women of world war ii

“Topaz, Utah. Knitting warm woolen clothing for her children against the coming winter, this Japanese mother, at the Topaz Relocation Center, takes advantage of the warm Utah sun.”  10/17/1942

Parker, Tom, Photographer.  Series: Central Photographic File of the War Relocation Authority, 1942 - 1945. Record Group 210: Records of the War Relocation Authority, 1941 - 1989

Professional photographers were commissioned by the War Relocation Authority to document the daily life and treatment of Japanese-Americans who were interned during World War II.  

Browse nearly 4,000 photos of Japanese American relocation and internment in the Central Photographic File of the War Relocation Authority in the @usnatarchives online catalog.


More Resources Commemorating the 75th Anniversary of Japanese American Internment at the National Archives

in light of the recent, disturbing trends i’ve seen growing on tumblr and elsewhere lately, i’d like to clarify a few things about butchness as an identity, a concept, and a subject worthy of respect.

butch is a lesbian identity historically defined by aspects of presentation, behavior, and self-perception. it has its roots (at least in america) around world war ii, where thousands of women took on stereotypically masculine jobs in the women’s army corps, becoming welders, truck drivers, and more confident in breaking from feminine ideals. it emerged as a coherent idea within lesbianism around the forties when the lesbian bar scene took off and saw its heyday in the fifties and sixties, where butches learned from each other how to dress, act, woo femmes, and carry themselves and their brave identities with self-assurance and pride. since then, it has grown and changed alongside lesbian culture and gender perceptions, surfacing a little differently every decade.

butch is an intriguing and gorgeous gem from lesbian history (and lgbt history as a whole). lgbt individuals have forever sought ways to express their desires and identities outside of society’s stringent gender-based norms. masculinity, in particular, has been closely guarded, held holy, and a means of oppression. women who had nothing to do with men whatsoever — women hated by men as a whole — forged their own rules and roles and lifestyles from the ashes of men’s pride, with utter indifference towards that which men held dear.

butch is outside of the common perception of gender. it stands against the idea that gender identity and presentation must be thought of as completely distinct — and also allows that gender identity and presentation be held distinct and at odds with one another. there are butches who affirm themselves completely as women and butchness as an integral part of their womanhood, in opposition with the standards of femininity imposed upon women everywhere. there are butches who identify personally and intimately with the androgyny and gender nonconformity that butch presentation necessitates, and might go by he/his pronouns or have their children call them “dad” without being any less lesbian, any less butch. these are both completely valid and acceptable ways of being butch.

butch is not maleness or male privilege. butches are not men. masculine presentation does not a man make. butch is by necessity lesbian, and lesbianism by its very existence has everything to do with women and nothing to do with men. butch is complex, challenging, and diverse, and requires nuance in consideration and analysis. this is not something to hate. this is not something to fear. it is something to wonder at, to appreciate, to learn from.

butch is not evil. is not ugly, unless a butch would like to reclaim the ugliness that society’s spite has thrust upon her. is not oppressive. is not something to be conflated with maleness, whether cis or trans.

butch is beautiful. is handsome. is brave. is enduring. is revolutionary. is significant, both historically and for today. is magnificent. is admirable. is strong.

butch hatred is not the hatred of men or the hatred of some ridiculous, universally oppressive “masculinity.” butch hatred is hatred directed towards women and, furthermore, lesbians. butch hatred is the hatred of lesbians who have been a significant part of the backbone of lesbian culture as long as lesbian culture has existed. the women hated foremost in the twenties were those who wore pants. the women labeled as “gender inverts” for their posture, confident stance, and preference for “men’s activities” in the late nineteenth century wrote the first books women like them could turn to for stories of women’s love for women, for women not acting the way women ought to. (see the well of loneliness by radclyffe hall.)

butches are not privileged for their butchness. butches are widely disadvantaged and punished for their gender nonconformity. the fact that we live in a day and age where some people — some lesbians, even — are so isolated from actual gender dynamics that they would believe that women can get goodies from society for not acting “like women” is completely, wickedly mind-boggling.

stop with “masculine privilege.” stop with “butch privilege.” stop with “femme oppression,” which is a post for another day. the hatred of butches is frankly inexcusable and deeply shameful. you are better than this, and butches deserve far, far more than the spite and ignorance you show them.

this post is wholly inclusive of trans butches.

Members of the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion, the first all-African-American, all-female unit to serve overseas in World War II, take part in a parade ceremony in honor of Joan d'Arc at the marketplace where she was burned at the stake. Rouen, France. May 27, 1945.

