when to use i.e. in a sentence

anonymous asked:

I'm moving to Italy for a year on Monday to be an au pair. Do you have any useful vocab to do with young children?

Congratulations! That’s wonderful and I’m sure you’re going to have an amazing time here! 👶🏻👶🏼👶🏽👶🏾

When talking to kids, it’s really common to form sentences using noi (we) instead of tu. So, instead of saying vuoi fare il bagnetto? (do you want to go shower? = exhortative), it’d sound better if you said vogliamo fare il bagnetto? (lit. do we want to go shower?). It’s also common to use “bello, bel, belli, bei, begli, bella, belle” before nouns, e.g. vogliamo fare un bel bagnetto? (lit. do we want to have a nice shower? = let’s go have a nice shower!).

Diminutive suffixes are also really common when talking to kids. So, instead of saying libro say librino; gioco, giochino; letto, lettino; mano, manina; cappello, cappellino; scarpa, scarpina; cucchiaio, cucchiaino; bagno, bagnetto; coperta, copertina; sedia, sediolina; ciuccio, ciucciotto; poco, pochino; occhio, occhietto, and so on. 

🍼 CHILD LANG VOCABULARY
bagnetto (bagno) - baby’s/kid’s shower
bavaglino (bavaglio) - bib
biberon - feeder bib, bottle
cameretta (camera) - baby’s/kid’s bedroom
ciucciotto (ciuccio) - dummy, pacifier
culla - cradle, crib
giocattolo - toy
gioco - toy
mamma, mammina - mamma
monello - rascal
nanna - bye-byes, beddy-byes
ninnananna - bye-byes, teddy-byes, lullaby
oplà - upsa-daisy
pannolino - nappy, diaper
papino - daddy
pappa - babyfood, pap, din-din
passeggino - buggy, pushchair, stroller
pipì - tinkle
pisolino - nap
popò - bottom
pupù - poop, pooh
stanza de giochi - playroom

🍼 CHILD LANG VERBS
fare la pappa - to eat
fare la pipì - to wee-wee
fare la popò/pupù - to poop 
fare la nanna - to go beddy-byes
fara la ninnananna - to go beddy-byes
fare il bagnetto - to go shower
fare il/la monello/a - to be a rascal

🍼 USEFUL EXPRESSIONS
a cosa vuoi giocare?
- what do you want to play?
abbassa un po’ la voce - lower your voice
attento/a! - careful!
attento/a a non sporcarti! - careful not to get dirty!
bravissimo/a! - good boy/girl!
chiamo la mamma - I’m going to call your mum
è stato/a buonissimo/a - s/he’s been an angel
fa’ il bravo/a - behave
facciamo un bel gioco! - let’s play a nice game
me lo ripeti? - can you repeat that?
non correre - don’t run
non gridare - don’t shout/scream
non ho capito - I don’t understand
non si fa - that’s wrong
questo si fa? - you shouldn’t do this
sei proprio un bambino/una bambina intelligente - you’re a really intelligent kid
sei proprio bravo/a - you’e really good
si è comportato/a bene/benissimo - s/he’s been an angel
sta’ attento/a - be careful
va’ piano - slow down
vogliamo leggere un bel libro? - let’s read a nice book

anonymous asked:

could you make like a masterpost of german cases? thxxxx

hope ur ready for a long fuckin post

Nominativ/Nominative

Use

This one’s the simple one, it’s the subject of the sentence, meaning the thing that is doing something. For instance, in English, in the sentence “it’s the subject of the sentence”, “the subject” is the subject. Further examples in English and German, nominative/subject in italics:

  • The sun shines brightly. - Die Sonne scheint hell.
  • It was the uncle who committed the crime. - Es war der Onkel, der das Verbrechen beging.
  • Boys are often messy. - Jungs sind oft unordentlich.

Possible confusion points:

If you’re saying “[A] am/are/is [B]” (“[A] bin/bist/ist/sind/seid [B]”) where [A] and [B] are both nouns, both of them are in nominative. Don’t be fooled into thinking [B] is an object because ‘[B] being been by [A]’. Ex.: The tall man was the actor - Der große Mann war der Schauspieler.

Passive voice: if a sentence uses “[A] am/are/is [verb]ed by [B]” (“[A] werde/wirst/wird/werden von [B] ge[verb]t/en”, [A] is the subject. Ex.: He was arrested by the police - Er wurde von der Polizei festgenommen. You can think of it like the action that the subject is doing (in this example) is being arrested.

Articles

(definite, indefinite)
Masculine: der, ein
Feminine: die, eine
Neuter: das, ein
Plural: die, meine*

*You can’t have one of a plural thing, so I chose to use the word for my, and did this for the rest of the cases. Note that the possessive articles always have the same endings as the indefinite articles, except instead of ein- they use mein-, dein-, sein-, ihr-, unser-, eu(e)r-, Ihr-.

Adjectives

Here’s the worst part about German cases, the endings of the adjectives used before a noun change not only depending on gender and case of the noun but also on type of article used.

Definite articles (der/die/das/die):

  • Masculine: -e
  • Feminine: -e
  • Neuter: -es
  • Plural: -en

Indefinite/possessive articles (ein/eine/ein/meine*):

  • Masculine: -er
  • Feminine: -e
  • Neuter: -es
  • Plural: -en

No article:

  • Masculine: -er
  • Feminine: -e
  • Neuter: -es
  • Plural: -en

Pronouns

Personal pronouns:

This is nominative, so these will be the basic pronouns you already know:

I - ich
You (singular informal) - du
He/she/it - er/sie/es
We - wir
You (plural informal) - ihr
You (formal, singular or plural) - Sie
They - sie

Relative pronouns:

Relative pronouns are the ones used to connect clauses (Hauptsatz + Nebensatz), like “That is the girl who played piano” - “Das ist das Mädchen, das Klavier spielte”. In most cases (ha pun) it’s the same as the definite article:

Masculine: der
Feminine: die
Neuter: das
Plural: die

Genitiv/Genitive

Use

There’s rarely a direct translation of this into English, which makes it slightly hard to explain, but it’s not that hard a concept. The genitive is used for possession, and would translate as “of the [noun]”. Examples in English and German, genitive in italics:

  • The colour of the stone is black. - Die Farbe des Steins ist schwarz.
  • What is the song of the week? - Was ist das Lied der Woche?
  • The name of the girl is Sandra. - Der Name des Mädchens ist Sandra.

