wooden steel

This is now OVER!

Our fragrance for Hancock will be called Isodoped, and one will be sent to @road-slime

The winner of Eternal Steel was chosen from a bowl of written out names, Hunger Games style. The odds were in @belleroo ‘s favor!

Perfumes/Colognes in Fallout 4 inspired fragrances, including our traditional oil roll-on style, our moisturizing mists for body and hair, and for the first time a traditional perfumer’s alcohol based parfum (spray).

Pictured: Fancy Lads Snack Cakes, Power Armor Grease & Testosterone ( @papidanse that one will be on its way to you tomorrow! I know you’ll dig it) Wooden Soldier, Eternal Steel (NEW!), Valentine Detective Agency, What’s the Angle Here…, and Nuka Cola (Cherry version is also available).

I have a PERFECT scent blended for Hancock! Here’s the thing - I don’t have a NAME for the Hancock one. HELP! Reblog this with your idea for a name for it; I’ll pick one of those, and that person will get a free roll-on of it. <3 (Description if you need inspiration: It’s all about his coat. A hint of grape mentats, a touch of gunpowder, and a pleasant blend of musk, patchouli, and amber (all sweetened with a bit of caramel) because damn, that’s an old coat.)


You all had great ideas, and I chose to go with the “obvious” Isodoped. It was a close race between that and Of The People, For The People,  and the first person who suggested that (Kat?) will get a certain bonus in their package if they decide to place an order. ^_^ I will contact the winner as soon as I finish posting this.

Shockingly, I don’t think too many have entered the contest to win a bottle of Eternal Steel. Again, just relog (or edit your prior reblog) to say you’re interested and your name will be included! I’ll be choosing tomorrow afternoon/evening, whenever the kids allow it.


I also want to give away a roll-on of Eternal Steel. It’s new and I have a lot of followers who love Maxson! (Again, inspired by his coat: Leather, cold steel, rich bourbon and vanilla tobacco, a touch of ozone from laser rifles; an interesting mix of warm and sharp notes. Quite masculine.) The rules: I don’t want this to go to someone who just wants a freebie, I want it to go to a FO fan, especially a Maxson one. So you have to be following me, and your blog has to have some obvious FO content. If you’re interested in this giveaway, just send me a comment! ^_^ It’ll be done Hunger Games style, names in a bowl.

Shop, which will be reopened soon: False Nostalgia Shiny Scents & Sundries

PS: yes, I’m working on more. Preston’s is going to be lovely.

traveler--3326  asked:

Hello! I'm not sure how much you know about the 1848-50 California gold rush, but as a native Californian, I've always been fascinated by the topic. My question is multifaceted. For one: how big would miners plots of land along the various rivers be, and would people actually live on the same plots that they mined for gold? Also, what would it be like for a young woman and/or young men and children in an area like this?

Hello there! Well, aren’t you in luck because we have the Archivist from @scriptlibrarian answering this one! The Archivist has also studied history and has got your back so just read on!

There is gold in them darn hills!

Quick history of the California Gold Rush.  In 1848, John Marshal found flecks of gold in the American River, just below the Sierra Nevadas, in Coloma California, while building a water powered sawmill for John Sutter.

Just days after he discovered the gold, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, ending the Mexican-American War, giving California to the United States and essentially the gold.

The discovery of Gold shaped California into the state is today.  California saw the largest migration influx in the history of the United States.  In 1848 there was roughly 157,000 people in California (150,000 Natives, 6,500 Spanish/Mexican, 700 American/Non-Native).  Within 20 months the Non-Native Population soared to 100,000 and by the mid 1850’s was past 300,000.  This massive population influx put California on fast track to Statehood, and with the Compromise of 1850 California was allowed into the Union, just two years after the land was acquired, as a Free State - leading a imbalance in Free vs Slave States.  

So now that we got background history established let’s look at your questions.

How big would miner’s plots of land along the various rivers be…

I admit, I dug around for this information and beyond going into deep dark storage and digging out (pun intended) my books from school … the best answer I could find is - depends.

Yeah I hate that also.

A miner would first have to  Staking a Claim, which involves first the discovery of a valuable mineral in quantities that a “prudent man” would invest time and expenses to recover them. Then mark the claim boundaries, with wooden posts, capped steel posts, both of which must be four feet tall, or stone cairns, which must be three feet tall. Then filing a claim with the land management agency (USFS or BLM), and the local county registrar.   

There are four types of Land Claims, a miner could make:

  • Placer (minerals free of the local bedrock, and deposited in benches or streams) - This would be your typical visual of Gold Miners.  Bent over a stream with a pan, looking for flexs or small nuggets of gold. 
  • Lode (minerals in place in the mother rock) - next stage up.  The Miner has a section off shoot of the river, and is breaking up the rocks looking for veins of gold.
  • Tunnel (a location for a proposed tunnel which claims all veins discovered during the driving of it) - This would be someone with enough capital to start mining operation looking for gold, and could hire workers.
  • Millsite (a maximum five acre site for processing ore) - This is a full on organization, that is mining not just gold, but other minerals as well.  Has a team of miners, and likely a full town surrounding it to supplement the miners.

So if your character would need to find the gold, stake out his claim, then register it.  Depending on how much gold found, expense to work the land, and fees for the register - would determine the size of his land claim.

Would your character live in the same spot as they mine?

