women workforce

bbc.com
Calling your husband by name for the first time - BBC News
Millions of Indian women have never used their husband's name - it's a way of showing respect for him. But campaigners are now urging some of them to change their ways.

Millions of Indian women have never used their husband’s name - it’s a way of showing their respect for him. The tradition is strictly observed in rural areas, though much less so in cities. Now, however, some campaigners are urging women in villages to give it up too.

What’s in a name? A lot, if you’re an Indian wife and the name in question is your husband’s. I learned this early on in life.

My parents were married for 73 years until my father died last year. At the time of their wedding, my mother was less than 11 and he had just turned 15.

In the decades they were together, first in a tiny village in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and later in Kolkata (then Calcutta), she never called him by his name.

When speaking to us children, she always referred to him as “babuji” - the Hindi word for “father” that we used. When addressing him directly, she always said “Hey ho”, which means roughly “Hey you”.

As teenagers when we became aware of the fact, we made fun of her. We tried to trick her into saying his name just once. But she never did.

All the other women in my home and neighbourhood also avoided saying their husband’s name. So did tens of millions of women across India, regardless of their religion or caste.

The husband is considered equal to god so he has to be worshipped
A R Vasavi, Social anthropologist

That’s because in traditional Indian society, the husband is equated with god and a woman is taught from a young age that she must respect him.

She is told that naming her husband could invite bad luck and shorten his life. Often the ban extends to other members of his family too - and the consequences of breaking it can be serious.

One woman in the eastern state of Orissa faced retribution that was swift and harsh.

“One day my sister-in-law asked who was sitting outside. I named all the men who were there, including my husband’s uncle,” Malati Mahato says in a film produced by Video Volunteers, a pressure group.

The sister-in-law complained to the village council, which ruled Mahato’s words “reprehensible” and she was banished, with her children, to a home on the edge of the village. For the past 18 months she has been ostracised by the other villagers.

“The patriarchal hierarchy is enforced at many levels,” says social anthropologist, Prof A R Vasavi.

“The husband is considered equal to god so he has to be worshipped. In traditional matches he’s generally from a higher caste and economically supports the wife so he’s the yajman - the owner. And he’s generally older, so has to be respected on that count too.”

How Indian wives address their husbands (without using his name)

  • Women may use “father of so-and-so” or refer to their husband’s profession, eg “doctor sahib” or “vakil (lawyer) sahib”
  • They may just say “hey you”, or “you”, “will you please listen”, or “are you listening?”
  • In some Indian languages it is common to say “brother”, “elder brother”, “hello” or “owner”

Video Volunteers has now begun a campaign in some rural communities in an attempt to change patriarchal traditions.

Last October, Rohini Pawar, a volunteer in a village near the western city of Pune decided to raise the issue of naming husbands at a women’s discussion group in her village.

But before doing so, she decided she had better try it herself.

Pawar told the BBC that she was married at 15 and that in 16 years of marriage had never called her husband Prakash by his name.

“Earlier I’d call him ‘baba’, because his nephews called him that. Or I’d just say 'aaho’ ('you’ in the local Marathi language) to grab his attention.”

Prakash was relaxed about it but most other villagers weren’t happy. Some ridiculed the couple.

The women in the discussion group, however, were delighted with the idea.

He told her that if she ever dared to say his name again, he would give her a solid beating
Rohini Pawar, Activist

“We had great fun. We laughed a lot that day. For the first time in our life, we were shouting out our husbands’ names,” says Pawar, laughing.

“We decided to make a video and asked the women to say it in three different ways - happily, with anger, and with love.

"One of the women got carried away. She went home giddy with excitement and as soon as she saw her husband, she screamed out his name - and he slapped her.

"He told her that if she ever dared to say his name again, he would give her a solid beating.”

In Indian cities, over time, it has become common for wives to name their husbands. With growing female literacy, more and more women joining the workforce, and love marriages often replacing arranged ones, the tradition began to seem out-of-date.

When I married, my husband was a work colleague. I had called him by his name for years, so it would have made no sense to stop after the wedding.

