wood wedges

Ok I don’t have anyone to talk to right now, I just had to be socially trans in person for an hour while signing legal forms, and I’m strung out and tired. SO I’M GOING TO RANT ABOUT CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGES AND MAGICAL SCRIPTS.

Look, I get it. You want your conlang/magic script to look mystical, cryptic, special. You want it to look different than any other language while still looking like a language people write in. If you’re a spiritual person or magic-user this may even be a language you’re channeling and that you believe to be ancient in nature or otherwise pre-existing. But 95% of conlangs and magical scripts look totally fake and made-up, and this is not a judgment I’m casting on their actual grammatical structure or language theory or the languages they were based on. The thing that makes a language look like one people ever actually wrote in for hundreds of years, that makes it look like the letters/characters are all from the same language, is that it looks like a language that’s been written in whatever tools you are claiming or feel like it was traditionally written in.

Let’s take cuneiform:

Looks super-neat, right? Man, who’d ever think of having those wedges in an alphabet! It’s totally different than most modern languages out there and very distinctive, and the wedges are consistent across the letters, so it makes them all look like they’re from the same alphabet. This wasn’t just arbitrarily designed as a font style. There is a reason for this!

Cuneiform writing was pressed into wet clay with these shaped bits and that’s why it looks like that. It got stamped with wedges. That’s how (this type of) writing was done at the time. It’s a technological solution and that’s what makes the lettering get that peculiar stylization. You’ll get variants based on craftsmanship and tools, but basically the method is the same across various implementations. Once someone tried to write that in pencil, you could imagine it’d look different, and you’d see evidence of people’s hand-motion between strokes, becoming more of a tilt between letters.

For instance, English looks like it does, even in tumblr’s sans-serif fonts, because it can be constructed with a pen. When it gets fancy with a variable-width pressure-sensitive pen nib, you can get more complex and flowy, but notice the flow and arc still go with the movements natural for a hand to make:

Originally posted by heaven-knows-im-miserable-n0w

Those little trails between letters exist today because nib pens were drippy and left ink trails. The written language adapted to the tools to incorporate the trails and still make it look legible, and that’s why we have cursive writing at all. This is a simplified history but it’s basically there to make you think about the letter shapes in various traditional ways of writing in English and why it looks like it does instead of like cuneiform.

Which brings me to conlangs. If you want your brand new ancient-looking language to truly look like people have used it for eons, write it out with the tools you think those people would have used, and keep adapting the letters if you find that, say, a brush or nib pen can’t construct the weird arcs and whirls you’ve designed the language to have. Languages by and large are made to be convenient to write. If you don’t know how to write kanji, Chinese words probably look complex and arbitrary to you. But their shapes are logical when you see them written with a brush:

So if you have some arcane-looking swooshy script but it still looks kind of fake, think about where the weight should really be. It should be where the brush presses down heavier and the trailing marks are where the brush lifts up (and usually leaves the paper and ends the stroke). Where the stroke is wide on one end is where the brush initially met the paper. Above, you can see how one swish immediately flows into another, the strokes are like arrows leading across the page when you understand how they’re created. Pick up a brush and figure out an actual stroke order for your symbol. If logically the stroke seems like it’d leave someone’s hand smearing it trying to follow its arc, then logically that symbol would eventually get redesigned if it were in an actual language. Someone would figure out a better way to write it and everyone would adopt that way over time.

So practice writing your language with different tools. Consider a calligraphy course or even just a kit with a guidebook (or youtube training videos!). Written language is a tool that people use, magical as it can be. And if you’re using it for magical purposes such as woodburning it into tools or painting it onto things or writing it onto paper, consider that your symbols will change a bit according to the tools, just like with mundane languages. A wedge-shaped wood burner will get you something a bit closer to cuneiform. A brush will get you something flowy and not super-precise. Pencil will not leave ink trails and will get you something more technical and practical. Your written language logically should shift for that and adapt like a proper tool. And if you do that right, if you really use it, then it will look much more genuine because it will have experienced an actual evolution of form adapting to the physical tools it’s been worked with via.