Yes, they would have a camp with a tent and supplies near by, so they could work their claim dawn to dusk.  They did this for a variety of reasons:

Ease of access to the claim.  The last thing anyone wanted to do was hike in and out of the area, wasting precious time traveling when they could be mining.

Protecting their assets.  If they are away from their claim, someone could sneak in and mine the area, or re stake the claim stating it was abandoned.

Also, what would it be like for a young woman and/or young men and children in an area like this?

The Gold Rush was not really a place for children. It was a brutal work, and a very lonely existence.  Many men left their families behind in hopes of making it rich to bring back the gold to them.   

That doesn’t mean that there wasn’t women in the camps.  

At one point there was a call out to women to go to California, because there was a fear men would do ‘untold’ things without the calm and stable influence of a woman (not many headed the call).

There were wives that worked the claims with their husbands, and likely even a few who took over the claim after he died.  Though this was dangerous as she would be on her own, and had very little rights to the land.  

Most of the women seen in or around the camps were washers, cooks, those seeking out a living for their family.  These women came with their husbands, fathers, brothers and ended up making the money for the family to survive, while the men panned for gold.

By the 1850’s there were roughly 1000 women working in and around the mines, but they were still a small part of the population, and  by the 1860’s they were less than 19% of the population of California.

A good resource to look into the role women played in the Gold Rush would be They Saw the Elephant: Woman in the Gold Rush by JoAnn Levy.

Now as for young men, it would depend on what you mean by young men?  

There were many teenage boys out in the fields, either they came with their father or ran away from home. The Gold Rush was an opportunity to make it rich fast, and men from all walks of life, old and young found their way to California.

Children were less likely in the mines or panning for gold.  If the whole family was in the gold fields, the younger kids would be with mom, helping with cooking, washing, etc.  Older boys maybe 12ish would be with dad.  There are not many accounts, but it didn’t mean they weren’t there.  

William Tecumseh Sherman - the future Civil War General, worked in San Francisco during the Gold Rush as a banker, and had his two young sons with him during the time, while his wife and daughter stayed back East.  Now this was in the city and not the gold fields.  Women, kids and families were very common in San Francisco.

In contrast Ulysses S. Grant was in the Army at the time, stationed in the gold fields and had left his family behind.  This also led to him being discharged from the Army, because of his drinking problem, as he had never done well being away from his wife, Julia.

Irony both men would come together a decade later, a friendship that some say changed the world.  But that is another essay.

Some interesting facts about the Gold Rush that could be helpful.

  • The Gold Rush attracted immigrants from around the world, by 1850 more than 25 percent of California’s population had been born outside the United States. As the amount of available gold began to dwindle, miners increasingly fought one another for profits and anti-immigrant tensions soared. In 1850 California’s legislature passed a Foreign Miner’s tax, which levied a monthly fee of $20 on non-citizens, the equivalent of more than $500 in today’s money. That bill was eventually repealed, but was replaced with another in 1852 that expressly singled out Chinese miners, charging them $2 ($80 today) a month. Violence against foreign miners increased as well, and beatings, rapes and even murders became commonplace. However no ethnic group suffered more than California’s Native Americans. Before the Gold Rush, its native population numbered roughly 300,000. Within 20 years, more than 100,000 would be dead. Most died from disease or mining-related accidents, but more than 4,000 were murdered by enraged miners.
  • Early sections of San Francisco were built out of ships abandoned by prospectors. The Gold Rush conjures up images of thousands of “’49ers” heading west in wagons to strike it rich in California, but many of the first prospectors actually arrived by ship. Within months, San Francisco’s port was teeming with boats that had been abandoned after their passengers, and crew headed inland to hunt for gold. As the formerly tiny town began to boom, demand for lumber increased dramatically, and the ships were dismantled and sold as construction material. Hundreds of houses, banks, saloons, hotels, jails and other structures were built out of the abandoned ships, while others were used as landfill. Today, more than 150 years after the Gold Rush began, archeologists and preservations continue to find relics, sometimes even entire ships, beneath the streets of the City by the Bay.  Map of where ships can be found in San Francisco
  • Mining wasn’t cheap! Most of the men who flocked to northern California arrived with little more than the clothes on their backs. Once there, they needed to buy food and supplies, which San Francisco’s merchants were all too willing to provide for a cost. Stuck in a remote region, far from home, many prospectors coughed up most of their hard-earned money for the most basic supplies. At the height of the boom in 1849, prospectors could expect prices sure to cause sticker shock: A single egg could cost the equivalent of $25 in today’s money, coffee went for more than $100 per pound and replacing a pair of worn out boots could set you back more than $2,500.
  • The merchant’s made the money not the miners.  As the boom continued, more and more men got out of the gold-hunting business and began to open businesses catering to newly arrived prospectors. In fact, some of America’s greatest industrialists got their start in the Gold Rush. Philip Armour, who would later found a meatpacking empire in Chicago, made a fortune operating the sluices that controlled the flow of water into the rivers being mined. Before John Studebaker built one of America’s great automobile fortunes, he manufactured wheelbarrows for Gold Rush miners. And two entrepreneurial bankers named Henry Wells and William Fargo moved west to open an office in San Francisco, an enterprise that soon grew to become one of America’s premier banking institutions. One of the biggest mercantile success stories was that of Levi Strauss. A German-born tailor, Strauss arrived in San Francisco in 1850 with plans to open a store selling canvas tarps and wagon coverings to the miners. After hearing that sturdy work pants, ones that could withstand the punishing 16-hour days regularly put in by miners, were more in demand, he shifted gears, opening a store in downtown San Francisco that would eventually become a manufacturing empire, producing Levi’s denim jeans.
  • And to prove how fate is fickle - the man who’s name will always be associated with the California Gold Rush - John Sutter - died in poverty.  As news had spread about the discovery of gold on his property, within months, most of his workers had abandoned him to search for gold themselves, while thousands of other prospectors overran and destroyed much of his land and equipment. Faced with mounting debts, Sutter was forced to deed his land to one of his sons, who used it to create a new settlement called Sacramento. Sutter Sr. was furious—he had hoped the town would be named after him—but he had more pressing concerns. Nearly bankrupt, he began a decades-long campaign to have the U.S. government reimburse him for his financial losses, to no avail. While thousands became rich off his former land, a bitter Sutter retired to Pennsylvania and died.

