wireless transmission

Dr. Tesla Discussing The Ether Space Wave Theory

“It was evident to me that wireless transmission of energy, if it could ever be accomplished, is not an invention; it is an art. Bell’s telephone, Edison’s phonograph, or my induction motor were inventions, but the wireless transmission of energy is an art that requires a great many inventions in combination.

“We are living on a planet that is rushing through space; this planet is partly conducting and partly insulating. If it were all conducting, or if it were all insulating, we could not transmit energy without wire. It is only because it is partly conducting and partly insulating that a glorious future for man is reserved through the application of this art.”

–Nikola Tesla

(From a pre-hearing interview with Nikola Tesla and his legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company.)

[Fig. 1]:
“We are living on a planet of well-nigh inconceivable dimensions, surrounded by a layer of insulating air above which is a rarefied and conducting atmosphere. This is providential, for if all the air were conducting the transmission of electrical energy thru the natural media would be impossible.” –NT

[Fig. 2]:
“My early experiments have shown that currents of high frequency and great tension readily pass thru an atmosphere but moderately rarefied, so that the insulating stratum is reduced to a small thickness as will be evident by inspection of [Fig. 2], in which a part of the earth and its gaseous envelope is shown to scale. If the radius of the sphere is 12½”, then the non-conducting layer is only 1/64″ thick and it will be obvious that the Hertzian rays cannot traverse so thin a crack between two conducting surfaces for any considerable distance, without being absorbed.” –NT

“Famous Scientific Illusions.” Electrical Experimenter, February, 1919.

Tesla’s World-Wide Wireless Transmission Of Electrical Signals, As Well As Light and Power - Illustration and caption by Hugo Gernsback from Electrical Experimenter magazine, February 1919, article written by ‘The Man Who Invented The 20th Century’, the great Nikola Tesla.

So Superman finds out Billy Batson is a homeless super-powered pre-teen and, you know, panics a little. Clark also somehow adopts the kid. It was an accident. He didn’t mean to! All the paperwork just filled itself out over six months of prep-time and vetting. Total accident. He doesn’t know what he’s doing. Billy doesn’t mind. a03

Keep reading

“Imagine the earth to be a bag of rubber filled with water, a small quantity of which is periodically forced in and out of the same by means of a reciprocating pump, as illustrated. If the strokes of the latter are effected in intervals of more than one hour and forty-eight minutes, sufficient for the transmission of the impulse thru the whole mass, the entire bag will expand and contract and corresponding movements will be imparted to pressure gauges or movable pistons with the same intensity, irrespective of distance. By working the pump faster, shorter waves will be produced which, on reaching the opposite end of the bag, may be reflected and give rise to stationary nodes and loops, but in any case, the fluid being incompressible, its enclosure perfectly elastic, and the frequency of oscillations not very high, the energy will be economically transmitted and very little power consumed so long as no work is done in the receivers. This is a crude but correct representation of my wireless system in which, however, I resort to various refinements. Thus, for instance, the pump is made part of a resonant system of great inertia, enormously magnifying the force of the imprest impulses. The receiving devices are similarly conditioned and in this manner the amount of energy collected in them vastly increased.“

–Nikola Tesla

“Famous Scientific Illusions.” Electrical Experimenter, February, 1919.
Net Neutrality or Net Bureaucracy?

You guys realize this whole Net Neutrality debate has relatively little to do with the common user, right?

It’s not as though you or I are going to be paying the ISPs directly for access to bandwidth – it’s the websites. Websites, not individuals, will be the ones who see a barrier to entry in this ‘free market’ of pay-for-access Internet. I do not support FCC authority over the Internet, but lets stop pretending that it would somehow be better if we had “a la carte” instead of an all-you-can-eat buffet.

“Competition will ensure the best services rise to the top” – in this instance, I do not believe that is the case. “Competition” will flow from the currently-existing communications oligopolies, and those that 'rise to the top’ will only do so because they are already so entrenched in the business.

Unless each ISP plans to offer a 'free for all’ package along with their access, it is highly unlikely that the lay-user will ever come across start up or experimental websites. Where once a YouTube or a Google could be started in your garage and propagate based on its genuine mass appeal, innovation will now take a backseat to brand recognition and digital empire. The last 10 years of consolidation of Internet services within the hands of few tech corporations should paint that picture clearly enough.

