which are also great

luffthearts  asked:

Husband has space query: We hear about mineral-based planets, ice planets, and gas giants but we never hear about planets composed of liquid. Is that because I'm not paying attention or is that just not a thing?

Mmmmm so here’s the problem with liquid-based planets:

In order to make a planet, you have to have a central THING for it to aggregate around. You can’t just go BOOP PLANET NOW. You have to start small. What you generally start with is a disk of Space Debris formed around a central Nubbin that will someday be a star (this is called a “protoplanetary disk”). Now there’s a lot of dust and debris floating around in the protoplanetary disk, which makes for great building blocks. There’s also a lot of ice and dust. The disk crops up before the central star actually ignites–essentially you have a big spinning mass of crap, all spiraling in towards the center because that’s where the Gravity is Happening, and the center is getting hotter and hotter and more and more dense until eventually there’s enough Squish Force that the hydrogen in the middle goes “hey wouldn’t it be neat to be helium so we can take up less space?” and so it Becomes Helium, and that’s called fusion, and now you have a star.

When the central star ignites, it essentially goes WHOOMPH. It is not a slow ignition or a controlled burn. Once you start fusing hydrogen you’re off to the races, and the shockwave tends to blast everything pretty far away (hence why you don’t generally get planets in real close to the star). It’s also VERY, VERY HOT. The whole disk is now VERY VERY HOT and HIGHLY IRRADIATED because baby stars scream a lot, only the screaming is high-energy radiation. Everything is so hot, in fact, that basically you have a shitload of gas and maybe a little bit of dust, maybe some molten rock. Farther out you have dust and ice, because it’s cool enough that you’re not vaporizing everything ever.

After the big WHOOMPH, things start really happening. You had this big swirling disk of gas that’s now starting to form non-gas objects. What it does NOT generally form is liquids, except in the gooey center (like an Oreo), and that has to do with a very important thing that you don’t get much of in space: pressure.

See, when a liquid is under very, very low pressure, it tends to just go “oh whoops this is energetically unfavorable, look at all this space I’m not taking up” and turn into a gas instead. In the center of the protoplanetary disk you tend to have molten rock, because the rest of the disk is mashing on it. However, that mashing also tends to produce very high temperatures, which are unfavorable to water, because at very high temperatures that likes to be a gas. Outside that gooey center, you just get ice and dust.

(It’s more complicated than that, but that’s a run-down.)

So now you have all this stuff, and it’s all running into other stuff, and some of the stuff sticks together. You start forming chunks instead of bits, and the chunks can be rock or ice or both (see: asteroids, comets), depending on how close to the sun you are. (Hint: the young sun is still VERY VERY HOT. TOO HOT, HOT DAMN). But here’s the meat of the issue:

The bigger the chunks are, the more energy they have when they smack into each other. Energy = heat. Two city-sized chunks of rock and ice slam into each other in a vacuum; the water goes “oH FUCK TOO HOT” and vaporizes, much of it with enough energy that it just zooms off into the void to find something else to run into. The rocks, meanwhile, are like “hey how’s it goin’ wanna gobble up more crap and make a planetesimal?”

So generally what you get is a bunch of rocky, moon-sized bodies scooting around like roombas and sucking up anything that hoves into their path, and then later, sucking things into their gravity wells until they run out of stuff to suck up. Because ice (and other liquid-forming materials like ammonia and methane) tend to get blasted out by the impacts, they don’t get added until AFTER the rocky core is already there.

(Gas giants happen when you have a low-energy, low-heat environment. There’s a lot of gas hanging around that got blasted away from the sun, and so the planetesimals can just hoover that shit up. The more gas you have, the heavier you get, the more gas you can steal. Also water is fairly heavy so sucking up a lot of it makes your gravity well nice and big).

There’s some fun stuff to do with differentiation (the planet gets SO hot that it completely melts, you get a Magma Ocean and all the iron and nickel sink to the core while the silicates float up to the top), which are TECHNICALLY liquid planets, because they’re MOLTEN ROCK ALL THE WAY THROUGH, but those don’t really stick around for long because Space is Cold.