And if you’re not using it for magic but are just using it for a fantasy setting where people use it for magic in the story, all the above would still apply to them.

Even with just one symbol not meant to be in a greater language, think about the tool you’re creating it with. It’s hard to make a realistic brush-style symbol in pencil. Use the tool that fits the symbol and you’ll produce something much more genuine-looking.

That’s it! I’m not a language expert, this is not meant to be A Real Factual History Of All Language, it’s just a rough primer in How To Make It Look Like A Language Is Actually Written With. It’s not meant to be a critique in whether your magical language is “real” enough or “magical” enough either. It’s simply some pointers in how to make a magical/constructed language that’s actually reasonable to write with and suits the tools you’re writing it with and the purposes you mean it for. Hundreds of years of written language evolution is hard to replace, but I believe in you.

Medieval Wargear Masterpost

I’ve seen a few of these sorts of things bouncing around Tumblr - mostly for the benefit of writers, i imagine - but they seem to mostly be made by other writers, or other people with only a passing knowledge of such things. 

Either way, they could be better, and i hope the following is more comprehensive, even if i keep it fairly brief.

This will be divided into two categories - weapons and armour - with four general subcategories in each. It’s difficult to cram centuries of warfare and thousands of weapon/armour variants into eight broad “boxes”, so bear with me.
Note: This list does not contain ranged/missile weapons, shields, etc. I can do a further post about those if this one proves popular.

~~~WEAPONS OVERVIEW~~~

Swords:

  • Double- or single-edged, long, bladed weapons.
  • Can be many lengths, weights, and styles, each with a different fighting style and role.
  • Were very expensive and hard to make throughout most of history; were wielded only by the wealthy. As such, they became status symbols.
  • Generally bad at getting through armour. Better against cloth and flesh.
  • An all-round weapon; usually used as a backup to a specialist weapon more than being a main weapon in its own right.
  • Baby swords are called daggers. These are used differently to swords, and weren’t often battlefield weapons (though they were definitely used).
  • Katanas are awful swords. Just putting that out there.

Axes:

(Note: diagram is of a wood-cutting axe, which is slightly different to a war axe, but general components are the same).

  • Haft of wood with a short hacking blade on one end.
  • As with the sword, can be many lengths and styles, each with a different role.
  • War axe heads/blades (unless wood-axes) are not wedge-shaped! They are very flat to reduce the weight, and are also much sharper.
  • Hits harder and penetrates armour better than a sword, but is much more unwieldy. It is nearly impossible to block or parry with an axe.
  • As such, axes are very aggressive, close-range weapons; the easiest way to not die is to kill the enemy before he kills you.
  • Note: You will find it very hard to cut an axe haft with another weapon. Axes didn’t break very often on the battlefield (the most common breakage was the head coming off).
  • Some axes were dedicated throwing weapons, but these were exceptionally rare.

Bludgeons (Hammers, Maces, etc.):

(Sorry about the lack of labels)

  • Metal or wooden haft with a heavy, blunt metal head on one end.
  • As ever, can be various lengths and styles, each with a different role.
  • The head of the weapon can vary considerably; can be a metal orb, a spiked/studded orb, a flanged metal head, a hammer head, a hammer head with a spike, and so on.
  • Despite their differences, each weapon performs much the same; they are used to deal blunt-force trauma to an enemy.
  • Are excellent against heavily-armoured opponents, who get stunned or incapacitated by such blows. Long spikes can also puncture armour (like a nail through a tin can).
  • Unarmoured opponents are less affected (a broken bone is less severe than a stab wound). Better to use a blade against them.
  • Like axes, these are very unwieldy and short-ranged.

Polearms (Spears, Pikes, Halberds, Billhooks, etc):

  • Most diverse category; there are many kinds of polearm.
  • They were the most common weapons on medieval battlefields (used mostly by poor foot soldiers), because they were cheap and usually made by modifying agricultural tools (of which there were no shortage).
  • Consists of a long pole with a blade on the end.
  • Usually wielded defensively by large bodies of men; they were able to keep the enemy at arm’s length (poor foot soldiers weren’t known for their bravery).
  • Excellent against cavalry, since most spears are longer than lances, and horses will avoid running into a wall of spears (they’re not stupid). Variants with “hooks” are also good, as they could pull men off their horses.
  • Mostly used for stabbing, but some had the ability to hack and chop.
  • Note: It is very, very hard to cut a polearm’s pole in half - even with a big axe. It’s easier to snap them, but it’s still extremely hard to do.
  • If an enemy gets “inside” your weapon, you’re dead (unless you’re quick to pull out a backup weapon).