I hope this information is helpful, and will give you some insight of the world during the California Gold Rush.

Some great sources to check out:

Women in the Gold Rush

Summary of Gold Mining Techniques

Articles on the Gold Rush

History Channel’s Gold Rush

Sweet Tears Pt. 2

Jungkook x Reader { Cat Hybrid Au! } (a)(f)(eventual smut)

Warnings: Mature themes, Language, Abuse, Violence

Who could have known that taking home a hybrid would change ones whole life? How could y/n have guessed he would affect her so much? All she wants to do is help, but she doesn’t even know if he’ll let her.  

Wordcount: 4k+ 

**Thank you so~ much for reading! I really hope you enjoy this chapter plus the rest to come. This chapter is definitely longer, and more calm, but it’ll speed up again soon. I hope to make all of my writing long, and entertaining for you. Please send me feedback and your thoughts, I would love to hear from all of you.



Previously: “I’m sorry, I’m so sorry.” Were the only words you were capable of saying, over and over again, softly without fault. It was like a lullaby to both you, and the boy who’s name you hadn’t even had time to ask. Him falling asleep to the sound of your voice, and you falling asleep to the rise and fall of his chest, ended the first night of many more to come.

His screams had stopped, but his hands still firmly clutched the covers. His face was dry of rain, but drenched with sweat and tears. You let your head fall lightly on his stomach, head still pounding as a dizzying nausea spread over you. Soft sobs and gasps for air left both of your mouths, chests shaking up and down in unison with every breath.

Waking up was harsh. Your neck had cramped up due to the position it had been in for, who knows how long. Your hair, and clothes, were damp, sticking to your skin in the most uncomfortable ways. Your legs had fallen asleep from the weight of your body being rested on them. Moving your ankles and toes cause little prickles to sting your skin, encouraging you reach down and rub your legs in an attempted to stop the feeling.

Getting up was a struggle, as you grabbed onto the bed post, using what strength you had left to pull yourself up. All your muscles were sore, and you started stretching in multiple ways, trying to get some relief. Looking around you at your surroundings in the midst of rubbing a knot in your neck, you realized you weren’t in your room, but one of your many guest rooms.

Confusion flooded your mind as you looked around. White and grey curtains draped from the top of a large window directly in front of you, the part down the middle of them revealing a dark and starless night. Tops of buildings, and the light of the city, filled what you could see.

Keep reading

I always forget how industrial chic my hospital is (no worries, allergy appointment) with like exposed wooden beams and steel bars everywhere and exposed piping. Like a steampunk wet dream but in a hospital.

Headcanon of the Day

All of the furniture in Byron’s house is made of metal. There are cushions, of course, but all of the supports are metal.   

It’s not an aesthetic decision. When someone asks why, he simply opens his wallet and hands them an old photograph. It features Roark (who couldn’t have been more than 4 at the time), his newly hatched Cranidos, and piles and piles of broken wooden furniture. Turns out Cranidoses don’t see any difference between the trees they headbutt to train and the wood that makes up a dining room table, for example. The pair got through two whole rooms before the destruction was halted. 

Homes: Former Potato Barns Converted By Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten
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Former Potato Barns Converted By Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten

Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten has transformed a pair of former barns in Amsterdam into residences that combine original features with nods to their industrial past.

The two neighbouring buildings are located in Amsterdam Noord – an upcoming neighbourhood to the north of the IJ river.

Eindhoven-based Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten was asked to create two modern homes – including one for photographers Maurice Scheltens and Liesbeth Abbenes, who requested a studio space in their property.

The buildings are both from different periods, and were constructed using different methods.

The first was erected around the time of the second world war using a hybrid construction, while the second dates from the 1960s and features a steel frame, wooden floors and a concrete facade.

Several extensions added during the intervening years were removed and the buildings were stripped back to their basic shells at the beginning of the renovation process.

The architects chose to maintain the resulting open-plan rooms. They adapted them to accommodate loft-like living and working spaces featuring high, exposed ceilings.

Materials introduced for structural, technical or aesthetic purposes are chosen to complement the industrial feel of the interiors.

Black steel columns and beams brace the walls and support upper storeys slotted in beneath the pitched roofs. Whitewashed brick walls and exposed venting add to the raw aesthetic.

The photographic studio created for Scheltens and Abbenes has double-height ceilings, plus clerestory windows providing natural light.

The dramatic space also features an exposed pitched roof and is overlooked by a window set in the wall of the master bedroom on the first floor.

Next to the studio, an office is housed in a single-storey flat-roofed volume between the two buildings. The other half of this structure contains a dining area connected to the open-plan kitchen and living room.

