william ii of orange

IMPORTANT EVENTS AND THEIR DATES IN MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY

1453  Constantinople is sacked by Muslim forces

1488  Bartolomeu Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1492  Columbus encounters the Americas (God, Glory and Gold.)

1517  Martin Luther’s posting of the 95 Theses

1520  Diet of Worms declares Martin Luther an outlaw

1524-1525  The Peasants’ Revolt takes place in Germany

1534  Act of Supremacy passed in England → Henry VIII becomes head of the Anglican Church

1545  Council of Trent begins The Counter Reformation

1555  Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religio →whose region, his religion)

1585-1589  War of the Three Henries in France

1588  Spanish Armada destroyed by the English and “The Protestant Wind”

1603  Elizabeth I Dies → Tudor Dynasty Ends and the Stuart Dynasty Begins

1618-1648  The Thirty Years War (Treaty of Westphalia ends the war in 1648)

1642-1646  English Civil War (Roundheads vs. the Cavaliers)

1649  Charles I is executed → Oliver Cromwell begins his rule

1660  Stuart Restoration in England through Charles II

1688-1689  Glorious Revolution in England→ William and Mary of Orange replace James II and sign the English Bill of Rights

1643-1715  Era of Louis XIV  The Sun King (l’etat c’est moi)

1689-1725  Reign of Peter the Great in Russia

1756-1763  The Seven Years War

1789-1799  Era of the French Revolution (Radical Stage → late 1792-1795)

1799  Napoleon comes to power

1805-1815  Napoleonic Wars are waged

1814-1815  The Congress of Vienna meets (Main principles: Legitimacy, Conservatism, Compensation & Balance of Power)

1819  Peterloo Massacre in England

1830  Belgian Independence

1832  Reform Bill in England Passed

1848  Revolutions break out across Western Europe (France, Austria, Italy and Germany)

1861  Serfs emancipated in Russia under Alexander II

1870-1871  Germany and Italy Unification

1884-1885  Berlin Conference is held (“Scramble for Africa”)

1894  Tsar Nicholas II comes to power in Russia (the last of the Romanovs)

1905  Sunday Bloody Revolution in Russia → “The Dress Rehearsal”

1914  Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated → WWI starts

1917  March and November (Bolshevik) Revolutions in Russia

1918  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed →Russia withdraws from war

1918  WWI ends

1919  Treaty of Versailles is signed

1918-1921  Russian Civil War (Reds vs. Whites)

1922  Mussolini comes to power in Italy and establishes the 1st Fascist government

1922  Russia officially becomes known as the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) → The Soviet Union

1923  Adolf Hitler leads the Beer Hall Putsch in Germany

1924  Lenin dies

1928  Stalin is firmly entrenched as the leader of the Soviet Union → begins the first of several 5 year plans

1929  Stock Market Crash in the US → The Great Depression begins

1933  Hitler comes to power in Germany

1938  Munich Conference (Peace in our time→Neville Chamberlain)

1939  World War II starts with Germany’s invasion of Poland

1945  World War II ends (V-E Day → May 8, 1945 and V-J Day → August 15, 1945)

1945  First session of the United Nations is held

1945-1989  Cold War (U.S. vs. S.U. begins and begins to end in Poland)

POST WW II  Decolonization → European colonies become independent

1946  Winston Churchill gives the “Iron Curtain” speech

1948-1949 Operation Vittles→the Berlin Airlift

1949  USSR successfully tests first atomic bomb

1951  European Coal and Steel Community formed (sounds like the Zollverein)

1953  Stalin dies and is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev → destalinization begins

1954  French forces defeated in French-Indochina at Dien Bien Phu

1956  Hungarian revolt against the Soviet Union → it is crushed by the Soviets

1957  Rome Treaty is signed → The European Economic Community (EEC) is created = Common Market

1957  Sputnik is launched by the Soviet Union → the first space satellite

1958  The fifth Republic is born in France and Charles de Gaulle becomes President

1961  Berlin Wall built → dividing East and West Berlin

1961  Soviet Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space

1962  Cuban Missile Crisis → 90 miles off the coast of Florida

1963  Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique is published

1964  Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Union

1966  Under President Charles de Gaulle, France withdraws from the common NATO military command

1968  “Prague Spring” occurs in Czechoslovakia → it is crushed by the Soviets

1968  Student revolt in France (Paris)

1978  Pole Karol Wojtyla elected Pope → Pope John Paul II → 1st non-Italian in 455 years

1979  Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of England (“The Iron Lady”) (Mags loathes no one more than this heinous twat)

1979  The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (eventually becomes their own “little Vietnam”)

1980  1st independent labor union in the Soviet Bloc formed  “Solidarity” led by Lech Walesa of Poland

1980  Ronald Reagan elected President of the US (calls the Soviet Union an “evil empire”)

1985  Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader (implements policies of perestroika and glasnost)

1986  Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in the Soviet Union (specifically the Ukraine)

1989  Berlin Wall comes down

1989  The “Velvet Revolution” occurs in Czechoslovakia → Vaclav Havel becomes President

1989  The Soviet Union withdraws its forces from Afghanistan

1989  Romanian leader Nicolai Ceausescu is overthrown and killed

1990  Lech Walesa becomes President of Poland

1990  East Germany and West Germany reunify into one Germany

1990  The first McDonalds opens in Russia

1991  Attempted coup attempt in the Soviet Union → The Soviet Union begins to disintegrate

1991  Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia → former 15 republics of the Soviet Union form the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.)