But A R Vasavi says this still only applies to a “very small segment” of Indian households.

“It’s the educated, assertive woman in big cities who calls her husband by name,” she says.

“It’s unthinkable for tens of millions of women in rural India and even in conservative urban homes. If a new bride tries to go against the tide, she’s swiftly admonished by her mum-in-law or other elderly women.”

Rohini Pawar says the hostile response from many in her village has only strengthened the resolve of the women in her group to continue challenging patriarchal traditions.

“You see, change is not easy. People ask us why is it so important for us to use their names - what’s the big deal?” she says.

“I think, until you confront the small issue, how will you challenge the larger, more important issues?”

It may seem like a small step, but it’s the first step, she says, and the first step is always a big one.

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Tbh, I saw Seolhee as kind of pathetic in the past episodes. She was just following Jooman around and not even able to stand up for herself. I saw her as a weak and fragile character. But this scene (plus the break up and the water slap scenes) brought her to a new light.

She is the way she is because of her dream. She did her best to be the best girlfriend because that’s what she needed to fulfill her dream of being a good wife and mother. She took care of all four of them and raised them while they all are away from their families. She has always been that silent support and foundation to all of them.

A lot of people (including me) had belittled motherhood as an occupation thinking that it is a “side job” for women nowadays. Society has made us believe that women in the workforce or corporate world are much cooler than women tending the home. But this opened my eyes that motherhood is indeed a legitimate dream and any woman can work on towards that dream.

Dreams are meant to make you strive hard to be the best that you can be and to make you feel alive. And being a mom can be all that.

Kudos to the writer for incorporating this to the story! Fight My Way is really breaking society’s stereotypes and allowing the smaller voices to be heard.

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It’s FRIDAY FASHION FACT! One of the biggest “hot topics” of today is the unrealistic beauty standards for women. We are constantly surrounded by Photoshopped images and celebrities who spend a vast amount of time and money sculpting their bodies to “perfection.” Though the discussion is at the forefront now, the topic is nothing new. One of the most iconic instances of these near-impossible beauty ideals is the infamous turn of the 20th Century Gibson Girl.

The Gibson Girl is named for her creator, artist Charles Dana Gibson. In the 1890s, Gibson worked for LIFE magazine, where his girl first appeared. As she gained popularity, his work was soon printed in all the major magazines. There is speculation that the girl was modeled after his wife or his sister, but according to Gibson, she was not one girl, she was every girl, and that’s what made her beautiful. He saw her as the embodiment of the American melting pot- she was a combination of countless nationalities and races (of course, in this era, that still meant a very pale caucasian). In a way, the Gibson Girl was the first “All-American Girl.”

Gibson believed that the more races were mixed together, the more beautiful women would become, as he predicted only the best features from each would be passed down. He theorized that as a result, women of the future would be far more beautiful than the women of his day. In his drawings, Gibson combined what he saw as the best features: delicate facial features, soft hair in the latest bouffant style (but still with natural wisps and tendrils falling gracefully aside) a full chest and hips paired with a slender waist, positioned into the highly corseted S-bend. She was perfect, but not absurdly so, in a way that felt almost attainable.She wore the latest fashions, but was not at the level of the royals whom Europeans often turned to for beauty standards.

If her so-close-yet-so-far looks were not enough to attract admiration, Gibson gave her a personality to match. She was active and independent, playing sports, going off to work, not desperate for the help of a man. She was playfully teasing towards men, for how could they possibly hold the interest of such a woman? She did get swept up in romance, though, becoming a wife and mother. She was not content keeping house, though, and continued to spend her days with women as equally tenacious as she. Yet she was not political or controversial, steering clear of the rising suffragette movement, or stating any strong opinions of women’s rights. She was the perfect blend of modern and traditional.

The Gibson Girl was the perfect embodiment of “Women want to be her, men want to be with her.” It is due to this mass appeal that so many women strove to physically emulate the Gibson Girl. After all, who wouldn’t want to be the girl that so many people adored and admired? Of course, creating the look in real life was not nearly as simple as it appeared. The S-bend corset became extremely popular, yet this corset style forced the body into arguably the most unnatural shape of any other corset throughout history. Reality meant that it was near impossible for women to adopt the relaxed and care-free attitude of the Gibson Girl.