There is a very big difference between you, the end user, paying Verizon for access to content on the web….and Joe Schmo of schmo.com having to pay not just Verizon, not just Comcast, but every ISP individually for the ability to have their content seen by you. On top of paying for access, Schmo would also have to pay a premium for bandwidth if he expects his website to run smoothly. On top of that premium, Schmo would likely worry that his deal with Comcast might prejudice his services with Verizon being that the two ISPs are competitors.

One example of this already exists with Netflix. Last fall, we saw ISPs deliberately curtailing Netflix’ access to regular bandwidth; the video-streaming provider was held hostage by ISPs such as Comcast and Verizon until Netflix approached both with a deal for faster service. Predictably, Netflix also raised subscription fees to cover the costs of recovering previously-held network speeds. Vox advances one extrapolation of this phenomena:

Here, Netflix has paid to give its content priority over the content of its competitors (Hulu). Customers get an excellent experience, but accessing other web content whose hosts have not paid for special treatment may be cumbersome.

For the most part, this isn’t how the internet works right now. Currently, internet connections work on a first-come, first-served basis, with no one’s packets getting special treatment. And net neutrality supporters think that’s a good thing.

There are thousands of networks around the world. The miracle of the internet is that anyone can set up a web server, anywhere in the world, and instantly reach everyone else, no matter where they are or what network they’re using. But if broadband providers started dividing their networks up into fast lanes and slow lanes, things could get more complicated. To get satisfactory service for your website, you might have to negotiate fast-lane agreements with thousands of ISPs all over the world. Companies that don’t have the money — or the manpower — to do that would be at a competitive disadvantage.

Expecting a free market solution to come from current infrastructure is folly because the Internet is already dominated by large monopolies by virtue of the product offered. You don’t have multiple water companies in a town because the costs and practicality of establishing multiple, redundant waterpipes is greater than what we observe in a 'natural monopoly’. In Pennsylvania, electricity is provided to all citizens using the same powerlines; competing providers do not establish multiple, redundant lines to the same house. When you pay for electricity, you are choosing which company generates and transmits your electricity, but distribution of energy via powerlines is a natural monopoly. Until wireless electricity transmission becomes cost-effective, we unfortunately will not see these monopolies dissolve any time soon.

Access to the Internet works largely the same way. The consumer is paying for access to the 'pipes’; like the power generators, each ISP is offering the same service but with their own caveats, usually package deals for telephone, cable access, or larger bandwidth. The result is the same no matter which ISP you choose: access to the unfettered content of the world wide web.

Let me reiterate that I am not advocating an FCC solution. To be frank, I haven’t got a “solution” that wouldn’t require private companies being strong-armed by the government. The lack of Net Neutrality principles effectively give an advantage to internet service providers and telecom giants who are willing (and able) to make deals with ISPs. This obviously presents small companies with the disadvantage of operating on a slower network. Inevitably, a world without neutral principles wouldn’t reward the most innovative website with the best services but rather the companies that are best at making deals, or the companies with the most money.

There is one bright side to all of this, assuming we all remain the conscientious consumers that we claim to be; sugashane summed this up in his take on net neutrality:

So why do I not care what the FCC does? And why would I actually be in favor of the cable companies messing with bandwidth? Well, because I think that this bottleneck will give way to better, faster and smarter gateways to the internet & web. Something that everyone’s wanted but not had the motives to deliver.

We’ll see Google’s Project Loon, Google Fiber, Facebook’s Internet broadcasting Drones, PCell, 5G wireless, 10G wireless (SOON!). Everything’s going mobile, it’s going handheld and it’s going wireless/cellular. So who cares what the antiquated land-line companies want to do? Just like how the print media and the television companies are desperately clinging on to what’s left. Why? No one even wants that’s obsolete crap anymore. We have blogs and youtube!

The glimmer of hope here is that we will begin to see decentralized solutions coming into the fold. Ideas like the mesh network and wireless transmission will lead the way into a freer, more open society with uninhibited access to all information, all the time.