In some cases in English this can be rewritten as [noun]’s (for instance, “this girl’s name is Sandra”). This comes from the same root as the German genitive in masculine and neuter (you’ll find that both of those genders add a -(e)s to the noun when in genitive). In fact, in Old English, we would have had similar rules, so if we lived in the 11th century, we would have said (I think) “se nama þæs mægdnes is Sandra”.

N.B. In sophisticated texts and some common phrases you might have the genitive before the object. Ex.:
(An idiom meaning) Do whatever makes you happy (literally, the will of man is his kingdom of heaven - Des Menschen Wille ist sein Himmelreich.
Unity and justice and freedom are the promise of happiness - Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit sind des Glückes Unterpfand. (this is from the German national anthem)

Articles

(definite, indefinite)

Masculine**: des, eines
Feminine: der, einer
Neuter**: des, eines
Plural: der, meiner*

**Masculine and neuter nouns in genitive, with few exceptions which will be mentioned at the end, take -(e)s as an ending. Ex.: Die Bevölkerung des Landes ist ziemlich groß.

Adjectives

Definite articles (des/der/des/der):

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -en
  • Neuter: -en
  • Plural: -en

Indefinite/possessive articles (eines/einer/eines/meiner*):

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -en
  • Neuter: -en
  • Plural: -en

No articles:

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -er
  • Neuter: -en
  • Plural: -er

Pronouns

Personal pronouns:

There aren’t real genitive personal pronouns in that there’s no single word for “of me”. To say stuff like that, you’d either use a possessive (before the noun) or the preposition “von” + the dative personal pronoun (after the noun).

Relative pronouns:

These ones would translate as “whose” or “of which the”. Ex.: I spoke with the man whose wife works at Samsung - Ich redete mit dem Mann, dessen Frau bei Samsung arbeitet.

Masculine: dessen
Feminine: deren
Neuter: dessen
Plural: deren

Prepositions

For all cases except nominative, some prepositions take those cases. For genitive, there aren’t many - here’s a definitely incomplete list:

statt - instead of
trotz - despite/in spite of
wegen - because of
während - during
laut - according to
anhand - based on/using
hinsichtlich - in terms of

When using a genitive-preposition with a personal pronoun (e.g. according to me), it’s usually okay to use the dative personal pronoun instead (laut mir) because there is no pronoun for “of me”. However, for some of these phrases there are single words that take that meaning, such as meinetwegen for “because of me”. Some genitive pronouns also tend to be used with the dative by accident (even by Germans), so don’t worry if you use the wrong case.

Dativ/Dative

Use

The main use of the dative is as the indirect object, and would usually translate in English into phrases with “to”: Ich gab das Buch dem Mann - I gave the book to the man. Note that this sentence is correct, but so is “Ich gab dem Mann das Buch”, and “dem Mann gab ich das Buch”. However, some verbs take dative (as either reflexive or objective) and lots of prepositions take dative.

Articles

(definite, indefinite)

Masculine: dem, einem
Feminine: der, einer
Neuter: dem, einem
Plural: den***, meinen***(and *)

***When using den for the dative plural but not for the accusative masculine, the noun takes -(e)n, unless it already ends with n. Ex.: The young children like video games (literally, video games please the young children) - Videospiele gefallen den jungen Kindern.

Adjectives

Definite articles (dem, der, dem, den):

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -en
  • Neuter: -en
  • Plural: -en

Indefinite/possessive articles (einem/einer/einem/meinen*):

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -en
  • Neuter: -en
  • Plural: -en

No articles:

  • Masculine: -em
  • Feminine: -er
  • Neuter: -em
  • Plural: -en

Pronouns

Personal pronouns:

me - mir
you (singular, informal) - dir
him/her/it - ihm/ihr/ihm
us - uns
you (plural, informal) - euch
you (formal) - Ihnen
them - ihnen

Relative pronouns:

Masculine: dem
Feminine: der
Neuter: dem
Plural: den

Prepositions

Incomplete list of prepositions that take the dative:

mit - with
bei - at/by
von - from
seit - since
nach - after
zu - to
gegenüber - opposite/on the other side of (most often used with streets)
aus - out of
an**** - on/to
in**** - in
neben**** - next to
auf**** - on
vor**** - in front of
unter**** - under
über**** - over
zwischen**** - between
hinter**** - behind

****These nine can take dative or accusative, but thankfully the rule is always the same. If movement is involved, you use accusative - if not, dative. Ex.: Ich schwimme ins Meer - I am swimming into the sea. Ich schwimme im Meer - I am swimming in the sea.

Verbs

Many verbs take dative, such as “I am listening to him” - Ich höre ihm zu, but there are way too many to list. Here are some of the most common:

antworten - to answer
danken - to thank
gehören - to belong to
gefallen - to please/to be liked by (Note that it isn’t to like, which is mögen, but to be liked by. Ex.: Es gefällt mir doesn’t mean it likes me, but I like it - literally, it pleases [to] me)
helfen - to help
and one common phrase using dative: Es tut mir Leid - I am sorry [for that] (literally, “it does me suffering”)

Akkusativ/Accusative

Use

This is probably the second one you (will) have learnt after nominative, and it’s the direct object. This just means it’s the thing which something is being done to by the subject. Ex.: I will eat a fried egg - Ich werde ein Spiegelei essen. It’s also used, however, in some prepositions.

Articles

(definite, indefinite)

Masculine: den, einen
Feminine: die, eine
Neuter: das, ein
Plural: die, meine*

Note that apart from masculine, the accusative is the same as the nominative. Be glad.

Adjectives

Definite articles (den, die, das, die):

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -e
  • Neuter: -e
  • Plural: -en

Indefinite/possessive articles (einen/eine/ein/meine*):

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -e
  • Neuter: -es
  • Plural: -en

No articles:

  • Masculine: -en
  • Feminine: -e
  • Neuter: -es
  • Plural: -e

Pronouns

Personal pronouns:

me - mich
you (singular, informal) - dich
him/her/it - ihn/sie/es
us - uns
you (plural, informal) - euch
you (formal) - Sie
them - sie

Relative pronouns:

Masculine: den
Feminine: die
Neuter: das
Plural: die

Prepositions

Incomplete list of prepositions that take the accusative:

bis - until/up until
für - for
durch - through
um - around/at (a time)
ohne - without
an**** - on/to
in**** - in
neben**** - next to
auf**** - on
vor**** - in front of
unter**** - under
über**** - over
zwischen**** - between
hinter**** - behind

Verbs

Literally most verbs that have an object and couldn’t be translated as doing something to the object (answering to a question, antworten uses dative) take accusative.