A corner between the lounge and dining space contains large glass surfaces, with integrated doors leading out onto a terrace and the garden beyond.

A guest room situated off the main living space features a tiled wash area and glazed doors that open onto a small patio.

Much of the furniture, lighting, hardware, paint finishes and wall tiles in the photographers’ home was provided by companies the duo has collaborated with, including Farrow & Ball, Scholten & Baijings and Muller Van Severen.

Source: Dezeen

In-depth: French experimental SMGs

Even before World War II, the French Army had experimented with military submachine guns. The French were perhaps more forward-thinking than the British Army in this regard. Both the French and the British had been offered the Thompson and both turned it down, but whereas the British Army dismissed the idea of submachine guns completely, the French began work on their own design called the MAS 35. It was chambered in 7.65x20mm. The prototypes were very basic and had simple tubular butt stocks with flat plates acting as shoulder pieces. The design was not adopted but instead improved upon as the MAS 38. The MAS 38 was unique in that the bolt actually traveled back into the stock at a tilted angle. The internal workings were very complicated and I will spare readers a full explanation.

The MAS 38. Designed at Saint-Étienne and chambered in 7.65mm. This was the standard French submachine gun in World War II.

Despite its unorthodox design, the MAS 38 was adopted as the standard French issue submachine gun. The low-powered cartridge meant that recoil was low and accuracy was good. The weapon was used throughout World War II by both the Free French and the Vichy regime, and would also be used post-war in France’s subsequent conflicts.

After the war it became apparent that submachine guns were more effective than most European militaries had anticipated. The Section Technique de l’Armée (the French equivalent of the Ordnance Board) commissioned the small arms factories at Châtellerault (MAC) and Saint-Étienne (MAS) to develop a new submachine gun in 9x19mm. STA felt that the 7.65mm cartridge was not powerful enough and opted for 9mm since almost every other European country had adopted it.

MAC developed their first prototype in 1947. It had a hinged magazine housing that would fold under the barrel. The magazines used were that of the MP-40. Internally, the return spring was actually located near the trigger mechanism and had a torsion action to it. The end of the spring was attached to a lever that came from a recess from within the bolt. When the bolt flew back, the return spring twisted and tightened.

The MAC 47. Despite a superficial resemblance to the Sten, it was internally nothing alike. The hinged lever underneath the trigger cocked the weapon.

The cocking system was also unusual. There was a lever that folded under the trigger on a hinge. Turning it downwards would cock the weapon. The folding buttstock was made of sheet metal and was considered very unergonomic because it was too large. The return spring system also lost tension after extended use. Another version of this prototype was made that had a wireframe stock and a perforated barrel jacket. The stock folded across the side of the weapon and a brace that ran across the middle of it would deliberately block the open ejection port to prevent it from being discharged in this configuration.

In 1948, MAC produced a new design. It had a cylindrical body and the internal action was based on the Sten gun, but with left-hand cocking. The magazine well was very long and doubled as a fore grip. MP-40 magazines were used. The safety was in the pistol grip and, rather unusually, the stock protruded from the bottom of the grip. Fixed to the side of the stock was a hinged steel plate that was designed for the firer to rest their right elbow on whilst firing from the hip. There was no fire selector on the initial prototypes but subsequent models had two triggers for automatic and semi-automatic fire. Ultimately the weapon was not all that accurate.

MAC produced a lightweight version of this weapon which was made almost exclusively from pressed steel. The wooden stock was replaced with a basic “tromboning” stock which was a simple retracting wireframe. This version was known as the SL and was produced in limited quantities. Those that were made were issued to French troops in Indo-China (now South-East Asia).

The MAC 48. The unusual stock did not align well with the bore and made aiming difficult. When fired from the hip, it was decent.

Meanwhile Saint-Étienne produced a series of prototypes called the C1, the C2, the C3, and the C4. They were all basically derived the same design and differed only in very minor ways. Development started in 1947 and by 1948, the final version known as the C4 had been produced. The action was very similar to the later H&K G3. It had a two-part, L-shaped bolt that ran through a tube over the barrel. The firing pin was fixed to the vertical arm of the bolt. Fitted underneath the long horizontal arm of the bolt, and in front of the shorter vertical arm, was a light bolt head, which was attached to a rotating lever. One end of the lever touched the bolt body and the other end sat in a recess in the weapon’s frame. When gas pressure was applied, the lever rotated, which accelerated the bolt. There was no conventional fire selector. Instead, the trigger was pressurized to give single shots at a half-pull and automatic fire at a full press.

Neither the MAC nor the MAS designs were adopted by the French Army and instead the MAT-49 was chosen.

The MAS 48 C4 in 9mm. The magazine housing, like many other French designs of the time, was hinged and folded under the barrel.

The MAS 49. Chambered in .30 Carbine. Note the long barrel and bipod.

The MAT 49. This was the weapon that was adopted by the French Army. It saw use in Algeria and Indo-China.

Other post-war French designs included the Gevarm D3, produced by ammunition firm Gevelot. It was a very basic Sten clone with a wooden stock and was never manufactured in any quantity. More interesting was the PM-9 produced by Societe Pour l’Exploration des Brevets MGD in 1954. The PM-9 was a very compact folding submachine gun. It is very hard to describe the internal action of the weapon. The bolt was a sort of rod that was connected to a flywheel on the rear end and the front end was connected to a crank that revolved 180 degrees when the bolt moved forward. When it reached the end of its travel, it returned 180 degrees in the opposite direction, upon which the next round would be chambered. When this happened, the flywheel on the rear end of the bolt would oscillate, cocking the weapon, which would then cause a spiral spring to tension and the move the bolt forward again. Very interestingly, the weapon′s fire rate could be changed by adjusting the tension of the spring.