There were a few actress and celebrities who came close to the ideal, several of whom actually served as models for Charles Gibson, most notably Camille Clifford, whose near-perfect hourglass figure was the drawings come to life. Of course, this only enhanced the idea that the look was attainable for the average woman. Just like every beauty ideal, though, the Gibson Girl look eventually fell from favor. By the 1910s, society was shifting. The women’s rights movement was gaining momentum, catapulted by women joining the workforce en masse. The Gibson Girl was soon viewed as too proper, uptight, and locked in tradition. However, to this day the image remains the icon of the Edwardian age.

Have a question about fashion history that you want answered in the next FRIDAY FASHION FACT? Just click the ASK button at the top of the page!

Ester Boserup (1910-1999) was a Danish economist, specializing in agricultural development. She was highly influential in the discussion on the role of women in the workforce and human development, as well as better professional and educational opportunities.

She started work for the Danish government, but soon began a collaboration with the United Nations, and developed several important theories on the relation between agriculture and population. She wrote the 1970 book Woman’s Role in Economic Development, highlighting the vital contribution of women in the global economy.

Women in the Ordnance Corps, 1945

The number of women in the American workforce increased exponentially after the United States entered World War II on December 8, 1941. Women filled critical wartime industry positions left vacant by men fighting in Europe and the Pacific. Pictured here are civilian and military employees working in the small arms plant of the Curtis Bay Ordnance Depot, Curtis Bay, Maryland. The women in this photograph operated machinery that affixed .50 caliber bullets to easily transportable ammunition “belts,” which were used during World War II to feed heavy automatic weapons. Women who took up these types of manufacturing jobs – think “Rosie the Riveter” - were essential to the war effort, as they produced critical ammunition and supplies that helped ensure an Allied victory.

Interested to learn more about Curtis Bay Ordnance Depot, and the activities of the Ordnance Corps during World War II? Check out our online catalog at: archives.gov/research/catalog and make an appointment to view our holdings at the National Archives at Philadelphia by calling (215) 305-2044 or emailing us at Philadelphia.archives.gov.

Today’s post was written by Samuel Limneos, Archives Technician at the National Archives at Philadelphia.

Citation

3SC 18-024-576-4 Curtis Bay Ordnance Depot. Small Arms Plant. 13 Dec. 1945; Photographs; Box 1; Management Improvement Files 1952-1953, Curtis Bay Storage Facility; Record Group 156: Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance; National Archives at Philadelphia. (Record Entry ID: PH-6022) (Series NAID: 638784).

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Hi everyone! At this point, I’m approximately half-way done with my paper (it’s over 12 pages at this point, woah), and since I plan to get it published in a scholarly journal, I won’t be posting it on here. But I did give a presentation based on my research at Simmons College’s undergraduate symposium this past Wednesday.

Subjects of my research

Agent Carter

The ABC series Marvel’s Agent Carter, which is a spin-off of the Captain America film series focusing on Agent Peggy Carter, a skilled agent for the Strategic Scientific Reserve and the right-hand-woman/love interest of Captain America, as she struggles to prove herself in the sexist society of post-World War II America.

Sailor Moon

A Japanese magical girl anime and manga series that follows 14 year-old Usagi Tsukino, a.k.a. Sailor Moon, and her friends who upon awakening with the power to transform into a team of superheroines, known as the Sailor Guardians, fight for love and justice in order to protect the Solar System.

What is weaponized femininity?

A trope commonly found in female action heroines wherein their femininity is retained alongside masculine demonstrations of physical or mental strength, or functions as something to be manipulated as a tool of empowerment.

Its juxtaposition of masculine power with traditional femininity presents the feminine and the feminine-subject as active agents capable of undermining patriarchal power as well as cultural assumptions of girls and young women.

Offers resistance to what feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey called the “active-male/passive-female dichotomy” of gendered power on film, wherein men are depicted in active roles that bestow them with agency within a narrative, whereas  women in film serve as objectified, sexually titillating spectacles for “the male gaze” of the male audience.