(US National Archives)

6

75th Anniversary of the Women’s Army Corp (WAC)

Congresswoman Edith Nourse Rogers of Massachusetts proposed a bill in May 1941 with the support of Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall to establish the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corp (WAAC). The bill was passed a year later and the first enlisted auxiliaries arrived for training at Fort Des Moines in July 1942. In July 1943, the Reserves was incorporated into the Regular Army and reestablished as the Women’s Army Corp (WAC). During WWII, about 150,000 women served in the WAAC and WAC.

During the war, Eleanor Roosevelt continued the ceaseless activism that had long marked her as America’s most public First Lady. Mrs. Roosevelt was outspoken in her support for gender equality. She championed women’s entrance into the armed services.

Trackwomen, 1943. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company

Series: Women Working In Industry, 1940 - 1945. Record Group 86: Records of the Women’s Bureau, 1892 - 1995

March is Women’s History Month! Women have shaped this country’s history in more ways than we can count. Long before Rosie the Riveter joined the war effort in the 1940s, women earned wages to support themselves and their families. This series of posts celebrates the diversity of women’s labor, ranging from industry to agriculture to folklore and beyond. 

This archival series (Women Working In Industry, 1940 - 1945) contains images depicting women and their contributions to the war effort during World War II. The photographs show women for the first time on a mass scale and from every social and economical background preforming jobs that have been traditionally considered as men’s work. In addition to the clerical and secretarial fields, women are seen working in the aircraft industry, the metal industry, ordnance, the railroad, the shipyards, as well as the military services. There are approximately 94 different occupations shown in this series where women were performing the work.


This month’s Women’s History series comes via Nora Sutton, one of our interns from the Department of State’s Virtual Student Foreign Service (VSFS) program. Nora is finishing her Master’s in Public History at West Virginia University this semester.

A LEAGUE OF THEIR OWN (1992). Geena Davis, Madonna, Lori Petty, Rosie O’Donnell, and Tom Hanks star in Penny Marshall’s comedy of the 1940s women’s professional baseball league.

flickr

During World War II, sugar and flour and butter were rationed and in short supply. So the Girl Scouts sold calendars instead of cookies.

After Words

Summary: Bookshop AU. Reader finds a book with some handwritten notes inside and sets out to find the person responsible.

Pairing: Bucky Barnes x reader

Word Count: 6,690

Warnings: language, fluff, mentions of anxiety, one mention of PTSD, mentions of mental health issues, I love italicizing things, and I make fun of people calling other people snowflakes

A/N: This is for @whotheeffisbucky​‘s AU Writing Challenge. Thanks for letting me participate! Sorry if it’s a mess!

Originally posted by leafierleaf

Keep reading

“Members of the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) pose at Camp Shanks, New York, before leaving from New York Port of Embarkation on Feb. 2, 1945. The women are with the first contingent of Black American WACs to go overseas for the war effort From left to right are, kneeling: Pvt. Rose Stone; Pvt. Virginia Blake; and Pfc. Marie B. Gillisspie. Second row: Pvt. Genevieve Marshall; T/5 Fanny L. Talbert; and Cpl. Callie K. Smith. Third row: Pvt. Gladys Schuster Carter; T/4 Evelyn C. Martin; and Pfc. Theodora Palmer.”

(AP)

eluvixns-moved  asked:

Do you have any w|w book recommendations? I too would like to hide in them forever because television is so fucking sad. I'm sorry for being a bother and thank you!

you’re not bothering me at all i love recommending femslash books!

it’s time i updated the last list i made anyway so i’ll give you all of my favorites and you can pick according to your taste i only guarantee that all of these have happy endings for the pairings :)

fantasy/sci-fi:

romance:

mystery/crime with lesbian romance:

others:

  • juliet takes a breath by gabby rivera: young latina lesbian from the bronx tries to figure herself out while interning with the author of her favorite feminist book
  • after the fall by robin summers: wonderful badasses falling in love and finding hope and happiness in a post-apocalyptic world (cw: rape, homophobia)
  • in the company of women by kate christie: historical, about the women’s army corps during world war II, centered around two of them who fall in love
  • courtship by carsen taite: political/legal drama about a powerful campaign manager and the brilliant woman she’s in charge of appointing as the first female chief justice of the US supreme court

let me know if you read any of these and enjoy it i love hearing back from people who read the books i recommended!