The Gevarm D4 by Gevelot. This version had a retracting stock whereas the D3 had a fixed stock. Not many were made.

The PM-9 produced by MGD and later Erma. The high cost and complex mechanism ensured that it was a commercial failure.

The folded PM-9. In this configuration it was incredibly compact.

The PM-9 design was sold to Erma Werke in Germany in 1955. Erma had difficulty selling the weapon so they instead used its production as a training exercise for young employees. Each unit cost about $150 so production ceased quickly.

His lord’s face swam up before him, not the man he was but the boy he had been, standing cold in the shadows while the sun shone on his elder brother. Whatever he did, Robert had done first, and better.

~ A Clash of Kings

The sound of steel clashing with steel filled the courtyard. Lady Cassana was watching her son, her eyes wary, her gaze vigilant. “Is he truly ready to practice with a real sword? You know Stannis better than most, maester. Tell me true, is he not too young still, to exchange his wooden sword with a steel blade? He is not yet nine.”

“Ser Gawen seems certain that Stannis is ready, my lady.” Gawen Wylde as the master-at-arms would know better than a maester like Cressen. “And Lord Steffon has given his permission. Otherwise Ser Gawen would not have agreed, however much the boy may have insisted.”

“I should not have shown him that letter,” Cassana muttered. “Stannis had been content practicing with his wooden sword before he read it.”

Cressen knew the letter in question by heart. Stannis did as well, he suspected. The letter from Robert, fostered at the Eyrie, to his mother and father at Storm’s End.

Lord Arryn’s master-at-arms is teaching us sword-fighting, with a real sword, a heavy and sharp one. Lord Arryn himself would join us at our practice some mornings. He says I have strong arms and Ned has strong legs and together we would be undefeatable, the best in the realm.

Stannis had insisted on ditching the wooden sword for his morning practice the very next day, in favor of a real blade. It had taken a while before Lord Steffon and Ser Gawen would agree to the boy’s request.

“The boy is quick on his feet, but not as strong as his brother,” Ser Gawen had confided to Maester Cressen.

“He still has much growing to do,” Cressen replied.

“Aye, aye,” Ser Gawen agreed. “But he will never grow as big or as strong as young lord Robert, mark my word. There is no shame in that, the gods make us every which way, some with bodily advantage, some with other things to their credit. Our little lord is very quick and bright in his lessons, I have heard, maester.”

“He is. That he is,” Cressen replied, slightly startled hearing the note of pride in his own voice, as if it were his own son who was being praised, not a boy in his charge. “Stannis is very bright and diligent.”

“He is diligent in his training too. Sword-fighting, horse-riding, archery, you name it. He does not have his brother’s physical gift and innate ability, it is true, but the boy more than make up for it with his hard work and persistence.”

Cressen nodded in agreement. “I only wish -”

“What do you wish, maester? That you have a son, or two sons of your own, and you are a proud father just like Lord Steffon is?”

Cressen shook his head swiftly. “Pray do not mock me, Ser Gawen. You know we maesters forsook any thought of wife and children when we took our oath. No, I only wish we could make Stannis see that there is no shame in being bested by his older brother in some things. Robert has his advantages, and Stannis has his own.”

Ser Gawen frowned. “Yes, that is true, maester, but it cannot be denied that lord Robert’s advantages are the ones more readily praised and admired in men by other men, lordly or otherwise.”

Cressen saw the truth of Ser Gawen’s words when Robert came home for a visit, brandishing his skill with a sword while galloping on his horse, to the delight and admiration of half the castle. Stannis’ newfound skill with a real sword, honed through hours and hours of diligent, tireless practice - but only on foot as yet and not on a horse - suddenly seemed like mere child’s play in the eyes of many.


Abandoned railroad hike in an Oregon forest

Source: bake-kujira (reddit)


I hit up Oregon’s Wolf Creek Trestle Hike a couple days ago. 5 miles out and 5 miles back of abandoned railroad. There were washed out sections of track, landslides, waterfalls (in album) that spilled over onto the tracks turning it into a stream, wooden trestles, steel trestles, 2 creepy tunnels that you HAVE to walk through, and amazing views of the Oregon coastal range forests and mountains. Would recommend.

More photos here

anonymous asked:

Yes, I know what you mean by Zuko Alobe, that would be a good one to see. I would like to see little her's childhood with the Captain, like him being super proud of her first weapon to mundane things like childhood games and him trying to make her laugh unless the alternative that he was away a lot. Any headcanons?

Well, I figure he had to be around if she credits him with teaching her about duty and responsibility. She doesn’t mention a mother or anyone else. I used to think that maybe he was away a lot, but now I’m not so sure. If he was her only parental figure, then he’d need to be there or else she would be raising herself.

I imagine any games he played with her would be kind of like pint-sized training. Like teaching her how to maneuver a miniature obstacle course (such as a jungle gym) or her weapons training. I can see him proudly trading out her wooden sword for a steel one.

They clearly care for each other a lot, which is sweet. I’d like to see more of their one-on-one relationship.

Making your world come alive.