Although hyperfeminine action heroines and female characters who manipulate the terms of their femininity have been the subject of feminist media scholars for years, there is currently no academic scholarship on the trope of weaponized femininity itself. This is because the term “weaponized femininity” is a neologism that began circulating around the feminist blogosphere around 2013. Thus, I was tasked with giving this concept validity as a trope in and of itself.

Component #1 - Masquerade

Female characters use or manipulate the terms of their femininity in order to gain power, navigate through oppressive power structures, or subvert patriarchal authority.

Draws from theorist Joan Riviere’s idea of femininity as strategic masquerade, wherein “womanliness…[can] be assumed and worn as a mask” to hide a woman’s possession of masculine strength.

Often enacted by superheroines, female secret agents, and female assassins, who perform a carefully constructed feminine identity in order to infiltrate the unsuspecting male sphere.

Component #2 - Destability of Gender Assumptions

Wherein hyperfeminine female characters demonstrate physical and/or mental strength on par with men.

The physical power and mental strength of these feminine subjects stands in opposition to cultural assumptions of female passivity,  refuting assumptions of appropriate gender roles by unifying feminine appearance and masculine toughness.

This iteration of weaponized femininity is frequently found in the young girl action heroine, who offers transgressive potential through her unique combination of physical power with stereotypical youth and femininity.

While the young girl action heroine has been featured throughout Western media ― The Powerpuff Girls (1998 - 2005), Hanna (2011),  and The Professional (1994) ― she has proven to be a cultural phenomenon throughout Japanese anime and manga in the form of “the beautiful fighting girl” (sentō bishōjo), young heroines whose “pure and lovable girlishness remain intact” while they do battle and fight to save the world.

Component #3 - Empowered Femininity

The powers of these heroines are characterized as feminine or depicted as stemming from femininity.

Constitutes a reclamation of femininity as a site of empowerment, reinscribing traditionally feminine characteristics with the active power commonly attributed to masculinity.

“The heroines themselves are empowered by their femininity, their weapons and superpowers as pink and girly as Barbie’s accessories, but as lethal as Rambo with heavy artillery strapped to his bulging chest. ”

Divisiveness of Criticism

However, feminist criticism towards these feminine action heroine attests to the weaponized femininity trope having a “double stake” in simultaneously resisting and reinforcing Mulvey’s active-male/passive-female dichotomy

The degree in which these hyperfeminine heroines are coded as sexually desirable objects sees the trope working in favor of the male gaze, presenting their resistance to female passivity as “erotic spectacle” and turning them into “sexist window-dressing” for male audiences.

The empowerment strategy contained in weaponized femininity also bears likeness to the neoliberal “tropes of freedom and choice” contained in postfeminist ideology. Thus, the trope often takes the form of the depoliticized, market-oriented Girl Power narrative that presents surface-level feminist rhetoric in commercial, apolitical ways.

Zack Snyder’s (Dir. Batman vs. Superman) 2011 film Sucker Punch was subject to criticism for the highly sexualized ways in which its heroines were depicted. Variety’s Peter Debruge called the film “misleadingly positioned as female empowerment despite clearly having been hatched as fantasy fodder for 13-year-old guys.”  

My Argument

As valid as these criticisms are, most of them fail to take into account the influence that female-authorship and female-readership/audience have on the trope’s images. Male agency over these narratives is assumed, and thus depictions of female sexuality constructed by female creators can be conflated with sexual objectification.

Mulvey’s theory of the male gaze specifically notes that these sexist images of women are the products of male production and the privileging of male audiences.

Furthermore, for feminist scholarship on Japanese anime (particularly Sailor Moon), theorists tend to apply strictly Western concepts of gender and feminist theory (such as Girl Power) onto these culturally Eastern narratives. This also ignores the fact that there is a rich history of female authorship to be found in Japanese manga.

I my paper I examine how female authorship and an explicit focus towards female audiences influence depictions of weaponized femininity, which I propose give female characters greater agency, subverts sexual objectification, and reinserts feminist gender politics back into the trope itself.