A conceptual illustration of Nikola Tesla’s Trans-Oceanic Global Energy System. [After Wardenclyffe Tower in Shoreham Long Island, NY]; Unfortuneately Nikola Tesla’s Trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmissions never fully materialized. Tesla claimed to be developing an Intercontinental form of Super-conductive Wireless Technologies which would be capable of distributing free and limitless power throughout the surface of the entire planet. (1901–1917)

“The sun projects charged particles constituting an electric current which passes through a conducting stratum of the atmosphere approximately [6.214 miles] thick enveloping the earth. This is a transmission of energy exactly as I illustrated in my experimental lectures in which one end of a wire is connected to an electric generator of high potential, its other end being free. In this case the generator is represented by the sun and the wire by the conducting air. The passage of the solar current involves the transference of electric charges from particle to particle with the speed of light, thus resulting in the production of extremely short and penetrating waves. As the air stratum mentioned is the source of the waves it follows that the so-called cosmic rays observed at great altitudes must increase as this stratum is approached. My researches and calculations have brought to light the following facts in this connection: (1) the intensity of the so-called cosmic rays must be greatest in the zenithal portion of atmosphere; (2) the intensity should increase more and more rapidly up to an elevation of about 20 kilometers where the conducting air stratum begins; (3) from there on the intensity should fall, first slowly and then more rapidly, to an insignificant value at an altitude of about 30 kilometers; (4) the display of high potential must occur on the free end of the terrestrial wire, that is to say, on the side turned away from the sun. The current from the latter is supplied at a pressure of about 216 billion volts and there is a difference of 2 billion volts between the illuminated and the dark side of the globe. The energy of this current is so great that it readily accounts for the aurora and other phenomena observed in the atmosphere and at the earth’s surface.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Dynamic Theory of Gravity.” July 10, 1937 (Prior to interviews with the press on his 81st birthday observance).

Can we talk about how dangerous the stuff nancy did in DED actually is like nancy repaired a fucking tesla coil that killed one of the geniuses of the field and she has NO EXPERIENCE WHATSOEVER. she has like 2 books and she’s like “lol I knew mason was talking about the wireless transmission of energy that one time I’m totally capable”
I know nancy does stuff she’s completely unqualified for all the time but REALLY NANCY THIS IS A LITTLE EXTREME

Electromagnetic Confusion

I know most of us are more or less seduced by the idea that Charles often has trouble keeping all the voices out. But I often wonder how Erik deals with all the electromagnetic signals he is constantly bombarded with. Animals sense signals to a certain degree, but Erik obviously senses, and later controls them, at an epic level.

But what if, when he’s weak, tired, young, whathaveyou that, like Charles, he can’t sort it all out? There are so many different kinds of electromagnetism and magnetic fields in our daily lives that it’s kind of a blessing we don’t sense them all.

There are man-made waves such as microwave ovens, televisions, radio (man made or which bombard the earth from space) and other wireless transmissions from phones or wi-fi, etc. And natural phenomena like solar flares, those created by earthquakes, and electromagnetic pulses from lightning. Hell, you could make an argument that in his youth he might have even accidentally attracted lightning. It would be a constant bombardment though, at least, he wouldn’t suffer the added confusion of human thought as Charles does.

It isn’t something we think about everyday, but it could be a good source of inspiration for people that want to write fics with science. Or with some handwavy pseudoscience! ;D