So that was probably a LOT more detail than you were looking for XD

tl;dr we don’t have liquid planets because you have to have a solid core to form a planet around, and the planet-forming process is too hot for anything but rocks to do it.

2

my daily to-do lists are shorter this summer because i’m working full time, so i’m experimenting with spreads a little. last week’s was “3 things i’m proud i accomplished each day.”

From Pia’s new animation magazine アニメぴあ Shin-Q (シン・キュー) vol.1
Release Date: September 8th, 2017

My mom: oh my daughter just loves to read, she’s read more books than anyone I know

Me internally: all I read is gay fanfiction

Me out loud: oh yeah I love reading
2

This has me really, really angry. So I voiced that anger by calling the chief magistrate in Charlottesville. The chief magistrate is the one responsible for issuing warrants in that district. 

The phone was very busy, but eventually I got through. I also sent a letter, which is a great idea if you can’t get through. 

Ms. Cheryl A. Thompson  
Sixteenth Judicial District  
309 East Water Street  
Charlottesville, VA 22902-5108  
(434) 977-0220

Please call or write (or both) ESPECIALLY if you’re from the area. Let your elected officials know that if they support white supremacists, we won’t support them. 

7

Favorite relationships: Isak og Eskild
Where are you ↵
on my way home
I’m coming.

2

so me and @useless-protag started crying at this scene while watching the great gatsby and i promised myself ‘’i’m gonna draw this today or die trying’’

it’s 1 am im still alive B)

the puppy bowl is the greatest invention of the 21st century. hair dryers included.

firestorm

I miss this place. I miss making funny things for all of you. I miss interacting with all of my wonderful followers. I miss meeting new people. I just miss it all so much. 

But I’m afraid things beyond my control have kept me away. I just don’t have the energy or concentration to keep up with my tumblr. I have a hard time coming up with funny ideas. I have an even harder time finding a way to turn those ideas into posts. I’ve had to give up photography all together. I tried just eating a meal with my parents for my birthday, and after ten minutes of sitting up straight, I ran out of energy and had to lay back down. My chronic fatigue, my narcolepsy, my depression… they all seem to fight one another in an unending battle that just keeps getting worse and worse. It’s hard to describe just how tired I am. How fatigued my body gets. How my limbs feel like they weigh hundreds of pounds. 

I’ve run out of doctors to see. Treatments to try. Pills to take. Injections to… inject. My only last real hope is to go to the Mayo Clinic. They have a knack for creating treatments for people with complicated medical needs. But there’s the rub. They are out of state. My insurance wouldn’t cover it. I’d have to stay for days or even weeks. I barely have enough to pay for food, much less a ticket to another state. At this moment, it just doesn’t seem like a possible option. 

If there is a bright side… I’m comfortable. I’m not in any pain. I am plenty occupied with the internet, TV, and movies. And in the category of “mixed blessings” I am emotionally numb. No, I cannot feel great joy. Which kinda sucks. But I also cannot feel great sadness. No despair. I still get lonely from time to time. And maybe a little.. frustrated. But I cope with those things pretty well most of the time. I think if I did have emotions at the moment, they would all suck pretty hard. So I feel like at this point, it isn’t so bad being a little numb. 

I have a couple of great friends that stick with me even when I’m a huge bummer. I have two amazing parents that take care of me when I can’t manage to care for myself. I have a quirky little dog that visits me from time to time. 

I know there are chronic conditions that cause much physical and mental pain. I know I don’t have much of a life at the moment, but I am grateful that I can stay reasonably comfortable. Though I could go without the kidney stones I seem to keep getting. Having those removed is just awful and my last recovery period did not go well at all. 

In any case, I just wanted to let you all know I am still around. I promise I am not giving up. But I am also coming to terms with the fact that I might not be able to do much about my situation. I will continue to seek out new treatments, medications, and even doctors that might help. I try to keep tabs on the latest research. Maybe some day they will find a key to this jail I’m stuck in. 