Weaponized Femininity in Agent Carter 

A significantly female production that centralizes female creative power, giving female-agency over a female-led narrative. Not only was Hayley Atwell integral to to show’s development but she’s an outspoken feminist herself who’s emphasized the political nature of her character.

Additionally, two of the three showrunners are women - Tara Butters and Michele Fazekas.

Agent Carter is also the first series within the Marvel Cinematic Universe to focus on a female heroine, and was also developed out of response to feminist criticism that the Marvel series was sidelining female characters. To this date, this series and Netflix’s Jessica Jones are the only two female-led series to exist.

While Peggy Carter’s role as Captain America first love-interest in the comics was minor, she was expanded on into a supporting role in the film. In the series, her male-authored history is challenged under female-authorship, which gives her the leading role. In this way, you can say that women really reclaimed Peggy as their own!

The show’s 1946 setting sees the trope politicized against post-war sexism and misogyny, at a time when women were being forced back into the home and gender roles were being re-established.

Despite her credentials, Peggy is dismissed by her male peers at the S.S.R., who demote her to secretarial duties and exclude her from field work.

In order to clear the name of her War-friend Howard Stark, Peggy is forced to use her femininity as masquerade in order to navigate institutional sexism and conduct her own investigations.

The show’s emphasis on post-war sexism simultaneously serves to provide a metacommentary on the erasure of women from the comic book industry, which began after men returned from the War and pushed women out of the workforce. This resulted in the cancellation of many superheroine comics and superheroine characters being demoted to either love-interests or minor, unsuper roles.

Similarly, Peggy is dismissed by her male colleagues as nothing but Captain America’s “gal”, and the erasure of women from comics is paralleled via the character Betty Carver, Peggy’s fictionalized counterpart on the radio show “The Captain America Adventure Program,” which demotes her role in Captain America’s story the core and powerful ally he revered to a gushing, damsel-in-distress.

Weaponized Femininity in Sailor Moon 

Created by Naoko Takeuchi, a female manga artist, who created the series specifically for young girls, because she saw a lack of female characters in the male-dominated super sentai (Japanese superhero team) genre.

Is a genre-hybrid of shōjo (manga aimed towards young women), mahō shōjo (magical girl), and super sentai. But falls in the realm of what Japanese psychologist and media scholar Saitō Tamaki calls the “beautiful fighting girl” character.

Takeuchi consistently places the experiences of Japanese girls and young women at the story’s forefront, reflecting shōjo’s history of politicizing girl’s experiences (sexuality, gender, etc.).  

A history of female-authorship exists in manga. Specifically, the “beautiful fighting girl” figure that Sailor Moon represents originates from shōjo.

Around the late 70s and early 80s, a new audience demographic for these stories and the beautiful fighting girl arose ― male otakus, or adult male hyper-fans of anime and manga, who came to sexualize these young female characters.

This resulted in many beautiful fighting girl characters and series to become sexualized in order to appease this audience and their consumer interests (such as anime merchandise).

Japanese Gender Politics

Once a patriarchal structured society, Japan in the early 70s saw a change of gender roles as women were given greater social freedoms, such as the ability to make their own marriage decisions.

However, this resulted in a sense of male anxiety and emasculation, and men began to feel socially disempowered relative to women’s increasing social status.

As Saitō Tamaki notes, this change in gender roles informed a sense of sexual entitlement and fetishization of young girls, who are still relatively bound within Japan’s age-based social system (one which expects conformity from children and prioritizes seniority.  

Thus, the beautiful fighting girl character was “hijacked” from female authors and female audiences because her youthful femininity and fictional nature allowed her to be easily fetishized.

The agency over the narrative allotted by female authorship sees the trope used to subvert the Madonna/whore dichotomy, as Sailor Moon’s power is sourced in her “pureness of heart” and yet, while being a clutzy, crybaby of a teenage girl, she’s allowed to be a sexual being and have ownership over her own desires.  