1. Nikola Tesla was an inventor, discoverer, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, theoretical and experimental physicist, mathematician, futurist and humanitarian. He was a hyper-polyglot who could speak eight languages including: Serbo-Croatian, English, Czech, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin. He was known to have one of the most remarkable memories, being able to recite full books, poetry and mathematical formulas by heart. He claimed to have had a three-dimensional memory and thought process that tormented him in his youth, but later aided him with building his inventions in his own mind without wasting any physical energy. Tesla was a man who was far ahead of his time, and even our time today. He was the first to discover the rotating magnetic field, and invent and patent a commutatorless alternating current induction motor based off this discovery. All electrical machinery using or generating alternating current is due to Tesla, without which all our electrified power lines, long distance trolley cars, electric vehicles, and our subways would be far less advanced. He is the true father of radio, sending the first radio signals up to 30 miles in distance in experiments at his Houston Street laboratory before its destruction by fire in 1895. He was the first to demonstrate wireless energy/power by lighting his phosphorescent light bulbs wirelessly in a demonstration given before the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, 1893, and later lit lamps wirelessly at a distance of 25 miles away from his transmitter. In his labs he conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillators/generators, electrical discharge tubes, electrical therapy, and some of the first X-ray imaging. Tesla was also the first to demonstrate remote control, building a wireless controlled boat first exhibited in 1898. At Colorado Springs in 1899, he created artificial lightning bolts 100 feet long, and sent currents around the Earth with a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second with his transmitter patented in 1900. Some of his greatest experiments and demonstrations have yet to be reproduced by even our greatest scientists today. Although not recognized for, he was the first to discover the electron, radioactivity, terrestrial resonance, stationary waves (standing waves), and cosmic rays, which he also recorded traveling many times faster than light. His life long work was a dynamic theory of gravity that explained the causes of gravitation and the motions of heavenly bodies, which he claimed had been worked out in all details and he hoped to give it to the world. He was so satisfied with his theory that he believed it would put an end to the “idle speculations and false conceptions” rooted from Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. All his ideas and discoveries were logical inferences based off knowledge from his many years of investigations, experiments and developments in science and radio technology. Tesla predicted television, the internet, smart phones, weather control, interplanetary communication, an idea to produce an artificial Aurora Borealis to light the night skies, a particle beam to be used for defense in war, and the transmission of wireless power to any point on the globe. He intended to unify all these innovations into one big machine known as his Magnifying Transmitter, or his World System, but lacked the investments and funds to finish and prove his work on a large scale. Tesla would eventually die penniless and alone in his New York apartment, but like all the greats listed above, he lives on through all his inventions and contributions to this world.

“Let the future tell the truth and evaluate each one according to his work and accomplishments. The present is theirs; the future, for which I really worked, is mine.”

–Nikola Tesla

“The near future, I expect with confidence, will be a witness of revolutionary departures in the production, transformation and transmission of energy, transportation, lighting, manufacture of chemical compounds, telegraphy, telephony and other arts and industries.

“In my opinion, these advances are certain to follow from the universal adoption of high-potential and high-frequency currents and novel regenerative processes of refrigeration to very low temperatures.”

–Nikola Tesla

Laboratory, Long Island, New York. January 1, 1904.

“Ahead of His Time: A Mini Biography of Nikola Tesla.

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This mini biography is intended to share the life of Nikola Tesla and the work he produced, in simplistic form. I hope to enlighten the readers on how he developed his inventions and discoveries, and how he envisioned his wildest aspirations for the future.

Enjoy… (((:

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Nikola Tesla was an inventor, discoverer, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, theoretical and experimental physicist, mathematician, futurist and humanitarian. He is the primary cause for over ninety percent of the transmission of electrical power the world relies on today thanks to his discovery of the rotating magnetic field. The inventor utilized this discovery in his invention and patent of the first commutatorless alternating current induction motor which changed the future of power transmission. All electrical technology using or generating alternating current today is due to Tesla, without which all our trolley cars, electric vehicles, subways, manufacturing/industrial plants and electrified power lines, which bring power to almost every single electrical appliance/equipment in our homes/work, would be impossible.

One could argue that Tesla is responsible for the creation of the Twentieth Century, and the present day we enjoy today. He was the first to demonstrate the transmission of wireless energy, and is the true father of radio. In his labs experiments, he conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillators/generators, electrical discharge tubes, photography, electrical therapy, and some of the first X-ray imaging. He was the first to demonstrate remote control, building a wireless controlled boat first exhibited in 1898. At Colorado Springs, in 1899, he created artificial lightning bolts 100 feet long, and sent currents around the Earth from his transmitter and back with a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second. Although not recognized for, he was the first to discover the electron, radioactivity, terrestrial resonance, stationary waves (scalar waves), and cosmic rays, which he recorded traveling up to fifty times faster than light. Tesla predicted television, the internet, smart phones, weather control, and interplanetary communication. He theorized an idea to produce an artificial Aurora Borealis to light the night skies, and a particle beam to be used for defense in war. He intended to unify all his innovations into one big machine known as his “World System,” but lacked the investments and funds to finish his work on a large scale. His failure to accomplish his goals left him with a distorted persona of a mad scientist, and a dreamer whose imagination created an unrealistic hope for the future. 

