Here it means “examine,” which together with 木 (representing wooden tablets on which records were kept) gives “examine wooden records.” It ihas since come to mean “investigate” in a broad sense. In its current form 僉 has been simplified to 㑒.

Six Roman stili and a wooden stilus tablet, 1st-2nd century, London. At the British Museum, London.

The stili were used to write on wax-surfaced tablets, few of which have survived.
The letter on the wooden writing tablet has been translated:
‘Rufus, son of Callisunus, greetings to Epillicus and all his fellows. I believe you know that I am very well. If you have made the list, please send it. See that you do everything carefully so as to extract the last coin from that girl…’

just a quick drabble where blaine discovers just how much he loves taking care of sick!kurt (and coming to terms that he might be a bit of a pervert)

R, dubcon (kurt is kinda out of it and blaine’s having very unchaste thoughts)

thanks to kris for her help <3

“Honey? Where are you? Why aren’t you here?”

Blaine doesn’t fail to catch the whiny undertone in Kurt’s voice. “Coming,” he calls cheerfully, reaching for the small wooden tablet - stacked with a steaming pot of tea, lemon-flavored throat lozenges, and a tube of VapoRub.

He quickly heads back to their bedroom.

Kurt’s already waiting there for him, eyes and nose still looking red and puffy, and hair tousled and sticking to all sides of Kurt’s head. Of course, Blaine would never think about telling Kurt this, not when he feels so awful, but he thinks it’s utterly adorable.

“You were gone,” Kurt croaks out, sniffling a little. “You promised to stay.”

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