1991  Yugoslavia begins to break apart

1992  Maastricht Treaty signed

1997  Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister of England → 1st Labor Party leader in 18 years

1999  Eurodollar becomes the single currency of the European Union (EU)

William III and Mary II

William and Mary were the co-regnants over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from February 1689 after they were offered the throne by the Convention Parliament irregularly summoned by William after his victorious invasion of England in November 1688. They replaced James II, Mary’s father, who fled the country to France. Parliament offered William and Mary a co-regency, at the couple’s behest. When William was out on campaigns abroad, Mary ruled as regent. After Mary died in 1694, William ruled alone until his death in 1702. William and Mary were childless and were ultimately succeeded by Mary’s younger sister, Anne. 

On the right is Prince William II of Orange, ruler of the Netherlands in the mid-seventeenth century. To his left is Mary Stuart, daughter of Charles I of England and William’s wife (if that sounds complicated, wait until I get round to William’s son, William, who married Mary’s niece, Mary).

This picture shows the pair looking fantastic, Mary shimmering in a gorgeous dress and William showing off in his tight black catsuit. Those cherubs are probably squabbling over who gets to try it on with them. If they aren’t blood relatives, they need not bother.

  • James II: Let me tell you something about William of Orange. He was my nephew back in the 60s. I know, so embarrassing right? I don't even...whatever. So then in the 70s, I started dating Mary of Modena who was totally gorgeous but an ardent Catholic and William was like, weirdly jealous of her. Like, if I blew off his Protestant advances, he'd be like "Why do you not submit to the true church of Luther?" and I'd be like "Why are you so obsessed with me?" So then, in the 80s, my brother died and made me the heir, I was like "William, you can't come over here because you're not the true heir" I mean, we couldn't have a usurper in England, there was gonna be incense and Catholic emancipation. I mean, right, HE WAS A PROTESTANT USURPER??? So then his country hated my country and started yelling, it was totally stupid. And then he waged a battle of usurpation against me because no one would talk to him, and after he booted me to France, all of his hair was cut off and he was totally weird and now...I guess he's impotent
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Princess Royal

“Princess royal” is the title given to the eldest daughter of the British Sovereign, once bestowed it is for life.
It is Queen Henrietta wife of King Charles I who created the title for their daughter Princess Mary in 1642. The English Queen, née Princess of France wanted to bring in Engand, the French tradition of naming the eldest daughter of the King “Madame Royal”.  “Princess Royal” was chosen as its equivalent.
Princess Mary the first to hold this title died in 1660 and it is only until 1727 that the title was again used, it was for the eldest daughter of King George II and Queen Caroline, Princess Anne who married William Prince of Orange, granted at the age of 18 she hold it until her death in 1759. Next was Princess Charotte daughter of King George III and Queen Caroline, who died in 1828.
The fourth Princess Royal, was Queen Victoria and Prince Albert first child, Princess Victoria, bestowed by the title at the age of one year old, she died from cancer in 1901. And it is her niece who became Princess Royal in 1905, Princess Louise also Duchess of Fife, passed away in 1931 the year after Princess Mary only daughter of King George VI and Queen Mary, was became Princess Royal, until her death in 1965.
Princess Anne currently holds the title conferred it in 1987 by her mother Queen Elizabeth II.

The signs as things my European History teacher has said:
  • Aries: "Okay, I'm a history teacher and I love the movie "300" fight me."
  • Taurus: "I have my copy of "The Social Contract" that I read every day right here and I have 5 more at home."
  • Gemini: "I'm sure you guys know all about the teenage mutant ninja turtles."
  • Cancer: "King Louis XVI is that type of friend you have that says you should go to the movies but then it is ten minutes until the movie starts and he is still on the couch in pajamas and he is eating chips."
  • Leo: "So now everyone was upset about the Virgin Mary being modeled after a dead prostitute that washed up on the beach."
  • Virgo: "The witch hunts? Aah yes...classical Misogyny."
  • Libra: "Here he is! He's calling out the pope! And he's being played by Voldemort's brother!"
  • Scorpio: "The King had one so now EVERYBODY wanted an anal fistula!"
  • Sagittarius: "And on this side of the field we have Cardinal Richelieu and he's playing for team Bourbon!"
  • Capricorn: "Oliver Cromwell basically banned everything fun from England."
  • Aquarius: "As you can see, Philip II is riding the cow and William of Orange is...well...he's holding some bullshit."
  • Pisces: "And then Adam Smith, the Jesus of Capitalism, publishes "The Wealth of Nations" which is basically the capitalist bible."