The very concept of weaponized femininity is also queered through the number of characters who express/engage in non-heterosexual love (the lesbian relationship between Sailor Uranus and Sailor Neptune) or are depicted as having a fluid gender-identity (Sailor Uranus and the gender-bending Sailor Starlights).

When asked why she included such a non-fetishized depiction of lesbians in the series, Naoko Takeuchi stated, “There’s not only heterosexual love, but there also can be a homosexual love, in this case between two girls.“

So, not only does this queerness work to destabilize the notion of female essentialism in weaponized femininity, but this form of queer representation remains radical even in 2016 Japan, which is still very behind in terms of extending anti-discrimination and marital rights to LGBTQ citizens.

2

Olivia will be honoured at the 42nd annual Gracie Awards.  Each year, the Alliance for Women in Media Foundation “celebrates female luminaries by recognizing their outstanding achievements across new and traditional media platforms.” The 2017 gala — which supports the AWMF’s educational programs and scholarship campaigns that benefit women in media — is set for Tuesday, June 6th at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills. Among the topics that will be addressed at the gala are immigration, reproduction rights, race relations and women in the workforce.

Olivia is honoured for her performance as Angela Burr in The Night Manager

incoramsanctissimo  asked:

Hi! I'm in a relationship looking towards marriage and have some questions about NFP. Firstly, I know the modern Church approved it, but has that always been the case throughout history? Second, my boyfriend and I kinda wanted to wait a year after marriage to have kids so that I could work for a while first - do you think that's a sufficient reason? Finally, how does one choose a method?

Hello! Congrats on your relationship! Hopefully it flowers into a lovely marriage.

The Church has always been intimately involved with fertility and sexuality: not because of a desire to throttle and control our sex lives, but because She knows how much sex affects the human person and society as a whole. As such, She seeks to help us understand our sexuality and how to properly use it for God’s glory. I say this to give some context for you and others reading my response.

In the past, it was common for women to space children through breastfeeding, and they had large networks of support in their family and villages for every baby that came along. Because of this, they would have a baby every few years and spacing children was not a worry.

Periodic abstinence (abstaining from sex for a period of time) was first mentioned in St. Paul’s letters to the 1 Corinthians 7. He suggested that avoiding sex for a while was not “bad”, and could be used as a time to spiritually grow as a couple. However, it wasn’t preferred (St. Paul never seemed to think highly of sex, despite God using sensual imagery to describe our longing for Him!); he emphasized the practical and spiritual need for a couple to also come together in intercourse. He never gave a magic number on how often sex should happen or how long or short the period of abstinence should be, as that is something the couple must discern on their own.

Now, fast forward two millennia later. Various saints and other Catholic thinkers have made commentary on marital sex during that time, though topics such as family planning were still not widely spoken of. Aside from (rightfully) demonizing withdrawal and other methods, there wasn’t much of a need to speak on things like birth control. Again, most couples either abstained or relied on breastfeeding. Many babies and children died young as well, so having whatever children you could was a need rather than a want.

That is, until the dawn of the 20th Century. Around this time, many scientific and cultural changes were happening all at once, and these changes occurred over just a few generations. More and more women began to birth in hospitals, live farther from family, and formula feeding for infants too became more commonplace (Another topic I touch upon here).

With less women breastfeeding and losing their support systems, pregnancy and birth grew to be more demanding of mothers. There was also the fact that as more women entered the workforce, they were dealing with sexist ideals that demanded that they remain unpregnant like men in order to keep their jobs. Accommodating pregnant women for work was unheard of and not fought for.

In 1930, then, is where we find the first encyclical dealing with the topic of birth control as we know it today: Costii Conubii. Written by Pope Pius XI, he asserted that artificial birth control that suppressed fertility or prevented the spilling of seed into the vagina was immoral. It was a bold statement, as during this time the Church of England allowed the use of birth control for married couples. This lead the way for many other Protestant churches to accept birth control despite founders such as Martin Luther speaking harshly against it.