Other things

There are nouns known as “weak nouns” that take -(e)n as well as the normal ending when they’re not in nominative. The most important one to know is Name. (Also remember it’s der Name not die Name even though it ends with e.) Ex.: He writes me his name - Er schreibt mir seinen Namen. The family is American, in spite of the Italian surname - Die Familie ist amerikanisch, trotz des italienischen Nachnamens. As well as this there’s the word der Mensch (the person/the human) that has the normal declension except for genitive: N der Mensch, G des Menschen, D dem Mensch, A den Mensch.

In old German, the dative in masculine and neuter nouns took an -e ending, and we still see remnants of that in phrases like zuhause (at home), nach Hause ([to] home) and zugrunde (many meanings)

There are verbs that take the genitive object, but you’ll rarely or never see them in conversational German. Ex.: The presidents of each country commemorate the lost lives in the war - Die Präsidenten von den zwei Ländern gedenken der verlorenen Leben des Krieges.

probably some more things i’ve forgotten but literally i’ve spent too long on this bye jfc i hope this is useful

Music Spells

So I was thinking about all the different ways music could be used in spell writing.. and coming up with meaningful correspondences is fun but what if it was something more formulaic? Like something along the lines of sigil making.

A spell could be as simple as a motif. It doesn’t have to be a full piece with complicated details. It could be just a few notes you would hum to yourself because they have meaning to you and they resonate a certain energy with you.

One idea I have is corresponding pitches to the letters of the alphabet.
There are 12 pitches in an octave, so the letters would be divided into 12 groups. For example,
(0) A, M, Y
(1) B, N, Z
(2) C, O
(3) D, P
(4) E, Q
(5) F, R
(6) G, S
(7) H, T
(8) I, U
(9) J, V
(10/t) K, W
(11/e) L, X
or if you would like to stick to a specific scale (let’s use an arbitrary major scale for this example),
(Do) A, H, O, V
(Re) B, I, P, W
(Mi) C, J, Q, X
(Fa) D, K, R, Y
(Sol) E, L, S, Z
(La) F, M, T
(Ti) G, N, U
For these examples I grouped the letters by having the letters follow the notes alphabetically, and then repeat notes when they ran out. But there are many other ways you could group them, for example, you could divide the alphabet by 12 pitches, and have the first 3 letters be pitch 0, the next 3 pitch 1, etc.

So for the actual spell!
This would be similar to sigils in the sense that you can write a sentence, respresenting your intent, and then using the formula, turn those into pitches!

For example, the phrase “I am safe” would be “8 0 0 6 0 5 4” using the first method, or “Re Do La Sol Do La Sol” using the second.
One you have the pitches you can be creative, by adding rhythms (maybe build phrases based on word or sentence lengths?), harmonies, articulation (maybe accents on capital letters?), etc.

I hope this gives peoples some ideas!

(Also if it’s just for small motifs like this, I am willing to do spell requests! And I can have them played or sung in whatever instrument you like!)

― How to write an essay as an undergraduate history student

These are general guidelines to help undergraduate students write better essays. *Note that every assignment is different. You should take the time to closely read the instructions and meet with your Professor if necessary. I hope you will find these useful and good luck writing your papers!

B E F O R E   Y  O U   S T A R T

  • Make sure that you have closely read the instructions as presented by your Professor. There are many different types of historical essays (argumentative essays, historiographical reviews and so on). It is imperative that your style is adapted to the type of essay you are required to write.
  • Gather all your information. Some Professors want students to write essays using only class material, others expect them to do more research.  If the latter, make sure to gather all (most) of your information beforehand. If you are a university student, you  have access to a library and many academic journals. Use this access and make sure to ask librarians for help when needed.
  • Take careful notes as you are reading in preparation for your essay. If your Professor provided a specific question, make sure to read critically for information that is susceptible to help you answer this question. If your Professor has not assigned a question, you should still read carefully and try to find the different ways in which historians address certain issues. 
  • Some students prefer not to plan essays, others do. I suggest planning as it may be the best way to map out your ideas and begin forming an argument. It is impossible to cover all the facets of a problem in one essay, therefore, planning your essay may be the easiest way to make sure your work covers important aspects of a given issue. Planning will also help ensure that all your arguments remain connected and support a central claim.
  • Find a few (preferably history) essays that you find well-written and pay special attention to their structure. While you should be careful never to be so inspired as to be tempted to copy (this is a very serious academic offence) the goal of this exercise is to find more academic vocabulary and see how it is used by actual scholars. 

W H E N    W R I T I N G 

  • If your Professor gave you a question to answer in advance, make sure you answer this question and this question only. While you should always supply your arguments with pertinent examples, these should be succinct and focus on the main contention debated in your essay.
  • Make sure your essay has a thesis statement (yes, even when you are asked to answer a question). Your Professor should know from the very beginning of your essay what you will be arguing and what position you will take. All subsequent paragraphs until your conclusion should serve to better make the case for your thesis.
  • Try to follow the “classical” essay model, that is: introduction, body and conclusion. 
  • Began each paragraph with a topic sentence announcing the focus of the next few lines. Conclude the paragraph by rephrasing the main idea and possibly by trying to make a connection with the next body of text.
  • Always bring evidence to support your arguments. This evidence may come from the work of other historians are from a passage of a primary document. Whatever the case may be, make sure that your arguments are solidly built and “defended”.
  • Introductions and conclusions are (usually) not optional. Your introduction should help the reader understand what the text will argue and how it will proceed to do so, while your conclusion finishes the text by summarising key points and perhaps even making a suggestion for future studies. (An additional tip may be to write a simple introduction at the beginning and then rewriting it when the essay is finished. Once you are satisfied with your introduction, you may copy and paste it as your conclusion making necessary adjustments and avoiding copying the exact sentence structure. The point here is to use your introduction as a guide to write your conclusion.)
  • Be precise, you are writing a history paper, dates and names matter. 
  • Be clear and concise but make sure that all your points are well-developed. 