Sorry for shouting but, yeah, giving your world a history behind it and, maybe more importantly, having characters that know and interpret it is a great way to give life to your world. For example; your M/C is travelling with a group through a ruined city (as they do) and your readers will automatically want to know what happened. Try to tell them the interesting bits, the useful bits, and don’t focus too much on long-winded descriptions of scenery. Most importantly, however, if you want your reader to be close to your characters you should try to ensure that they learn most of what they know about the world and story through the characters. In this way even secondary or one line characters can seem alive and vital.

Here’s what not to do;

“The ancient, ruinous city had once been a hub of trade and wealth long before the attack. All that remained now were the toothless, rubble strewn shells that Darn and his group were sheltering in. The wind tore through the old tunnels, almost sobbing their history in its passage.” - So this sounds ok but what does it actually tell us? Well, nothing really.

  • We know the city used to be important
  • We know it was attacked
  • The use of language implies a sad story
  • We know the characters are in the city.

Not all that much, right. 

Instead try this;

“Darn eyed the nearest ruin with trepidation; it was so high, so shadowy… there could be an army in there and he’d never now until they were bearing down on him. Lilit bounded ahead; the wilder was as much a part of this landscape as the buildings and she, unlike the rest of them, had no fear of it. He pressed his tongue against his teeth, counting the missing ones and clenched his uninjured hand,

"What’s with this place?” Roger growled under his breath like a frightened war dog, steam rising from the wet cloth clinging to his broad shoulders. A bead of water ran down his crooked nose before he swatted it away with a snarl, his dark skin emphasizing the whites of his frightened eyes.

“It used to be the Jewel in the North…. Baraba was the trade hub,” Marnie said quietly and pursed her small, bloodless lips, “Then the Kinna crossed the east sea and attacked,” her eyes flicked to the shimmer of water in the near distance, “they ripped the heart out of the city when they killed the high priestess… the wilder are afraid of this place.”

“Are they?” Darn eyed Lilits impassive back, 

“Aye,” Marnie shivered, “They think the battle is still raging, somehow… they believe that when the last building falls the Kinna soldiers will rise again for another battle.” - Whats the difference?

  • We now have a host of characters who now have names and the beginnings of personal traits. We also have some information about them physically; Marnie is very pale, perhaps ill? Roger is broad and dark skinned. Darn is missing teeth, perhaps due to age or violence?
  • We have a name for the city; Baraba, and we know it was once a great trading centre. It is in the north of this world.
  • We know who attacked Baraba and we know what the locals think of the ruined city.

Now there is a sense of a world, or at least a country, around this city. A country with other people not involved in the story.

Secondary and one scene characters are the most underrated resource an author has (in my opinion).

What better way to make a living world that to give every character your M/C encounters a sliver of humanity; a job, a life, a dream? Sometimes it can be as simple as a name or distinguishing feature. There’s nothing worse than a story populated by stock badguy#1s and shopkeep#3s, for example,

The bad (read, boring/lifeless) bad guy.

“Lilit licked her cut lip quickly and glared at the man who stood between her and the door, 

"Move.” She hissed and narrowed her eyes but he was unimpressed; a shrug and half a chuckle was all she got before he thundered towards her.“

This bad guy seems like a cardboard cut out of every dumb shit bad guy thats graced a screen or page, right? And worse still, he gives your reader the idea that your world is full of such types. He can be redeemed, however; 

The good (a.k.a genuinely Bad) bad guy.

"Lilit ran the back of her hand over her face, smearing the blood across her lips. This one could be trouble; his red hair was shorn close to his scalp, doing little to hide the conspicuously non-existent state of his left ear. He grinned at her and licked the gap left by a missing tooth; his sly eyes were still and narrow as if in expectation.

"Move,” she hissed, skin at the back of her ears tightening, “now! Out of my way!” Her barked orders seemed to break against his skin like wooden arrows against steel, 

“Nah,” he shrugged, “I think I like watching your mind work, girl… think i’ll enjoy cracking it open more.”  He rolled his heavy shoulders, “Unless you’d fancy just giving me the money?”

“Fuck off, prick.” Lilit shook her head and snarled at him, drawing back her lips in warning,

“Nah, didn’t think so,” his grin was lopsided and strangely plesant, “Hell I like you… if you didn’t look so much like my sister I’d fuck you,” his snort of mirth was vulgar and coarse, “hell, I might anyway.”-

So he’s a bit over the top, yes… but he’s bad and he's good at being bad. And he seems like he’s lived; he’s missing bits and he’s sly and hard; he’s probably had a shitty life, in short, and decided he’s more of a bully than a victim. He’s not smart but he’s not dumb either; it’s that animal, vicious cunning that we see in so many everyday villains. The knowledge of who they can and can’t push. He’s petty and nasty and utterly misogynistic; in short he could be an actual jerk who’s got a chip on his shoulder or a taste for violence.

One scene characters make a world and so you should make them memorable. Make them petty, angry, bitter, cruel or make them righteous, vain, moral but overbearing. Make your reader wonder what happens to them when they leave the story and you’ll have a world that goes on behind the scenes.

The conspicuously blank world is a sure sign you’ve gone wrong somewhere.

Unless your characters are in a desert or a frozen wasteland there will be scenery and wildlife and plants! Even in the former two there will be some non human life. 