Tesla was a Serbian born on July 10, 1856 at midnight in Smiljan, Lika (in what is now Croatia). He was educated at an early age by his parents before attending the Gymnasium Karlovac in Croatia, the Polytechnic Institute in Graz, Austria; and the University of Prague excelling in linguistics, mathematics and sciences. He was a hyper-polyglot who could speak eight languages including: Serbo-Croatian, English, Czech, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin. He claimed to have had a three-dimensional memory and thought process that tormented him in his youth, but later aided him with building his inventions in his own mind without wasting any physical energy. He was known to be able to recite by heart full books, mathematical formulas and poetry such as Goethe’s “Faust,” Njegoš’ “The Mountain Wreath,” Dante’s “Divine Comedy,” Shakespeare’s “Hamlet,” Byron’s “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage,” and Pushkin’s “Eugene Onegin.”

In 1881 while walking with a friend in a City Park reciting Goethe’s “Faust,” Tesla first envisioned the rotating magnetic field and his induction motor– complete, perfect, and operable in form. This visualization would represent the same diagrams shown in a lecture given before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1888.

After his revelation, in 1882, Tesla’s began working for a telephone company in Europe, while he worked independently on his induction motor. In 1884, he moved to America in hopes of capitalizing on his new discovery. Initially, Tesla was hired by Thomas Edison, but the famous American inventor was not interested in Tesla’s alternating current system, due to his already strong interest in direct current power transmission. Tesla would continue working for Edison until Edison promised him $50,000 to make improvements on his DC generation plants. After completing the task, Tesla asked to be paid, but Edison denied him his offer and explained that the offer of $50,000 was just an “American joke.” Edison offered Tesla a small raise, but Tesla resigned instead.

After his fallout with Edison, Tesla was offered his own lighting company by some small investors, but unfortunately, they were also not interested in Tesla’s alternating current system. Tesla would invent a new and efficient arc lamp for the company, but would be forced out of the business after completing his work. This was a bitter blow to the young Serbian who resorted to digging ditches for $2 an hour in order to get by in a new country.

Tesla’s luck would soon change in 1887, after he received a chance to demonstrate his system of alternating currents to some financiers with his famous “Egg of Columbus” demonstration. This great event would lead to the filing of his Electro Magnetic Motor patent which utilized the rotating magnetic field principle. Prior to this patent, it was considered impossible to eliminate the brushes and commutators on the old motors, but the introduction of Tesla’s new electrical theory and practice was an obvious departure from the old into the new. It was completely revolutionary yet so simple, and it opened a wide door for the introduction and commercial development of AC motors.

Tesla pushed forward building apparatuses equal in productivity to DC motors, forcing the scientific community to recognize his work. Because of this work, in May of 1888, a publication of Tesla’s work was read before the American Institutes of Electrical Engineers. The introduction of Tesla’s apparatus showed how inefficient the old motors were compared to his own, which utilized poly-phase currents in such a way that made the commutators of the old motors obsolete. This new system would spark a strong interest in American entrepreneur, George Westinghouse, who would later buy Tesla’s patents, and throw all his resources into the development of Tesla’s work. This new industry in power transmission would eventually start a feud between the Westinghouse Company and Thomas Edison’s Electric Light Company–known as the “War of Currents" (AC/DC).   

Compensating off his new patents and now working with the Westinghouse Company, Tesla was finally free to test the limits of his invention on larger scales than before, but to his dismay, the inventor was forced to find ways to build his machines using high frequency electricity instead of the low frequency he was used to in order to better fit his machines with the Westinghouse Company’s production. This presented complications for Tesla, but thanks to his years of study in electricity, Tesla was able to utilize Lord Kelvin’s theory on condenser discharges, which led to the invention of his “Tesla Coil.” With this invention, he was now able to experiment with his work at much higher potentials and frequencies – enabling him to build an AC apparatus of efficiency surpassing that of DC motors.