G E N E R A L   T I P S 

  • Locate your argument in historiography. As a historian in training, it is important that you show your Professor that you understand there are debates regarding specific interpretations. It is also important that you demonstrate that your line of argumentation is supported by the work of experienced researchers. Even if your essay primarily focuses on primary document analysis, surely some have analysed this text or object before, make sure to mention these scholars and their contributions to the debate.
  • Citations should be used wisely. As said before, it is important to ground your argument in the work of other historians. In this sense, citations are immensely useful. That being said, depending on the length of your paper, too many citations may suggest laziness as you have made little efforts paraphrasing. A few carefully selected and well-integrated quotes in your paper should do the trick.
  • Unless prohibited (for some odd reason) by your Professor, use footnotes to give additional information. Using footnotes to engage in discussions that are important but that otherwise cannot find their place in your text will show your Professor that you had a strong command of the topic at hand. It is also the best place to suggest further readings.
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BIBLIOPHILIC WITCH REVIEWS » Non-Fiction :: Witchcraft
Of Witchcraft and Whimsy by Rose Orriculum (@orriculum)

Of Witchcraft and Whimsy is a fantastic witchcraft 101 book. It gives a great introduction to many of the foundational basics of the practice, defines many terms not always covered in similar texts, and addresses many common misconceptions found in the more easily accessible publications out there. I will absolutely be recommending this book to many looking for a basic introduction of witchcraft along with my usual suggestions. Not only was the information sound, but the author repeatedly used inclusive language to shut down many discriminatory arguments found within the community while also reminding the reader to be respectful of closed traditions and of their local laws.

There were a handful of times I felt the author could`ve taken more time to go more in depth on certain topics. I think these same topics could have been better supported with sources or a “further reading list” to present why some of the misinformation often addressed and argued over within the community is incorrect. I also feel that a disclaimer should have been included at the beginning of this book outlining that when reading any occult book, including this one, the reader should always be critical and discerning.

Finally a note on being self-published and in e-book format. This book did not escape the basic self-publishing grammatical errors. There were several incorrect words such as “or” instead of “of”, missed capitalizations for new sentences, and a few sentences that need some editing to clarify the meaning and/or create better flow. I’m also very unsure how I feel about the use of links. If the reader is reading while connected to the internet this makes a much more interactive and informative experience, but an Internet connection is required and if the author changers their Tumblr URL or deletes their blog the book suddenly finds itself lacking where it depending on links to detail a topic.

★★★★✰

Cover from Amazon. Portrait from author’s blog.

anonymous asked:

Y'know how authors/writers have a hard time coming up with the right word to describe something? I'd like to think that happens to the host too and Google, being the bud he is, helps him come up with the words too, and he probably did it for the host when he was the author too, even if he was a bit too prideful to accept the help

The Author would probably spend a g e s staring furiously at a half-finished sentence, the empty spot next to it covered in eraser bits because he cant, for the life of him, remember what word he wants to use. Google comes in and says “may I suggest___” in his calm tone and the Author would shoo him away with a “fuck you I don’t need your help” He still uses the word Google suggested, but he’s not happy about it.

The Host, of course, would be really polite about it. He takes a note from Dark’s book and doesn’t treat Goole like a machine and asks in his quiet voice “Would you mind suggesting a synonym for___?” Google honestly can’t tell if he likes this new politeness or misses the old enthusiasm. Emotions are strange things after all.

(I haven’t written stuff in forever, but y'all are enabling me so)

Learn how to speak szpd

Lesson 1

Today we will learn about most common phrases that schizoids use, and their translations


“Damn”/“Sorry for you”/“That sucks”
Translation: You said something, you seemed upset.

“Nice”/“cool”
Translation: You said something, you did not seem upset.

“Niiiicee”
Means the same as “Nice” but “Nice” was the response to the last thing you said, the extra “i"s and “e"s are for diversity in the two replies.

"lmao”
This phrase has two translations depending on the context.
1 - when standing alone: I have no idea what to reply. You may have told a joke.
2 - when used in a sentence: I am trying to not seem completely cold

“De” Versus “Des” in French

Question: I am confused about the usage of the prepositions ’de’ versus ’des’. What we have learned in basic French is that des is a contraction of de + les and is thus used to refer to plural nouns. However, in readings I have noticed many cases where de is used before plural nouns. I give several examples below:

  1. Marc parle de sports.
  2. Il n’a pas de soeurs.
  3. Julie apprends de nouveaux mots français.
  4. Julie et lui restent de bons amis.
  5. Ils ont de très bonnes glaces.
  6. Ils ont fait de grandes contributions.

Can anyone explain why the preposition ’de’ is used rather than ’des’?


Answer: You actually have three different cases here. For simplicity, I’ll respond to each case in a separate reply.

So, the first case. In the first sentence, recall that de can be a “normal” preposition meaning “of, about” (as well as “from”). And it can also have its “special” function where, combining with le, la, les, it essentially means “some”. In your first sentence, imagine firstly if you wanted to say “Marc is talking about three sports.”. This would be, as you might expect:

Marc parle de [trois sports].

Notice how you have de here, with its “non special” use as a preposition meaning “about”. Now, on the basis of this sentence, imagine that we want to say “Marc is talking about some/various sports.”, given that “des” means some. Logically speaking, we would expect the following:

Marc parle de [des sports].

In other words, logically speaking, we would expect de twice: once as a preposition, and then again as part of the word des meaning “some”.

But although this is completely logical, it turns out that it’s not what French speakers actually say. It turns out that whenever you would logically get two de’s one after the other like this, in practice only the first de is retained. So that is how you end up with:

Marc parle de [      sports].

Other common examples of this phenomenon include:

J'ai besoin de [du lait] –> J'ai besoin de lait.
Une bouteille de [de l'eau] –> Une bouteille d'eau.


In your second sentence, the reason for only using de and not des is essentially because of the negative. When the sentence is negated, usually de on its own is used (instead of un(e), du, de la or des). If you like, it’s the rough equivalent of “any” in English.

So just as it usually sounds odd in English to say “I haven’t got some sisters.”, it usually sounds odd in French to say “Je n'ai pas des soeurs.”. 

(However, unlike English any, you would still use des etc in a question in French.)


The remainder of your examples stem from an artificial rule that is sometimes followed in formal or literary French. In formal usage, writers have traditionally preferred to change “des” to “de” before an adjective that comes before a noun. In everyday speech and in less formal writing, speakers would frequently say and write “des bons amis”, “des nouveaux mots” etc as you would expect.

Even the traditional rule actually allowed for “des” to be used in many cases where the adjective and noun “strongly formed a set expression”. So it’s even fair to say that in many cases using “de” rather than “des” in these cases is a bit of a hypercorrection.