You all have brought me so much joy. It has been an honor entertaining you over the years. This is by no means a goodbye. Perhaps just a “see ya later.” Take care of yourselves. Take care of one another. Stay strong. And perhaps keep me in your thoughts every once in a while. I guess it’s just nice knowing I’m not forgotten. Helps keep me going day to day. 

10

RPDR Meme: [1/1] Winner - Sasha Velour

And now as America’s Next Drag Superstar, I have some advice. Are you ready? Dress up according to your own rules and then break them! Be yourself no matter what that means if it’s serious, if it’s childish, if it’s ridiculous, if it’s slutty, if it’s fabulous, if it’s revolutionary or even if it’s not. And take my advice: if you want to be a queen, make your own goddamn crowns!

The Great Comet in Emojis

Act One

🎼⚔️💣💥🏞️👤🚫1️⃣2️⃣3️⃣ 📓🎦👗👧😾👍🐲🏫🎻🌡️💅💦🔫🦁✝️⬜👴😵🐎❕⚔️💥📚❔📚❓📚⁉️

🎹🌅😞☀️👎☠️☁️👎👎👎📚🍲👴☺️💭🇷🇺🏫👜💰📚❔😭👴🇷🇺🍾🍷👤🗡️💥📗📘📱😨💍💔❄️🚫🍑🍆🚫😢😞💧😭📚🍲👴☺️💭🇷🇺🏫👜💰📚❔😭👴🇷🇺🤒🌎🏃🇷🇺👦🚪🤕😞🙃🎻😭✊👁️😞😭😩

1️⃣2️⃣3️⃣🐲👗🐲😾🏙️👑👐👗💍⚔️💣💥❄️☕👗😊😾💬🇷🇺🏙️👗😾❄️🌨️❤️😾😭👤❔💰👚🎲📘🚫😭👶👐👗🗨️💬👤💍🇷🇺😊🚫💍👴🚫👦☮️❤️✝️💞👨‍👧‍👦🤞

👴💤🍽️❓📜⌛✝️☀️🏚️▶️👞❕👍🍷❕👍🚫👧🚫🎭👴❔🗡️🙅‍♀️🖤👴⏲️😭😩👗☕😀👗🚫💍❓❄️😠🔙💋💍🇫🇷✋💰🚫✝️🚫👗❕👓❔👓❓👓⁉️💆‍♂️👴⚖️😞🤢

🙌👗🙌🚪👋😬😬😬👋✝️👀😒👗👑💨👗👀😒✝️⬜😩😬🙉😬👋😂😅👴❕❎👔👶👁️🚪👤☺️👸❄️😭👶👤❔

🌚🌓🌒🌑👀🙂🌏😊🎸👍❤️♥️💝💖💗🌚🌨️🌒👀🙂👩‍❤️‍💋‍👨👼❔👤👗👩‍❤️‍💋‍👨📿🌨️🌃🙅‍♀️💤😣🕊️🌚🌨️🌒👀🙂👤👗👩‍❤️‍💋‍👨👤❔

👄🎭❕❕🎫🎟️👩‍👧‍👧💪👔⚪👗👚🕵️‍♀️💁👀👀👀💪👤👗💍🗡️🏡🍲👧👦💍👵👒👗❔👗❔👗❔👁️🗨️👗🙌🔫🙌🇷🇺👁️💥😠🔫💥🙌💅🙌👑💃⚪⚪💅🔫❔❤️❔📚🏠👁️⚪⚪👗🌹😳💅💍📚❔📚👍☹️🏘️💅🚫🎦 🎦👀🎵🎶🌚🇷🇺💂😱😰😲🏮🍷🥂👗👉❄️💨🌟💅🎻 🏃‍♂️🤳💁‍♂️🗡️⤴️👀👗💚➡️🔫🎻🍾☠️🌑↪️👀👀👄💚👀👀👏👏👏💨