In 1891, just before becoming an American citizen, Tesla was asked to repeat his experiments before the AIEE. During his lecture, titled “Experiments with Alternate Currents of Very High Frequency and Their Application to Methods of Artificial Illumination,“ Tesla left the audience of America’s greatest engineers spell-bound as he demonstrated by experiments a new theory of light. He demonstrated that incandescent lamps do not require the faulty carbon filament widely used at that time, but could be replaced with a solid block of carbon powered by a single wire branched from his AC generator. Tesla implied that this new application to lamps could be made at little cost, and could be just as dependent and reliable as a gas burner. He went even further and demonstrated that electric light was possible without incandescent lamps. Throughout his investigations of high frequency phenomena, Tesla satisfied himself with a conclusion that an electric field of sufficient intensity could fill a room and light electrodeless vacuum tubes. This would be his first public demonstration of his “art of wireless transmission,” making him the true father of wireless. This was done by connecting two large sheets of zinc to the terminal of the circuit with the sheets being spread apart about fifteen feet away from each other. The sheets served as condensers and both received the charge of electricity from the wires connecting the sheets to the transformer, creating an electric field between the two. Tesla introduced a glass tube from which the air had been exhausted, and,when this vacuum tube was placed between the zinc sheets, it gave out a bright illumination sufficient to light a room. Tesla waved the tube around freely, like a Jedi showcasing the first light saber, and the tube continued to glow as long as it remained in the electric field. The electrical wizard went on to show the absolute harmlessness of his electric system by passing thousands of volts of electricity through his body–lighting light bulbs and shooting sparks out of his finger tips. He accomplished this without killing himself by upping the speed of his dynamo, transforming his AC current into a continuous flow of static currents, which allowed him to pass a large amount of energy through his body without any harm. To help better explain this, DC currents carry an electric charge along a conductor which travel in one single direction, like a straight line, while the charge in AC currents alternate back and forth in waveform. Static currents, on the other hand, are stationary with no movement. Tesla would speed up his AC currents so fast that they would transform into a static current, allowing him to safely store this electricity in his body until he discharged it into his light bulbs resulting in illumination.

These amazing demonstrations would set Tesla apart from the rest of the scientific world. The inventor would be showered with awards and invitations from all around the world begging him to share his work. In 1892, he would finally be persuaded to give two lecturers in London, and one in Paris before returning to America to continue his work.

Back in America, Tesla and George Westinghouse remained consistent in their fight to market their new AC system, despite the heavy smear campaign conducted by Thomas Edison to show the dangers of AC. Edison went as far as holding public demonstrations using AC to electrocute dogs, cats and an elephant to prove his point. He is also responsible for the creation of the electric chair, in 1890. Edison did everything he could to make sure history remembered him and not Tesla, and it is rumored that Edison spent a fortune every year trying keep his own name before the public. Regardless of his inhumane campaign, it still didn’t take away the fact that AC was more efficient than DC. In 1892, the General Electric Company merged with another rival of the Westinghouse Company, the Thomson-Houston Electric Company. This merger would introduce some major competition for the Westinghouse Company since this new formed company now controlled three quarters of the electrical business in the United States. In 1893, the Westinghouse Company caught a break and was contracted to power the World’s Colombian Exposition, in Chicago. Tesla’s Poly-phase System installed at the exposition made certain that AC was superior to DC, ensuring the Westinghouse Company the contract to harness Niagara Falls. This would put an end of the “War of Currents” and force businesses to accept the new system. Since the AC patents were controlled by the Westinghouse Company, Elihu Thomson, the manager of the Thomson-Houston Electric Company, hired Charles Steinmetz in hope that both could somehow bypass Tesla’s AC patents and secure their own AC system that would allow General Electric to compete with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Their jobs were basically reduced to finding ways to pretend like they created a new invention. In order to do so, they paid a janitor to steal Tesla blueprints from the Westinghouse plant in Pittsburgh. After the Thomson-Houston company was caught committing industrial espionage, they claimed that “they needed to study Tesla’s motor designs to make sure their’s were different.” Embarrassed by his actions, Steinmetz deliberately omitted Tesla from his major works including “Theory and Calculations of Alternating Current Phenomena,” and “Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering.” The associates of General Electric gave Tesla no reference at all in their works which made them popular, even though Tesla was the forefront of the field, and his book, “The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla” was basically a Bible for electrical engineers at that time. Elihu Thomson, Charles Steinmetz, Mihajlo Pupin, Thomas Edison and others basically took a huge shit on Tesla because they despised him and wanted him forgotten.