Post 45: Passive Verbs 1.0

An active verb is used when a subject does an action. In the examples below, the subject is “I”

I eat
I learn
I open

Active verbs often act on an object, the object refers to the part of speech that a verb can act on, people usually think object means “a thing,” e.g “a pencil” or “a door” in reality any noun can be an object of a sentence,  including people or abstract ideas that are not considered “objects” in the literal sense.

The objects are in italic here:

I love my father
He wants respect
I learn Korean
I open the door

Passive sentences indicate that an action is performed on the subject.

I was kicked
The door was opened
The hamburger was eaten

Compare these sentences in order to understand it better:

I turn the computer on
The computer is turned on

I lock the door
The door is locked

Passive verbs (like adjectives) cannot act on an object.

I opened the door (active verb) – correct
The door was opened me (passive verb) – incorrect
The door was big me (adjective) – incorrect

Sentences with passive verbs can include more information to indicate by whom or by what the action was performed.

The door was opened by me
The door was opened by the wind
The door was opened by the guard

Because passive verbs cannot act on an object, you will never see ~을/를 in a sentence predicated by a passive verb in Korean.

it is usually unnatural to use passive verbs in Korean. In almost every situation, it is more natural to use the active form of a verb. For example, instead of saying “the house is built” it is more natural to say “somebody built the house”.

Always remember that passive verbs are verbs. This is important because you must conjugate them as verbs and not as adjectives.

Vocabulary list on Passive Verbs

Anonymous asked:

I’m writing a fantasy novel inspired by Japan. To what extent do I have to use real-life references? Should I use the same form of government? Also, the names of the provinces are separated by times of day. Should the times be in Japanese or can they be in English? I.e. The Night Province or Yoru (means night in Japanese)? Thanks!


When you say “real-life sentences,” are you asking if you should use the Japanese dialogue in your story? I’m not really clear what you’re asking here. If you’re just asking whether or not you can use Japanese proper names, then yes, you should do that. You don’t have to translate proper names even if you’re writing in English.

If you’re writing your story in English for an English-speaking audience, you should write the story in English, even the dialogue. If you are fluent in Japanese or know someone who is (and they’re willing to help you), you can certainly add some Japanese dialogue to your story to make it more authentic. However, you will need to translate this for the reader. You can read more about that in these posts:

Translating Foreign Language for the Reader
The Trouble with Foreign Dialogue

Oops! I’m so sorry I misread your question, Anon! I’m not sure what happened there, but it was an honest mistake.

How real you make your fantasy version of Japan depends on the needs of your story. It also depends to some degree on the nature of the fantasy elements. For example, if you’re doing something like Harry Potter or The Mortal Instruments series, where there’s magic and magical creatures that are part of the existing world, you don’t really have to change much. You would basically change whatever is necessary for your story. However, let’s say you’re writing a story set in an AU version of medieval Japan. In that sense, you can pretty much change what you want.

Proper names and things can be in Japanese. However, things like time, dates, etc. you can go ahead and change to English or whatever language you’re using to write the story. :)

ETA:
ambiguouspuzuma said: They didn’t say ‘real life sentences’ at all. You might be less confused if you read the questions properly.

WQA responded: Hey, @ambiguouspuzuma, no need to be a dick about it! Congratulations for making my block list! :)

frenchkey said: Sorry to be a bother but I think you misread the question? It says ‘real-life references’ not 'real-life sentences’.

WQA responded: Not a bother at all, @frenchkey! Thank you for pointing that out and for being nice about it. :) <3

———————————————————————
Have a writing question? I’d love to hear from you! Please be sure to read my ask rules and master list first or your question will not be answered. :)

Blast From The Past: Part 5

Pairing: Reader x Bucky
Word Count: 2K
Warnings: None? Maybe some angst, a little Sad!Bucky

A/N: FINALLY some real reader x Bucky interaction.
I’m not great at writing from another characters POV, but I hope it’s not too bad. I’m trying to set up their past relationship (in Hydra), hope it come across right/not clunky.

Feedback is always appreciated. Let me know if you want to be added to the tags list.

E/C: Eye Colour 

This part is in Bucky’s POV

Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4

Bucky jolted awake from another nightmare. They’ve started to worsen again, since being re-introduced to you. Bucky stared up at his ceiling and the incident between you two played out in his mind again, making him cringe. He felt terrible about hurting you. He wanted to apologise, but you didn’t want anything to do with him; you probably hated him, he did almost kill you.

Bucky sighed and rolled out of bed; he was too awake now and didn’t have a chance at getting back to sleep any time soon. Pondering what he could do at 3am that wouldn’t wake anyone else up, he decided to make himself a cup of tea and headed out of his room. The room door next to his, your room, was slightly a jar. He considered knocking and finally talking to you; but figured you’d be asleep.


Bucky headed straight for the kettle, but a figure in this peripheral vision stopped him in his tracks. You were sitting on the couch, leaning against one of the end arm rests. The lamp behind your head was illuminating the notebook that you were furiously scribbling in. You hadn’t noticed that he’d entered the living area. You looked exhausted, but just the sight of you made Bucky’s chest tighten.

Suddenly he found himself walking towards you. It wasn’t until he was a few feet away that you noticed him, making you jump.

“Oh, sorry,” he says, giving you an apologetic look, “I didn’t mean to scare you,” Bucky’s shocked when you give him a smile. He had half expected you to get up and walk away without saying a word.

You set down your pen and place your notebook on your legs, “it’s okay. I didn’t even hear you come in. I guess I was really concentrating on this,” you motion to your notebook.

Bucky looks down at it, and notices that you had been scribbling the same 6 numbers repeatedly, all over the page. His brow furrows in confusion, trying to put a meaning to the numbers.

You follow his line of sight, noticing that he’s staring at your notebook, “when I remember something, I write it down,” you explain. Bucky smiles at you, feeling relieved,

“I have one too,” Bucky nods to your notebook, “it’s nice to know that I’m not the only one that finds comfort in writing memories down… I was going to make myself a cup of tea, would you like one?” he asks, moving back towards the kitchen.

You nod, “1 sugar, and milk, please,” you smile at him before returning your attention to your notebook and continue tracing over the numbers, darkening the ink.

Keep reading

The Basic Basics of Ancient Greek

For @temples-wreathed-in-laurel and anyone else who wants to learn :)

Alphabet and Pronunciation

The pronunciation I use is reconstructed Ancient Greek pronunciation as I was taught at school. It’s basically modern Greek, except the pronunciation of some letters is different. There is some debate about how Ancient Greek sounded, however, so others who have studied it may disagree with me.