  • Forests that are quiet at night; either something scared away the animals (a battle, a fire or, even, something demonic?) or it’s not going to feel like a forest, Anyone who’s been camping will tell you that a forest is as noisy as any city at night, especially in places like the Amazon, the Congo and big wildwoods like the Black forest in Germany. Think about what type of woodland you’re setting the reader in e.g a jungle is noisier and more dangerous than a small woodland, a large woodland may hold deer, wolves and miscellaneous mammals but it’s unlikely you’d find a chimpanzee or tiger.
  • Lowland hills that are suspiciously devoid of rocks, trees and farms; Even in medieval and pre-medieval times lowland pastures would have had farmsteads dotting them: in fact it’s more likely that they would be devoid of (human) life in a modern setting due to urbanisation. If you’re going for a medieval-esque society/world then you can be certain that there would be lonely farms dotted everywhere on such arable or pasture lands. Likewise, due to the lack of demand of housing, the landscape would be rougher than in modern times as the local would not yet have cleared vast swathes of their vegetation and rubble to make way for farmland or housing.
  • ‘Ancient’ ruins that have not been overrun by nature. The very nature of man made ruins that are 'ancient’ in definition, here meaning that they have been ruined for at the very least a few centuries (perhaps four or five), is that eventually nature will come into its own again. Unless built on a bare rock face the ruins will start to be overrun by ivy, weeds and small animals looking for shelter. Perhaps even bigger animals like wolves or bears using the depths of such places as dens. Even in the case of desert or tundra wastelands the natural world will take over; ice and snow will crack the stone, the sand will reclaim the space, eventually burying untended places. 


  • Life;Sounds stupid, I know. But we’re not talking about the big picture, theoretical life like that of a drawing or novel. I mean actual life; birds, insects, other people, flora and fauna, make the world you build full of non-essential life and you’re well on your way to making it come alive.
  • Detail; think realism or impressionism rather than abstract. If you’re not a hug stickler or exact detail then give enough that the mind of the reader can discern and add itself. In the same way that the mind can see a tree in a bundle of lines in the right basic form it can also spot history in the merest details. An old building says nothing but scattered, worn books, toppled desks and big, light welcoming windows suggest library. These are the kind of implies histories that say “I was something more, I once had purpose. I lived and died before you were conceived of”. In short “The devils in the detail” and the human mind will pick up on it all.
  • Empathy; in all senses. Give your reader something to empathise with; a social injustice, an orphaned child, the happiness of a victory. Likewise make your world an empathetic one; there will be some people in your world who strive to make it better and the world will change with the times. Battles ravage the earth as much as industrialisation; prolonged war will leave fields fallow. Your world should react to the events that take place within it.

Hopefully this representation of three years of frustrated learning curves will be helpful to you! Don’t be afraid to ask for clarification or extra detail if you feel its necessary! 

- WD

Early Mornings: Chapter I

The desire to fall back asleep comes as easily as the urge to draw a breath. Clarke’s frequent presence in the commander’s quarters was an open secret known by the maids and ambassadors alike, though none would dare to speak out of such things after Lexa’s triumph against the false prophets that were felled just short of Polis, her strength and throne assured in the process.

“Heda,” the young handmaiden nodded at Lexa’s wave of dismissal and set the breakfast at the table by the foot of the bed. She dared to glance at the sprawling golden aureate hair and bare shoulder that slipped out from blankets adjacent, quickly averting her eyes.

“You are not required today.” Lexa reconfirmed, bleary eyed and yawning.

“Yes, Heda.” she quickly retreated and Lexa rolled her eyes in the knowledge of the quiet gossip that would come.

She stretched awake, arching the column of her spine and sighing into the relief that followed each loud pop. The blankets were quickly kicked off, though the amount of blankets she had in her possession decreased every night spent beside Clarke’s hoarding shape, hooking her hips around the furs and claiming them one by one.

Next was the trunk. A cumbersome wooden and steel box that came with her station, filled each morning with the most crucial documents for the days and weeks ahead, usually trade agreements and tithe papers. It sat on the table beside a breakfast of fruits and barley water, carried in every morning at the stroke of dawn ready for her appraisal over what was usually a short meal.

Today the trunk was mercifully light with just a few urgent requests for materials from Arkadia, rushing to build their first settlements in time for their first harsh winter. Easily remedied, Lexa mused as she flicked through the list, ripe persimmon between her fingers.

The sound of movement earned her full attention as she set down the papers and turned to face the foot of the bed, leaning against the table, smirking at the sight that greeted her. Clarke’s hand emerged from the blankets first, slapping and feeling out the vacant side of the blankets, sighing and earnest in her disappointment.

“Good morning, Wanheda.” Lexa cleared her throat and smirked, waiting for it.


“It’s time to get up.”




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72 years ago today

Sapper Reginald A. Stevenson (with the fuse cord around his neck) and L/Cpl. Raymond C. Mace, 2 members of the 2/13 Field Company, Royal Australian Engineers, exhausted after the initial attempt to get ashore and blow wire defences at Lingkas, on the Island of Tarakan which is off the east coast of Borneo. 30th April 1945.

The primary objective for the Allied attack on Tarakan (code-named “Oboe One”) was to secure and develop the island’s airstrip so that it could be used to provide air cover for subsequent landings in Brunei, Labuan and Balikpapan. The secondary objective for the operation was to secure Tarakan’s oilfields and bring them into operation as a source of oil for the Allied forces in the theatre.