~~~ARMOUR OVERVIEW~~~

(This will stick to a brief overview of general armour types; an overview of armour components can be found here)

Leather/Padding:

  • Light, relatively flexible, comfortable, no sharp edges.
  • Most common armour, with padded cloth armour often worn under heavier armour (for comfort/cushioning).
  • NOT the same as a leather jacket - that kind of leather is far too soft. Leather armour was made of boiled leather or rawhide, both of which are very tough (like a cross between flattened cardboard and overcooked steak).
  • Cheaper than steel, and easier to work with.
  • Provided minimal protection, and extremely vulnerable to thrusting attacks.

Mail (or Chainmail):

  • Ubiquitous, comfortable, flexible as cloth.
  • Easy to make, but very time-consuming.
  • However, it was exceptionally heavy, and soaked up sunlight (so it was very hot in hot weather).
  • Consists of thousands of interlocking metal rings.
  • Can resist slashing or glancing attacks easily, but strong thrusting attacks would often penetrate.

Scale/Segment Armour (e.g. Lamellar, Brigandine):

  • Transitional armour; somewhere between mail and plate.
  • Consists of small metal plates held together in close sequence.
  • Less flexible than chainmail, and less comfortable. Just as hot and nearly as heavy.
  • Less vulnerable to thrusting attacks; the individual plates are stronger than mail rings.

Plate:

  • Most protective form of armour; all but impervious to slashing attacks, and highly resistant to thrusts. 
  • Also cushioned blows by redistributing impact force over an entire plate.
  • Least comfortable; inflexible, hot, somewhat restricts and slows movement.
  • Slightly lighter than chainmail.
  • Was not (re)invented until the later medieval era, as steelworking techniques weren’t good enough.
  • To make a single piece of metal this big was difficult and expensive. For most of the medieval era (when it was available at all), only the rich could afford it.
The Wedding Planner (Part 3)

Summary: Being a wedding planner is all fun and games until suddenly you’re saved from an accident by the man of your dreams–later discovering that he happens to be your latest client’s fiancé.

Word Count: 1,789.

Part 1 Part 2 

A/N: Shorter part than usual! But just wait to see what happens at the end. Hope you enjoy!

Originally posted by buckypupbarnes

Keep reading

We went to canadian tire today and got a huge pile of garden supplies: a lilac bush for outside the gate, a rosebush to plant by the hole in the fence the dog keeps escaping through despite all the wood we wedge in, some impatiens, calendula, mint, basil, sage, rosemary, a bunch of cool creeping ivies and groundcovers, and tons of pansies. We planted everything before the rain came and although it has spaces where stuff will need to grow and fill in, there’s lots and some nice planters, and cedar chips for the dog’s corner and we even got a couple of chairs. There is a path crossing in front of our gate and then a hill, covered in violets and raspberry bushes, shading into a small forested area with enough space before that we still get sun. If I look out the window all I see is green. 

Last spring I lived in an apartment that looked over a highway with no barrier since they cut down the trees.

I’m just…happy. Things have gotten so much better in my life.

This week’s Sumerian sign is ĝeš, which means tree or wood. It’s an important sign that was used a lot.

ĝeš is one of a collection of signs that are written but not spoken as silent signifiers of a noun’s type or class. This sign often appears before objects made out of wood, like weapons or tools.