🎻🤳😁💃🕺😏👁️🎦❔😏🌲🔎💁‍♂️👗❔💃🕺,,🤞👋🤞😀👗📿💪👀😉😳👗💋🏙️❔👧👧💓💃❔🤞🌹😕➡️😊🚷👁️😏😁🎻👗💚

🌆📚📖❔🎻🎦❔😁👗🌼👤💍💙🙄😒🔫↩️👯‍♂️🚨👯🎶 📚👴❔👍💰❔🍻🍾🍷🍾🥃🍻1️⃣2️⃣3️⃣🍷❤️🔥🌃❄️🏞️😇☠️🌟🎉💃👯👯‍♂️🕺✨✴️👨‍⚕️🍸🍷🙅‍♂️🍺🍺🍺👄🌡️👍🤙🎻🔫🍾👴💅🍺🍸🍷🤢💍🚫👗👣💚🎻💍🇵🇱🚫🦆🌊👨‍🎤😆👧🎩💬🔫🍾❕👿🍾🔫💍👧😏👌💍👧💞❕👌💍👧❕👌💍👧💞❕👿💢📚🙅‍♂️💅💔📚👉🔫↔️😀☠️💀💔🎻👋🙄👶🔪1️⃣2️⃣3️⃣✋📚✋📚💥🔫😵💥🆗🌅↔️🔚📚🏆❔🃏💅🎻🐻👨🎁♥️👗💃🎭❔👍🎻👴🏠💤☺️❣️☀️

🎹☠️❔😆🤡👞☠️❔🤒🍺☀️🕐💤☠️❔😨🛋️☠️❔😞😑☀️❔☺️👍❣️❔🌚🌟🌌⏲️😴💤♥️❤️👶⚱️❤️♥️🌅❕👼😭☠️❔☠️💤📗📜☦️👑💭🌃😨☀️❤️⌛🔔⬇️⚰️♦️☠️❔🌀📚💬😱👎😇😃📚❔😴💤♥️❤️👶⚱️❤️♥️🌅❕👼😭☠️❔☠️💤😴💤♥️❤️♥️❣️🌅❕

🌅😾👗🕯️👁️👧😔🔮🕯️🕯️☠️🏃‍♂️👀🏃🕯️🕯️🕯️⚫🌑🙇😾😨👤🚫🏠👗💀🐲🌅⛪❕❕❕🎦🎻💚💔💏🐲➡️👴🏚️😠👚👚🚪🚪😳

💅🌸🌹💁👚👭🇫🇷😊😳💅⚪🏞️🌸🌹👚🏙️❤️❔👚🎻🍽️🤔👗😳😊🌸🌹👭⚪🏞️👚🌸✊🚫👶👚💍💃🕺🎻💚👗😊😊💃 🏠🌃❔💃🕺❕

🎻🚪💚👧🕺💃🎻👗🙉🙈👍👎🎻🎻😨🌹🕺💃✋💁💚👀👀😨🎻💚👗😊👀❔🚫👗💍👤🚫🎻💚💚💚👗 😨🌃➡️👗❔👀👄👁️💚✋👗❔🙌👗❔👩‍❤️‍💋‍👨🔥👄❔😨👤❔👗💚🎻👗💚🎦👩‍❤️‍💋‍👨👁️💚🎻👁️4️⃣🎻🚪

Act Two

🎼🇷🇺✒️💌📜💭📃⭐💌📚➡️👤💌⚔️❓🏃🏃🇫🇷❓💥💨🚬💀🔫🤕😖👗👰☀️🌹😒😀🏠🍾📖🍺📗🍷♥️📕6️⃣6️⃣6️⃣🇫🇷🌊👀🇷🇺✒️💌📜💭📃⭐💌👗➡️👤📝♥️❔💚❔💔😨❔👀🕯️🚫🔮✝️➡️👗😩👴💜🤝🏠👗➡️✝️📝⁉️😭❔🌑👀🕯️🚫🔮🇷🇺✒️💌📜💭📃⭐💌🎻➡️👗💚💌💚💌✍️🔫👗👗👗💚☠️👗👗👗💚❔👍🏇🌑👗👗👗💚☠️👗👗👗💚❔👍🏇🌑👍❔👍❓👍⁉️👗👍💚📜✋👀💚💚