Regardless of the drama, Tesla carried on with his work. Now financially comfortable and free to experiment as he pleased, Tesla vigorously continued his investigations into the unknown…

(To be continued…)

***The Power of Constructive Interference and the Wireless Transmission of Energy***

“Suppose the whole earth to be like a hollow rubber ball filled with water, and at one place I have a tube attached to this, with a plunger in the tube. If I press upon the plunger the water in the tube will be driven into the rubber ball, and as the water is practically incompressible, every part of the surface of the ball will be expanded. If I withdraw the plunger, the water follows it and every part of the ball will contract. Now, if I pierce the surface of the ball several times and set tubes and plungers at each place the plungers in these will vibrate up and down in answer to every movement which I may produce in the plunger of the first tube. If I were to produce an explosion in the center of the body of water in the ball, this would set up a series of vibrations in the whole body. If I could then set the plunger in one of the tubes to vibrating in consonance with the vibrations of the water, in a little while and with the use of a very little energy I could burst the whole thing asunder.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Tesla Grips the World.” New York Sun, June 6, 1897.

“We shall have no need to transmit power at all. Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe. This idea is not novel. Men have been led to it long ago go by instinct or reason. It has been expressed in many ways, and in many places, in the history of old and new. We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who drives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians, and in many hints and statements of thinkers of the present time. Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static, our hopes are in vain; if kinetic — and this we know it is for certain — then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.”

–Nikola Tesla

[In the future we will no longer need power stations, but will develop machinery that can access power from anywhere. If we live amid a medium through which there is no continuous flow of energy, this realization would appear to be impossible, but if everything around us is in constant motion, then human ingenuity must find a means of converting that energy to productive uses.]

“Experiments With Alternating Currents of High Potential and High Frequency.” Lecture delivered before the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, February, 1892.

soundcloud.com
"Talking With Planets." By Nikola Tesla *Audio*

Check out this audio listen of “Talking With Planets,” by Nikola Tesla. The inventor speaks on the opportunities of wireless transmission and the possibilities of interplanetary communication.

Let me know how you feel about these. Will obviously try and improve audio quality.

Enjoy (((:
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[Fig. 1] — This Diagram Illustrates How, During a Solar Eclipse, the Moon’s Shadow Passes Over the Earth With Changing Velocity, and Should Be Studied In Connection With [Fig. 2]. The Shadow Moves Downward With Infinite Velocity at First. Then With Its True Velocity Thru Space, and Finally With Infinite Velocity Again.

“Consider now the process taking place in the transmission by the instrumentalities and methods of my invention. For this purpose attention is called to [Fig. 1], which gives an idea of the mode of propagation of the current waves and is largely self-explanatory. The drawing represents a solar eclipse with the shadow of the moon just touching the surface of the earth at a point where the transmitter is located. As the shadow moves downward it will spread over the earth’s surface, first with infinite and then gradually diminishing velocity until at a distance of about 6,000 miles it will attain its true speed in space. From there on it will proceed with increasing velocity, reaching infinite value at the opposite point of the globe. It hardly need be stated that this is merely an illustration and not an accurate representation in the astronomical sense.

“The exact law will be readily understood by reference to [Fig. 2], in which a transmitting circuit is shown connected to earth and to an antenna. The transmitter being in action, two effects are produced: Hertz waves pass thru the air, and a current traverses the earth. The former propagate with the speed of light and their energy is unrecoverable in the circuit. The latter proceeds with the speed varying as the cosecant of the angle which a radius drawn from any point under consideration forms with the axis of symmetry of the waves. At the origin the speed is infinite but gradually diminishes until a quadrant is traversed, when the velocity is that of light. From there on it again increases, becoming infinite at the antipole. Theoretically the energy of this current is recoverable in its entirety, in properly attuned receivers.”

“…It is perfectly practicable to recover at any point of the globe energy enough for driving an airplane, or a pleasure boat or for lighting a dwelling. I am especially sanguine in regard to the lighting of isolated places and believe that a more economical and convenient method can hardly be devised. The future will show whether my foresight is as accurate now as it has proved heretofore.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Famous Scientific Illusions.” Electrical Experimenter, February, 1919.