So in isolation, ĝeš would be pronounced, but if it came before another noun, it would probably be unspoken, meant only as a signal to the reader to help interpret the following sign, since many signs had multiple meanings and pronunciations.

There are a lot of signs that do this. There’s a sign that appears before gods’ names. There’s a sign that goes before birds or bugs (I think maybe the Sumerians classified flying insects as a kind of bird maybe?), a sign that goes before things made of stone, a sign that goes before people’s names, and many more. There’s also a sign that goes after place names. 

When we transliterate these signs, we write them in a superscript to show that they’re silent. For instance, we’d write ĝešaš-te to mean (wooden) chair, even though in the original cuneiform the signs are all the same size.

The closest analogy to English writing, I guess, would be like using capital letters for proper nouns. It’s a way to signal something important to the reader.

Imagine Castiel finding out you have been hurt on a hunt.

It was like any other hunt…find the demon, exorcise them, back before dinner. You didn’t even need help, but Dean tagged along anyway. Everything was going fine and dandy until the demon blasted you up to the rafters and you felt the blinding, deafening, and awful pain of a wooden beam ripping through you.

You landed with a loud grunt, the splintered wood still sticking out of you and Dean rushed in to distract and exorcise the demon at the last minute, “Y/N we got him! We got….oh my god…” He stared at you, feeling numb himself as blood poured from your lips.

“Ca…call C…C…” Dean put his finger up to your lips, already knowing what you were going to say.

“Don…Don’t speak,” He said with tears in his eyes, and put the phone to his ear.

“Cas…I need you here…now…Blackbrick Road…Small tin roofed barn off the interstate…”

“I’m here now,” The angel said, Dean hearing the crunch of the gravel outside. The green eyed man rushed outside, “Where’s Y/N?” Cas said, as bright as normal.

Dean looked down, eyes flooding with tears again and he put his arm on Castiel’s shoulder, “She’s…in bad shape…”

Castiel looked up, eyes widening and the smile disappearing off his lips before he swallowed painstakingly hard and started inside, “Y/N…” He looked down at your darkening eyes and the blood-swollen piece of wood wedged into your stomach, “Who…what….” The man stammered as he took your face in either of his hands. You could only manage to put your shaky finger up to his lips and look into his blue eyes, giving him a final smile.

7

“So we are back from a great show clerkenwell design week. Think everything went down really well, with a surprise favourite being the milked side tables. The run up to the show was maniacle to say the least, but we got it done. A few making shots of the arthur and milked side tables, and our have the wake pendant lamps!….." 

Splurge or Steal?

Designer shoes vs. a steal of a deal

Drooling over a pair of red-soled, patent leather Christian Louboutins? Dreaming of chunky heeled Valentino Rockstud heels? Lusting over Saint Laurent platform pumps for your date night outfit?

We don’t blame you.

That’s why we’ve put together your summer must-haves Splurge or Steal Shoe Guide. We show you a pair of killer designer shoes that are slightly over-budget and a pair of shoes that are soooo on-budget. Click through to see the price difference.

And remember you can search for shoes by style, brand, trend and price all on Wantering.

1. Patent Leather Pumps

Pigalle 100 patent-leather pumps

MK-Flex Patent Leather Pump, Nude

2. Studded Sandals

Rockstud leather sandals

Vince Camuto Hopper Block Heel Flat Sandals

3. Python Espadrille

Python espadrilles

Lipsy Lana Bronze Snake Effect Espadrille Flat Shoes

4. Lace Up Heels

Myrtle lace-up suede sandals

ASOS PILOT Pointed High Heels

5. Platform Shoes

Simi Embroidered-Heel Suede Platform Sandals

Sabine Suede Platform - Floral

6. Wood Wedges

Jimmy Choo Notion Tricolor Wooden Wedge Sandal, White/Caramel

Seychelles Carina Wood Wedge

7. Fringe Heels 

Rupert Sanderson Fringe Sandals - Marlena High Heel

Brentwood Fringe Heel

Search for shoes by style, brand, trend and price all on Wantering.