😾👁️💌🚫💚🎻🤗📜❔👗💚🎻😾💌💌💌👤❔😁💭💚😾👤💔❔😶🚫👄👂👤♥️😤3️⃣🃏❗3️⃣❔💚☀️🎻😄😨👗💚🎻😾🚫💬🙅‍♀️👭🖤🚫👩‍❤️‍💋‍👨❔🗨️❔🏠💍❔😦😠🎻💚❔💚❔📜💌🚫☀️👗👨‍👩‍👧‍👧👤🆓💔❔👤💔😦😾⛓️😨☠️🙅‍♀️🙅‍♀️👁️💔😾👁️💔😾💔💔🖤🔄😿😭💌👗➡️✝️🚫👤👰💔

😿🌅🌄🌅👀👗🙃💌👁️🏙️👂🚪😞🏇💚💭👗🏃‍♀️😿❔🐲❓😿⁉️🙋🌑👊🚪✊👗♥️👭💭👗🙅‍♀️😾‼️👨‍👩‍👧😃🚫💤🙋🌑👊🚪🚫👀💥✊👗♥️👁️🖤👗👭

📚🎻❔🌃🏇🚫👀🎻⏲️💚👉💌🇵🇱😂💑🎻💍🇵🇱🚫💬👈👇🌃💰❔☀️🔫📝👗🏇☀️😾🌃🎻🏇💒💍🏇🇵🇱👰🤵🛏️📰🐴💰💅💰🔫☕🎻👦👦🔫⚖️📄🐻🎻↔️🙅‍♂️⏳❔👿🚫⏰🃏👁️🚫🃏🗣️⛪💲🐴❔👋💭🚫👂👩‍⚖️⛓️💍👧❔🙅‍♂️😖😩⁉️🎻💚👗👐💍🚫👍💍✌️🚫💬🙅‍♂️❓❔✊😈🥁♥️👣👀👑💋⌛🚃🐎❕

👋🐎👋👋🐎🚃 👋🐎👋👋🐎🚃 🏇🛣️🏃‍♀️⬇️🎻🔫💺🐎❕🏇⚠️🏃🐎❕🔗🐴🏃🐎❕👌🎻🔫🇵🇱↔️🇷🇺🌃↪️🤼✋🥂🥂🥂👋🐎👋👋🐎🚃 👋🐎👋👋🐎🚃 🗣️🍺🚸💭➡️⛓️🐎❕🏇🐎❕🏇⚠️🏃🐎❕💃🍸🐎❕🐴⬇️🏞️🎻🔫🚃👯🚫🗺️🏇↖️🐴💨🙅‍♂️💰🙅‍♂️🚫💛🎻🔫💛🐎❕👄🎶🎼🐎❕👄

🎻🙌🍺👄🎶💃👯☀️😂❣️🔫❔🇵🇱👋💃💕🙅‍♂️👋🙋💋💭💇👋👋👋🍀💃💕👋👋👋👋💃💕🙅‍♂️👋🙋💋💭💇👋👋👋🍀💃💕👋👋👋🍻❕🥛⬇️❕🎊💃🍾🕺🎉👯🎊🥁👯‍♂️🎶🎼🎵🕴️🤸‍♀️🤸👩‍❤️‍💋‍👩👗🖼️🐎👤🤛👊👄👄📚☺️🆓☀️🛤️🗡️🌿☹️#️⃣🥛🍀🍺🛣️✊🍀🍺🛣️✊🎻🙅‍♂️🚪💺⬇️🇷🇺💺💺💺👍🔫🙅‍♂️🐯👕❔🏇☠️👙😭🐯👕↪️↩️🏇👏👐🐎✔️🏇🛣️👋🐎👋👋🐎🚃👋🐎👋👋🐎🚃⛩️🔫😙🏃‍♀️⤴️👀👗🔫⛩️🎻➡️🏃‍♀️🏞️🏘️🏠🐉🐲👄⛔❌❎❌🎻🆘🎻🔙🆘😥😖😩🎻🔙🔫