Thankfully, the need for couples to avoid pregnancy in a way that respected Church teaching did not go unheeded. In fact, the first NFP method was developed before Casti Connubii was published! Catholic priest Wilhelm Hillebrand and his brothers, all doctors, came together to form a natural method of avoiding pregnancy that required periodic abstinence to work. First they developed a temperature only method of NFP, but later, they formed the Calender-Thermal Method, a mix of the Rhythm Method and the Temperature Method. While still not quite perfect, it was a game changer in terms of developing methods of NFP. He taught it to his parishioners with much success.

Sadly, the secular world did not care. By the time Pope Paul VI wrote another famous encyclical - Humanae Vitae, which also endorsed NFP and denounced birth control similar to Casti Connubii - hormonal methods of birth control were making their rounds. Instead of seeking to understand and encourage fertility awareness, pharmaceutical companies tested endless trials on poor, POC women and lied about side effects to sell their product. These companies launched successful campaigns in convincing society that in order to be equal and free and prepared, women MUST inject their bodies with artificial hormones and foreign objects. With this business making billions and it being easier to hand out than NFP pamphlets, it became the norm before NFP could take the stand.

Thankfully, many Catholic doctors, midwives, and researchers responded to Pope Paul VI’s call to better the NFP methods of the time. Already by the time the encyclical came out, methods were being studied and perfected. We see their fruits today in the modern NFP movement and health care! And not only as a method of preventing pregnancy and treating gynecological health, but as a way to treat infertility as well (around this time, things like IVF were being developed).

As you can see, the Church has always supported the SPIRIT behind NFP: chastity, obedience to God, and supporting periodic abstinence for a higher purpose. When the need for a family planning method came to be in the 20th Century, that spirit was forged into the modern innovation of NFP. NFP is accepted not because it is timeless and true, but because it can embody those ideals.

As for whether you have a serious enough reason or not to avoid pregnancy that first year: I can not tell you this. There is no list of yes and nos to follow. I highly suggest reading Humanae Vitae yourself, and perhaps picking up books on married sexuality such as “Holy Sex!” by Gregory Popcak. You don’t need to be on the doorstep of abject poverty or death in order to avoid pregnancy, you just have to discern through prayer and clear communication whether the circumstance allows for avoiding.

Sorry for the giant word wall: I’m sure you were expecting something shorter lol. But I hope it gives you and your boyfriend something to mull over as you prepare your future lives together. :)

Further reading:

History of Natural Family Planning: http://howell-fertility-education.squarespace.com/blog/2016/10/20/natural-family-planning-its?rq=prehistory

History of Breastfeeding as a Child Spacer: https://patron-saint-of-smart-asses.tumblr.com/post/151316492014/i-cant-stfu-about-breastfeeding-and-its-relation

Casti Connubii: https://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_19301231_casti-connubii.html

Humanae Vitae: http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-vi_enc_25071968_humanae-vitae.html

The racist and sexist history of birth control: https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/kzeazz/the-racist-and-sexist-history-of-keeping-birth-control-side-effects-secret

Things I learned from AP Euro this year:
  • people don’t like people who are different (Wars of Religion, Reconquista, Inquisition)
  • women can do everything men can do - and better (Elizabeth I, Catherine the Great, women in the workforce during WWI and WWII, women in the Soviet Union)
  • you can be successful and people still won’t like you (Otto von Bismarck, Wilhelm II, and the “dropping of the pilot”)
  • when you forgive someone, forgive them completely (Treaty of Versailles, The War Guilt Clause, German-French conflict)
  • stand your ground (appeasement, Munich conference, Hitler’s eventual empire)
  • teamwork is safer (North Atlantic Pact, Treaty of Rome, Common Market, Maastricht Treaty, European Union)
  • …but you should never completely trust the other person (Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact)
  • good ideals become twisted over time (Karl Marx, Marxian communism, Lenin, Stalin, socialism)
  • when things go wrong, you can always start over (French Revolution, National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, National Convention, Directory, Consulate, Empire, 2nd French Republic, 3rd French Republic, 4th French Republic, 5th French Republic)

So regardless of what score I get on the exam today, I want to acknowledge that, on the whole, I think I really loved this class.