Α, α: alpha, corresponds to English A. Pronounced “ah”, as in that sound you make when you notice something that displeases you.

Β, β: beta, corresponds to English B and is pronounced the same way.

Γ, γ: gamma, corresponds to English G and is pronounced the same way. In front of κ, μ, ν, ξ, or χ it is pronounced “ng” as in “doing”.

Δ, δ: delta, corresponds to English D and is pronounced the same way, only a little bit more dental (try saying it by putting your tongue against your teeth).

Ε, ε: epsilon, corresponds to a short English E. American and British English don’t really have a sound for it (though I may be mistaken) but it is pronounced a bit like French “é” or “get” with a New Zealand accent.

Ζ, ζ: zeta, corresponds to English Z. Pronounced “dz”. Some people pronounce it “ts” or “z”.

Η, η: eta, corresponds to a long English E. Pronounced “eh” as in “there” or “fair”.

Θ, θ: theta, doesn’t have an English equivalent. Pronounced “th” as in “think”.

Ι, ι: iota, corresponds to English I. Pronounced “ee” as in “keep”.

Κ, κ: kappa, corresponds to English K and is pronounced the same way.

Λ, λ: lambda, corresponds to English L and is pronounced the same way, only a little more dental (like the delta).

Μ, μ: mu, corresponds to English M and is pronounced the same way.

Ν, ν: nu, corresponds to English N and is pronounced the same way.

Ξ, ξ: xi, corresponds to English X. Pronounced “ks”.

Ο, ο: omikron, corresponds to a short English O. Pronounced “o” as in “or”.

Π, π: pi, corresponds to 3.14159 and English P. Pronounced “three point one four one five nine” or simply “p”.

Ρ, ρ: rho, corresponds to English R. It is trilled as in modern Greek or Spanish.

Σ, σ, ς: sigma, corresponds to English S. Pronounced “s” as in “snake”. Sigma is special because there are two ways of writing it. ς is only used at the end of the word, and is σ used everywhere else (ex: κοσμος).

Τ, τ: tau, corresponds to English T and pronounced the same way, only a little more dental (like the delta and lambda).

Υ, υ: upsilon, corresponds to English U. Pronounced “ew” as in that sound you make when you’re disgusted, only a little more closed (like the French “u”).

Φ, φ: phi, doesn’t have an English equivalent. Pronounced “f”.

Χ, χ: khi, doesn’t have an English equivalent. Pronounced “ch” like the German “ach”. Try to growl like a tiger, sounding both fierce and annoyed at the same time, and you might have it.

Ψ, ψ: psi, doesn’t have an English equivalent. Pronounced “ps”.

Ω, ω: omega, corresponds to a long English O. Pronounced “oh” as in “got” with a British accent (as opposed to the American “gaht”).

Ancient Greek also has diphthongs, meaning two letters making one single sound (English has this with “ou”, for example). These are:

αι: pronounced “ay”, like the word “eye” but more like the Spanish “Ay!”.

ει: pronounced “ey” as in “hey”.

οι: pronounced “oy”.

αυ: pronounced “ow” as in that sound you make when you’re hurt.

ευ: this one’s a bit difficult. It’s like “ew”, except instead of the “e”, you use the epsilon sound described above.

ου: pronounced “oo” as in “cool”, but more closed (like the French “ou”).

Here’s a sentence as an example:

Παιδευω την αρχαιην ελληνικην γλωσσην μετα σιστεροφιρις.

That means: I am learning the Greek language with sisterofiris. Try to read it using the pronunciation above!

Except there’s a small problem with the sentence above, namely: accentuation.

Accentuation

Ancient Greek, unlike modern Greek, has many accents. There are two types: tonal accents, which show you where the stress is in a word, and breathings, which show you whether or not there’s an “h” sound at the beginning of a word.

When using capital letters, these accents are written before the letter (example: Ά). Otherwise, they are written on top of the letter (example: ά). They are only written on vowels, with the exception of ρ, which always takes a rough breathing (ῥ) at the beginning of a word.

ἁ is a rough breathing. It means that this letter is pronounced “ha”.

ἀ is a smooth breathing. It means that this letter is pronounced just “a”.

ά is an acute accent (not to be confused with a cute accent). It means that you stress this syllable. Your voice goes up, like when you ask a question.

ὰ is a grave accent. It basically means there is no accent. Ignore it.

ᾶ is a circumflex accent. It means that this syllable is long and stressed. Your voice goes down.

Breathings are only used at the beginning of a word. So if your name is Hank, great! But if your name is Rihanna, sorry, you’ll have to settle for Rianna.

You can have any combination of one breathing and one tonal accent on a letter. This means you can have letters that look like this: ἂ, ἇ, ἅ. But you can only have one breathing, and only one tonal accent, on a letter at a time.

As a general rule, you can only have one tonal accent per word, but there are exceptions. Some very short words don’t have tonal accents at all.

With this in mind, let’s rewrite our sentence:

Παιδεύω τὴν ἀρχαίην ἑλληνικήν γλώσσην μετα σιστεροφίρις.

But wait, there’s more!

Punctuation

There are four different kinds of punctuation in Ancient Greek: the question mark, the colon/semi-colon, the comma and the full stop.

; is the question mark. Confusing, I know. In a sentence, this would be: Παιδεύω τὴν ἀρχαίην ἑλληνικήν γλώσσην μετα σιστεροφίρις; Am I learning the Ancient Greek language with sisterofiris?

˙ is very small, but it is both the colon and the semi-colon. Παιδεύω τὴν ἀρχαίην ἑλληνικήν γλώσσην μετα σιστεροφίρις˙ και… I am learning the Ancient Greek language with sisterofiris; and… Or I am learning the Ancient Greek language with sisterofiris: and…

, is the comma. It works just like in every other language.

. is the full stop. Like the comma, it works just the same as in every other language.

Unfortunately, there is no exclamation mark in Ancient Greek, so you can’t excitedly say:

I am learning the Ancient Greek language with sisterofiris!

2

    ”I sometimes see myself as already a worthy pastor with a good-natured homebody for a wife, a voluminous library, and duties to perform, positions to hold, in every sphere of society. Six days for meditation; on the seventh, one opens one’s mouth. When you take your walk, schoolboys and girls shake hands with you. And when you return home, the coffee is steaming, a big cake is served, and girls bring apples in through the garden door. Can you imagine anything finer?”