🅱️🐲😤😡🏠🐲☺️👗😠😡🚫🗣️🐲🏠👎👗🍀🎻⏪🔎👇👂👄🏠🗣️🚫⁉️👗😭✋🙅‍♀️❔☠️👨❔👤❔😭💔👤🙀💋🙅‍♀️🏠💍🔓🏇💃👨🔎👨👇❓🎻🐀🎻☺️👗🗣️😾❓🙅‍♀️🙅‍♀️🐲✋💬😭🙅‍♀️🙅‍♀️🖤💢🛋️👗❕🌸🍶😴👗🚫💤💺👁️🎻

💌🐲➡️📚🏠👇👤💍❔🌆📚💛❔📖📚💛🏷️😣🚪‼️🐲❔👗⬇️👨‍👩‍👧‍👧❔👗💔👤❔👗💘🏇❓👗💚🎻⁉️🚪🔥📚👗🌹🚫👂⛓️💅🎻👶🔒🎻💍🇵🇱💍❔👍🗣️😔👤➡️👤🏠👉🎻↔️☠️🗑️👉📚👀🎻❌🇷🇺🐲👀‼️👍

🎻🔎🎻🏃♥️💨🎻🔎🎻⛰️💃🕺‼️🎻🔎🎻🍺🍻🍲💬🗨️🎻🏇👗🔥🙅‍♂️🙅‍♂️👌🎻👗👀💅🎻🤦👗🚫💍🚫🏹🐇🚫💍🌃👑🎻💅😅💍🤵📉🎻📚🙊👋✊🎻☝️🗣️🎻🏃😩🚪🚫👀

👗💍🏇❔🙅‍♂️😒👊👊↔️↔️😨🗣️🙅‍♂️❔🚫❕✊🐀📕👊🙅‍♂️💍❔🚫💭💌❔💌⁉️👋💌➡️🇷🇺❔🚫💨👗💚🎻💭📚🚶🎻🚫💺😖🖐️🍑🍆💦👨‍👩‍👧‍👧☺️☮️🔥👗😂🎻💅👌👗💍🏇👎🤛👴👦🚫🙅‍♂️💬🐀🙅‍♂️➡️💬👗🥛🤢😱📚✋💰🛣️❔🎻😏💅🌅🎻👄🚷

👗🤒🏠🔥👗🤒💊🌃👨‍⚕️👍👗😷🤕👤🇷🇺👨‍👩‍👧‍👧😔😥

👤🍲❔📚☝️👤🏕️🏞️💛😞 🚫👌⚔️💣💥🏞️💌💔👗👂🎻💍❔🤷‍♂️👗💌💌➡️👗🤒💀🚪🚫💊🙂❄️👴👋⤵️💃🌹🚫🙅‍♂️🌹🚫💍💒👑👤🚫👨💛🚫🙊👋

👗🏠🏃✋❔🤒💨📚❔📚💛👤🤝😢⤴️🇷🇺🌹📚💬💌🔥💚🎻👩‍❤️‍💋‍👨💋🌹🌹🙌👍🌹💚🎻❔🚫🐀💭❔😭💙👓😢🙊📚💛👗🗣️💭🔆📚🙅‍♀️🛑🛑🛑☀️❔🔥👗❔– If I were not myself but the ☀️, handsomest best 👨on 🌏 and if I were free– I would get ⤵️on my knees this instant and ask you for your ✋and for your 💗. 😂👀📚➡️☺️ 🙅‍♂️😢👕🌃🌨️🛴

➡️❓🚫🍻🚫☎️🌍😞👁️😭👗🏙️🏢🌌👀💧🔝🛣️🌌✨☄️✨🌌 ☄️🔥🌏🚫😨👁️🙂✨🌠✴️🛑🏹🌏🛑📚☄️💛🌼🌠🙂

So what you’re telling me is that the lieutenants are okay 👀👀👀👀 

MMMM tastie improvement fresh out the oven

3

★  favourite scenes books: the song of achilles by madeline miller

in the darkness, two shadows, reaching through the hopeless, heavy dusk. their hands meet, and light spills in a flood like a hundred golden urns pouring out of the sun.

i would know him in death, at the end of the world.