4

sophiabush: What a lovely day, speaking with my sister friend @ruthielindsey on work, passion, and community at @wework’s #SummerCamp.

I’m tremendously grateful to have friends who are disrupting the world for good, prioritizing quality culture, and shining lights on the incredible women in their workforce. Not to mention proving that doing good is also good for business.

Thanks for having us, fam. Heart you big. And thank you to all of the lovely ladies and gents who came to hear us speak and dive in to some depth and love! ⛺️

It is also time to stop giving lip service to the idea that there are no battles left to be fought for women in America, that women’s rights have already been won. It is ridiculous to tell girls to keep quiet when they enter a new field, or an old one, so the men will not notice they are there. In almost every professional field, in business and in the arts and sciences, women are still treated as second-class citizens. It would be a great service to tell girls who plan to work in society to expect this subtle, uncomfortable discrimination - tell them not to be quiet, and hope it will go away, but fight it. A girl should not expect special privileges because of her sex, but neither should she ‘adjust’ to prejudice and discrimination.
—  Betty Friedan
bbc.co.uk
TV 'failing to represent society'
Women, ethnic minority groups and disabled people are under-represented, the broadcasting watchdog says.

I can’t cope with this article…

Broadcasters are failing to represent society with a lack of diversity among staff, Ofcom has warned. The broadcasting watchdog says women, ethnic minority groups and disabled people are all under-represented. Its chief executive Sharon White said many of the “shocking” results will “concern the whole industry”.

Ofcom’s report looked at how the TV industry - focusing on the BBC, ITV, Channel 4, Sky and Channel 5 owners Viacom - can improve. White said the report “paints a worrying picture, with many broadcasters failing properly to monitor the make-up of their employees”.

Now wait for it…. here are the apparently ‘shocking’ statistics -

The report found that across the five main broadcasters, women accounted for 48% of the total workforce - compared with 51% across the general population - and held 39% of senior roles.

How the fuck is small difference such as this even worth being mentioned?! I mean really!??!?!?! HOW IS THAT SHOCKING! I am actually despairing here. And that is without going into why people think there has to be an exact 50/50 split in the first place…. but come on, they’re moaning that only 48% of the workforce are women………………………. really?! 

Ofcom also said those from a black, African or ethnic minority background made up 12% of workers despite accounting for 14% …. of the general population

Again - people are getting their knickers in a knot about such a tiny tiny statistical difference?! This really does smack of people desperate for something to moan about.

and disabled people just 3% despite accounting for 18% of the general population

Oh look, an actually significant difference. Now I am going to get lambasted for this I am absolutely sure, but not only do they not define what ‘disabled’ means. (So they are glomming every form of physical and mental disability together?!)… is it not the case that some physical disabilities in particular would preclude people from performing certain tasks in this sort of industry. I don’t know it just all seems a bit vague to me.. Of course if this is down to discrimination then I will absolutely be against it.. but they have nothing to show that it is, and as I said by lumping everyone under one category of ‘disabled’ this really tells us nothing and is actually quite ignorant.

And still none of this tells me anything about why we have to have an exact match to society in any of these demographics…. again I certainly wouldn’t want anyone to be discriminated against but nothing here actually shows discrimination. The TV channels are now setting ‘diversity targets’ which will achieve absolutely fuck all. Surely like any industry the jobs should go to those best suited to them…. All this focus on equality of outcome will end up holding people back from getting jobs they want and are capable of just because they don’t have the correct gender/skin colour/disability, which to me is…. discrimination! Am I wrong?

wandering-darkly  asked:

How did you learn your place? Do you think it only applies to you or to all women?

I’ve always been interested in traditional gender roles. As a little girl, I was, and still am, very into history and the roles women filled in the past. I appreciate the simplicity and happiness that caring for a husband and family fosters. I’ve always been very upset that modern society pushes careers on women.
I don’t believe all women should be forced into traditional roles. Everyone has different dreams and needs. However, I do believe in promoting homemaking as a valid option to young girls, because as we all know, less women in the workforce allows for more single income families. Also, being forced to work outside the home is detrimental to the women and families who benefit from traditional gender roles.