    “What I imagine is half-closed eyelashes, half-opened lips, and Turkish draperies! Look, I don’t believe in their grand manner: our elders pull their stupidities from us. Among themselves they call each other dunderheads just like us. When I’m a m i l l i o n a r e, I’ll build a monument to God.”
- Ernst and Hanschen // Spring Awakening by Frank Wedekind / translated by Eric Bentley / pages 73-74 // 

You're Drunk

* Lafayette × Reader
* 24: Did I just say that out loud?
* 221: Kiss me.
* Hamiltime
* Requested by anon

A/N: I freaking did it! Fair warning, I did have some medicine in my system so there may be some wonky parts. I’ll check over the story after I recover. And yes I know Laurens shouldn’t be in the time frame of this story but I refuse to let him be dead. Anyway, I hope you like this one too Anon, as well as all of my followers!

~~

“We won!” Your four friends shouted in unison. The British were defeated and now the gang was celebrating, or just getting drunk. You were there to make sure they didn’t do something stupid.

“We’re finally free!” Alexander shouted. His hair was finally let free from its ponytail. He still wore his army coat as many soldiers did with pride.

“Next, we work on ending slavery.” John said, very determinedly for being very drunk. Laurens still had his hair tired back and he seemed partial to the style.

“I’ll help ya out there.” Hercules said raising his glass towards John. He wore his gray hat like always, and it complimented his coat nicely. “Along with working in my tailor shop of course.”

“What about you Laf?” Alexander asked.

“Woo this pretty mademoiselle.” He said and leaned toward you. His curls were falling free from his ponytail and, like the others, he still wore his blue coat. You liked the way it fit him and accented his figure. But you’d never admit that.

You laughed and pushed him back. “You’re drunk Laf.” You told him.

“Non. I have, as you say, a clear head.” But his words were slurred, he was swaying in his seat, and you could smell the alcohol wafting off of him.

“Well talk to me tomorrow and you might have a chance.” You told him.

“Does this mean I get to spend the night with you?” He questioned, causing the guys to start laughing.

You leaned closer to him with a flirtatious smile. He looked so hopeful. “No.” You told him abruptly and leaned away again. This too, caused the boys to howl with laughter.

“But seriously Laf, what’re you gonna do? Go back to France?” John asked. Though you brushed off Lafayette’s advances you didn’t want him to leave.

He snorted. “Not for some time, non.”

“So what now then?” Hercules asked.

“Washington has offered me a place to stay.” He said. “I suppose I’ll stay there.” With that he downed another glass. He got up to get another before you shoved him back in his seat.

“You start flirting with me and I cut you off.” You told him.

“Even sober I’d flirt with you mon cheri.” He said, his drunken, lazy smile crossing his face.

“You’ve never done it before.” You told him. He muttered something in French. “Huh?”

“I’ve flirted with a belle such as yourself before as I didn’t want you to worry about losing me everyday. But the war is over mon cheri!” This caused all the boys to cheer and raise their glasses.

Eventually you cut all the boys off and waited for them to sober up slightly before leaving the bar. So now it was insanely late and, even though they were drunk off their asses, the boys insisted on walking you home.

You came by your house and you walked up your sidewalk waving to the boys. Three of them waved back but Lafayette walked with you to your front door. “Yes Laf?” You asked.

“Has you answer to me staying the night changed?” He asked with a smirk.

“No. Now go.” You told him and pointed back to the boys.

“But mon cheri!” He all but pouted.

“No Lafayette.” You said, giggling at his childness.

His dopey smile came back. “You have a beautiful laugh.

"Goodnight Lafayette.” You said sternly, but your smile was still there. You unlocked your door and left Lafayette to return home. You closed the door behind you. “Stupid Frenchman.” You said still smiling.

It had been months since the war ended and all the boys were doing exactly what they said they would, well except Lafayette. He was no closer to, as he put it, wooing you.

Alexander and John were writing against slavery. Alexander convinced John to study law as well. They were an unstoppable law team.

Hercules continued working in his shop. He often asked your opinion on custom gowns he made and in return you got a discount on purchases from him.

Lafayette was doing a lot of nothing. He was a hero with no other motive. He lounged around New York, taking in all it had to offer. He often took you with him. All your other friends were busy so he hauled you through the streets. You asked him how much he remembered from the night at the bar. He said he couldn’t recall a single detail.

Lafayette was trying to teach you French during these months too. You were sitting in a park practicing. He prompted you with another sentence. You tried it and only knew you botched it as Lafayette doubled over laughing.

“Alright, alright. I suck at French.” You said.

He sat upright still laughing slightly. “Non mon cheri, you just need more practice.”

You rose from the bench. “Well no more practice today. I say we hit up a bar.” He smiled and nodded his head. “Let’s check and see if any of the guys can come.” He smile seemed to falter, but only for a second.

“Oui.” He said brightly. None of the guys could get away. John and Alexander were working on a new case and Hercules had an important order he needed to finish. So you and Lafayette walked to the bar. You laughed as he told you stories about his time growing up in France. You would never guess the cultured Frenchman in front of you had grown up on a farm.

The two of you talked and drank. You had one glass of alcohol but Lafayette was finishing his third. “Laf, maybe you want to slow down.” You suggested.

“Mais il est plus facile de flirter cette façon.” He said. (But it’s easier to flirt this way.)

You gave him a black stare. That was way too quick and complicates for you. “I think I knew one of those words…”

“Je t'aime Y/N.” He said. Your eyes widened as you knew those words.

“No you don’t Lafayette. You’re drunk again.”

“Non!” He said sternly.

“Yes you are. You’re gonna have a serious discussion in the morning but tonight, we’re done with drinks.” You told him. You got up to leave knowing he’d follow suit. And he did follow you as you left the bar and started towards your house.

“In the matin? Sounds very prometteur.” He said. You didn’t need to look at him to know he was smirking.

“Yes. Because you’re sleeping on my couch to make sure you survive the night. With all the alcohol in you its better to be safe than sorry.” You said.

“It’d be easier to watch over me if shared a bed.” He suggested, using his most flirtatious voice.

“It’d really improper too, so we’re not doing that. Look Laf, no more flirting tonight alright?” You asked.

“Oui, I’ll hold my tongue. Though with such beauty in front on me it may be hard.” You groaned, this was gonna be a long night.

Lafayette did refrain from flirting the rest of the way. But he never stop staring at you with a love sick smile. He thanked you profusely when you got blankets for him. And he kissed the back of your hand before you left for bed.