***In a pre-hearing interview with his legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company, Tesla was asked what would an engineer have to do to the wireless systems of today in order to produce very little radiation of electromagnetic waves and produce a large amount of these earth currents? What changes would he have to make in the system?***

“He would have to construct and operate the apparatus described in my patents and in my lectures.

“It is just like this: In an enterprise of this kind, you have to start with certain fundamental propositions. If you are to build a commercial plant, the question comes up how much money is it to cost. Now, you go to specify before your capitalists the various parts of the plant, and you will find that your machinery and the aerial structure will cost so much. If your capitalists are willing to go deep into their pockets, you can put up a tremendous antenna because, as you know, as I pointed out in 1893, that the effects will be proportionate to the capital invested in that part; but you will find great limits there.

“I designed a plant [Wardenclyffe, referring to Fig. 1] years ago with a large capacity and put it before certain architects. They figured that the antenna would cost $450,000 and I had to modify my plans. As you see, you are limited by cost as to the size of the antenna; that is, you are limited as to the capacity and, furthermore, you have selected the frequency. In order to lower the frequency so that there would be no wasteful radiation of energy, you have to employ a large inductance. You have to employ a capacity as large as permissible, and you must use a large inductance in order that you may reach the low frequency which is economical.

“In a patent which appeared in April 1905, the application of which was filed on May 15, 1900, I have enunciated the law of propagation, which I have explained, and have stated that the frequencies should not be more than 30,000 or 35,000 cycles at most, in order to operate economically.

"The currents are proportionate to the potentials which are developed under otherwise equal conditions. If you have an antenna of a certain capacity charged to 100,000 volts, you will get a certain current; charged to 200,000 volts, twice the current. When I spoke of these enormous potentials, I was describing an industrial plant on a large scale because that was the most important application of these principles, but I have also pointed out in my patents that the same principles can be applied to telegraphy and other purposes. That is simply a question of how much power you want to transmit.

"In Colorado I used the so-called Tesla transformer. I did not have the high frequency machine with [me] which I could develop as much energy for the experiments, but with my transformer I could get any amount of energy I needed. That is why I used the transformer.

"The D P [in Fig. 1] is a curved plate. The plate has a large radius of curvature. You see, it is to be borne in mind that, in a general way, electricity will accumulate in the same way as the curvature of the surface has a smaller radius. This is an old truth which has been recognized 200 years ago. The design contemplates an arrangement whereby nowhere is electricity accumulated in excess. I am at a substantially uniform distribution of electricity in this structure, not only in the structure, but along the whole circuit where there is a high potential. This, of course, is simply to illustrate the principles. If you design a machine like that [referring to Fig. 1], it will be very much superior to those now in existence, but I have since that time introduced refinements and can produce very much better results than it would be possible with just exactly that construction.

"I had a 550-volt current with which I charged the condensers. These condensers I discharged through a primary in the form of an arc, sometimes I also introduced in this arc a mechanical break of several thousand per second. And I obtained a perfectly continuous train of waves as has been described in my patents. The reason why I show the condenser here [Fig. 1] is that that is synonymous with undamped waves. If I had shown the whole apparatus as arranged there, then I might still have damped waves; but whether I use an alternator or some other way of getting energy to that condenser, the condenser is usually there. For instance, if I use an alternator, I shunt its terminals with a condenser in order to magnify the current in the primary. I then tune this circuit to the alternator, and magnify the current in the primary in the ratio of the inductance to the resistance. Therefore, this condenser here stands for either method, and simply means that in this system, as is obvious from the description in the patent, the waves are undamped because high rises of potential would not be obtained otherwise. Whenever I wanted to obtain a high potential, I had to observe these rules in order to force the potential up to that value.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.” Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

“Water-power is by far our most valuable resource. On this humanity must build its hopes for the future. With its full development and a perfect system of wireless transmission of the energy to any distance man will be able to solve all the problems of material existence. Distance, which is the chief impediment to human progress, will be completely annihilated in thought, word and action. Humanity will be united, wars will be made impossible and peace will reign supreme.”

–Nikola Tesla

“The Wonder World to Be Created By Electricity.” Manufacturer’s Record, September 9, 1915.