3

The Story of the Flying Lady Badass Anna Yegorova

 Born to a Russian peasant family in 1916, Anna Yegorova was one of the deadliest and most celebrated Soviet pilots of World War II.  While working as a factory worker before the war, Yegorova received pilots training and eventually became a flight instructor.  When the Germans invaded in 1941, she volunteered for the Soviet Air Force, however Soviet commanders at the time were slow to accept women for combat service.  Instead, she was assigned to fly an aging rickety biplane as a reconnaissance pilot.  Between 1941 and 1942 she flew 100 reconnaissance missions, many of which were very dangerous.  On her 100th mission, her plane was intercepted by a German fighter.  Completely outclassed in her puttering antique biplane, she was easily shot down by the fighter.  Having no parachute she was forced to crash land as her plane erupted into flames around her.  After the crash, she hid in a corn field as the German fighter straffed her with machine guns until running out of ammo and flying away.  Despite suffering horrific burns over much of her body, she returned to base and personally delivered her maps. For her actions she was promoted to Lieutenant and assigned for training at a combat aviation school.

While in combat training Yegorova gained a reputation as one of the best pilots of her class.  She was trained to fly the Ilyushin IL-2 Sturmovik, a heavily armed and armored ground attack aircraft nicknamed “The Flying Tank”.  Throughout the war, the IL-2 was used as a close air support craft, and was specifically used to destroy German tanks. After graduating combat aviation school in 1943, she was assigned command of an IL-2 squadron that was part of the 805th Attack Aviation Regiment.  Over the next year she commanded 177 combat missions, destroying scores of German tanks, armored vehicles, and trucks.  A true terror of sky, she was known as a superior pilot and a fearless combat leader. Among the enemy she was known as the “Flying Witch”. During her combat duty, she was awarded the Order of Lenin, two Orders of the Red Banner, and two Orders of the Patriotic War 1st Class. 

On an attack on a German column in Auguast of 1944, an anti craft shell exploded below the seat of her cockpit, the force of which blew her through her cockpit canopy.  Before falling unconscious Yegorova pulled the rip cord or her parachute.  However the parachute failed to open completely, and she was sent screaming to the earth until she slammed into the ground. Soviet officials believed she was dead, and posthumously awarded her the title “Hero of the Soviet Union”.   

As if by miracle, Yegorova was alive, but she was seriously injured with several broken ribs, dislocated arms and shoulders, severe spinal fractures, a concussion, burns, and numerous internal injuries. Barely alive and slipping in and out of a coma, Yegorova was sent to Kustrin Prison Camp in Poland, where she was dumped in a prison cell and left to die.  Fortunately, she was tended by another prisoner, a Russian physician named Georgy Sinyakov.  Amazingly, working 20 hours a day with little food or medical supplies, Dr. Sinyakov was able to nurse her back to health. A selfless healer who treated thousands of POW’s with what little he had, he even sacrificed some of his own rations so that Yegorova would live. Despite his care, her wounds never completely healed and she suffered physical disability the rest of her life. When she was barely strong enough to stand, the German SS and Gestapo began to interrogate her, often resorting to beatings and torture.  During her imprisonment, she told nothing to her interrogators.

In January of 1945, Kustrin Prison Camp was liberated by the Red Army.  The guards of the camp had planned to shoot all the prisoners before leaving, however Dr. Sinyakov convinced the Germans to leave without firing a shot. While she was free of German imprisonment, Yegorova’s ordeal was far from over.  Under Stalin’s orders Soviet soldiers, sailors, and airmen were forbidden from surrendering, and to Stalin there were no Soviet POW’s, only traitors.  Upon liberation, Yegorova was arrested by the Soviet NKVD and interrogated for 11 days on suspicion of being a spy and a traitor. She was also stripped of all her awards and titles, with her combat record being erased from all official Soviet documents.  After all the combat, her life threating injuries which left her body permanently wrecked and disfigured, the torture at the hands of the Germans, and having all of her life’s accomplishment revoked, the moment of her life which brought tears to her eyes even decades later was when an NKVD interrogator called her “a fascist bitch”.  One the 11th day of her interrogation she finally made the demand, “You can shoot me, but I will not let you torture me!”.  Later that day, she was cleared of charges and released when Soviet Air Force commanders intervened on her behalf. She was declared an invalid and released from military service.

After the war, Yegorova married, raised a family with two children, and desperately petitioned the Soviet Government to restore her service record and awards.  Finally, in 1965 her awards were returned, including the coveted title “Hero of the Soviet Union”.  On a side note, Dr. Simyakov, an earthly saint IMO, received no recognition for his work at Kustrin Prison Camp while he was alive, despite the accounts of thousands of Soviet servicemen who he had treated while at the camp.  He returned to his life as a doctor, and passed away in 1978. Anna Yegorova passed away on the 29th of October, 2009, at the age of 93.