The task of clearing the beach obstacles at Lingkas was assigned to the 2/13th Field Company. These defences comprised rows of barbed wire, wooden posts and steel rails which extended 125 yards from the beach. At 11:00 on 30 April, eight parties of engineers went forward in LVTs and landing craft to clear the obstacles. The engineers were supported by the guns on Sadau Island and Allied warships and aircraft. Operating under Japanese fire the engineers cleared all the obstacles obstructing the landing beaches. While heavy casualties had been expected, the 2/13th completed their task without loss.

Military Medal award: ‘Lance-Corporal Mace was the non-commissioned officer in command of a demolition team engaged in the breaching of underwater beach obstacles on Tarakan. Despite the intermittent fire of the enemy the working party coolly kept on and completed and sign-posted the gap in thirty five minutes. Lance-Corporal Mace then withdrew his party and went to the rescue of another party who were hampered by the depth of the mud. He attempted to carry a line to secure one of the obstacles to enable the Section to drag themselves to the proposed gap but sank in the mud and had to be dragged back. He then took his L.V.T. to the oil pier and led his party to the beach and attacked the obstacles from the shore side with success. Lance-Corporal Mace’s personal endurance, courage and leadership were wholly responsible for the effective completion of the two gaps’.

(Both survived the war)

(source - Australian War Memorial ID number 090907)

(Colourised and Researched by Benjamin Thomas from Australia)


First picture started this, stumbled upon this, some guy who lit his longsword on fire… Then I remembered seeing some manuscript illumination involving a dussack on fire, did some searching and found even more stuff on fire!

The images are from a manuscript on fireworks, from 1594 by Friedrich Meyer.

What we see is a longsword, steel/wooden dussacks, a lance, a spear, and what I assume is a fighting staff… All cleverly designed to be able to burn while used.

It’d be so cool to have a translation of this and try to recreate these weapons…

Important to add that I definitely don’t think these were used for warfare or serious combat… But show fighting, but I can’t guarantee that since I haven’t read a translation.

#Pollaxed On Fire


The Attack of the Turtle

A man of scientific vision, in the early 1770’s David Bushnell was only a college freshman, yet he was developing ideas that were centuries ahead of his time.  In between his college studies at Yale, Bushnell studied two revolutionary subjects; underwater explosives and submersible vehicles.  By 1775 he had developed two new important inventions, a explosive mine that could be detonated underwater, and a functioning submarine named the Turtle.  The Turtle was a submersible built from watertight wooden planks and reinforced steel bands.  It was a very small submarine, only large enough for one person.  Atop the Turtle were six glass windows which provided natural light.  In case it was dark, all of the instruments of the Turtle were covered in foxfire, the ooze from a certain type of fungus which glowed in the dark.  The Turtle was propelled forwards and vertically by two hand cranked propellers and steered with a rudder.  A water tank filled by a hand pump served as ballast, as well as 200 pounds of lead weight.  In calm waters, the Turtle could swim around three miles an hour.  It only had enough air for a thirty minute journey.

Bushnell intended to use the Turtle and his explosives to attack British warships that were blockading American ports during the American Revolution.  Thus Bushnell and his invention caught the attention of Gen. George Washington in 1776, who provided funding for the testing and preparation of the Turtle. The plan was to stealthily enter a harbor, sneak up on an expecting warship, bore a hole into it’s hull with which to attach a charge of timed explosives, then swim out of the way before the warship exploded. Bushnell himself could not pilot the sub, as he suffered from a number of debilitating illnesses.  Instead, three volunteers from the Continental Army stepped forward to conduct the daring mission.

On the night of Sept. 6th, 1776, the Turtle, piloted by Sgt. Ezra Lee, quietly swam in New York Harbor and approached the British flagship HMS Eagle.  Coming up against her hull, the Turtle went unnoticed as it bored a small hole in the warship’s hull.  However he was not able to drill into the hull as he struck a large iron plate.  Abandoning the attempt due to low oxygen, he made his way to safety but was followed by the British in a rowboat.  Releasing his explosives, the British turned back to avoid being blown up.

Although the attack by the Turtle failed, it would go down in history as the first act of submarine warfare.  On October 9th, Sgt. Lee and the Turtle tried again, this time targeting a British frigate near Manhattan.  Again, the attempt failed when British lookouts spotted the submarine and open fire on it, forcing it to retreat.  Some days later, the British found the Turtle’s anchorage in New Jersey, sinking it and the barge it operated from.

After the sinking of the Turtle, Bushnell was made a captain in the Continental Army, although he never saw combat.  Instead, he built his famous “Bushnell mines”, naval mines which were deployed in ports all over the colonies and became the terror of besieging British warships.  Bushnell claimed to have salvaged the Turtle after the war, however its fate remains unknown.

I have a beat up, but VERY pink chair drying in the shed. :3 It’ll look nice once it has it’s new, yellow cushion.

I think I’m going to knock the rust off of the swivel mech as well as I can, spray it heavily with silver (and maybe prime it, first), and reassemble it as-is. It won’t rock or swivel, but it will be a complete chair. I can maybe get a new mechanism some day, or Husband will push to get new chairs all together at that point.

Then I can start working on the table if I chose a color for it!

I’ve also been painting parts of the wooden and steel bench, but that’s not going as well because the wood is so old.

Light Bow Tutorial

Hi everyone! Hope you’ve been doing well! Since we got lots of question about how we made the light bow for Zelda and Sheik, I’ve decided to make a tutorial for it since I took some pictures of the different stages.  Unfortunately I don’t have pictures for every step, but I’ll explain how we made the bow as best as I can!

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