Lafayette groaned as he woke up. He had no idea where he was but he had one hell of of a headache. He sat up and took in his surroundings. He finally realized he was at your house. But why?

He shook his head trying to recall the night before. There was a hazy memory of you saying that you guys need to have a serious conversation. What was that about? He couldn’t remember. Dread filled him. Had he made a fool of himself? He hoped not. He hoped you weren’t going to tell him to stop spending time with you. “Dieu je l'espère, elle me pardonne.” (God I hope she forgives me) He muttered with his head in his hands.

He stood, trying to ignore the pounding it caused in his head. He stumbled toward your room to let you know he was up. He pushed the door open and found you still fast asleep. He was about to leave but noticed how messed up your blankets were. He crept up to the bed and pulled them up and over you. You stirred but didn’t wake. He smiled and brushed hair out of your face.

He walked back to the living room and laid back down on the couch. He crossed his arms over his chest and closed his eyes. Maybe he could sleep a bit more and clear the fog from the memories of last night.

You pried your eyes open. Miraculously your blankets were still covering you. You usually managed to kick them off you in the night. Memories from last night flooded you head and you groaned as you realized a hung over Lafayette was on your couch.

You flung your covers off and walked into the living room. You smiled when you saw him laying on the couch. His arms were crossed over his chest and his eyes closed. You walked over and ran your fingers through his wild curls. “You know you’re kinda cute when you’re sleeping Laf.” You said queitly. You shook your head in confusion right after. “Did I say that out loud?” You questioned.

“Oui, you did mademoiselle” Lafayette said scaring you.

“I though you were sleeping!” You told him. You held a hand to your chest, trying to calm your racing heart.

“What was that about me being cute?” He asked with a smirk as he sat up.

“Uh nothing.” You said and sat beside him. “Laf, what do you remember from last night?”

“I remember you saying we need to, how you say, have a serious conversation.” He said and hung his head.

“Yes because every time you get drunk you flirt with me.”

“Oui, do you think I wouldn’t?” He asked.

“I wish you wouldn’t.” You told him.

“Quelle?” He asked.

“Laf, I’ve liked you since we met. I hate that you flirt with me when your drunk when, in fact, while sober you don’t see me like that.” You admitted and toyed with the fabric of your nightgown.

“Y/N.” He said softly. You looked at him. He rarely used your actual name. “I flirt with you while drunk because I’m afraid to be rejected while sober.”

“So you…?” You were trying, and apparently failing, to process that sentence.

“Oui, I have feelings for you too Y/N.” You looked at him and a large smile graced your features. He smiled back, his large happy smile that brightened the room. “Embrasse-moi.” He said while leaning closer to you.

“Huh?” You asked.

He stopped leaning closer and laughed. “Kiss me.” He clarified.

“Oh.” You said. Then you realized what he said. “Oh!” He smiled at you before closing the gap and pressing his lips to yours. You smiled against his lips and melted into the kiss. You pulled away and rested your forehead against his.

“Mademoiselle may I say something now that I’m sober?” He asked.

“I suppose.” You shrugged.

“Je t'aime.” He said with a shy smile.

You laughed lightly. “I love you too Lafayette.” His shy smile turned back to his bright one. He leaned forward and kissed you soundly once more.

to the person reading this letter,

hey. here’s the deal. if you’re looking for a reason to stay clean, an excuse to live another day, a purpose, something to make you smile or feel less alone, this is it. if you’re looking for support, i believe in you. i am thinking about you.

you make this world a brighter place, your presence alters something every single day and you wouldn’t be on this earth if you did not belong.

i believe every decision we make leads us to where we need to be, when we need to be there. this moment right now? it isn’t a coincidence. there is a reason you are reading this sentence.

keep pushing forward. you’ll get there soon enough.

with love,

a gentle stranger.

6 College Textbook Tips! to Save You Money

College Textbook Tips 

by slutgarden.tumblr.com

1. Never buy your textbooks. Technically, this is true like 9/10 times. It would be more correct to say “never buy your textbooks at the campus bookstore.” Some books you may need for sequential classes, like A&P 1 and 2, for example. In that case, Amazon is a great place if you need to buy them (renting, too!). Prime shipping ($50 for college students) means you can get them, usually, in 2 days. Chegg is another place you can check out, but I’ve always found the prices to be cheapest on Amazon. You can also try BookFinder, TextSurf, or BigWords for comparisons on good deals.

2. Always go for the penultimate edition, when possible. Grab the 6th instead of the 7th. Cheaper, usually the same material. Sometimes, they’ll move things around or add in pictures. Maybe they clarified a few sentences. Generally, they don’t change and the textbooks companies are looking to get more money. You can also look up lists of what has changed between the editions with some creative Googling. Always ask your professor or instructor if the older edition is OK. Never hurts to be sorry! I would also advise getting a used copy whenever possible. 

3. Grab the e-book when you can. 99% of the time these are cheaper, and you don’t have to carry a huge textbook, or multiple textbooks, to class! Slap them into your laptop, Kindle, iPad, tablet, or even your phone. Whatever you’ve got. I recommend Amazon again. Ask your professor about their technology policy and if e-books are OK. Most of the time, yes. I don’t think I have had any professors tell me they would not allow e-books. 

4. If you have to buy, see if a classmate or friend will go 50/50 with you, or let you borrow their old copy. Friend (you have one or two, right?!) took the class last semester? Did they buy their book? Ask if you can “rent” or buy it from them! Maybe someone else in the class is having trouble paying for their books, too. Offer to pay for half the book and work out a schedule for when you both can use it. Or, if it comes with online access, one person can take the e-book and one person can take the physical book. 

5. If you absolutely must buy a book by yourself, sell it as soon as you can. Textbook editions change from year to year (because the companies suck! and everyone wants your money). Think of it as a hot potato as soon as you’re finished with it. If the bookstore won’t buy it back - which happens when they have too many or it’s an old edition - try posting a flyer, dropping by old professors’ offices or classes, and even asking if they’ll see if any of their students are looking to buy the textbook at a reduced rate. Try Craigslist (be careful) or even Facebook groups for your area/school.

6. Finally, “magic!" I call this "magic.” Although I will not give you the exact means on where to find pirated books (because I don’t know where they are, and I don’t do that at all…of course not! ;) .) there are resources out there. This is the cheapest option, obviously. Sometimes there are problems, or so I’ve heard…“.PDFs suck, or there are no seeders. Or maybe an e-book just doesn’t exist (check Amazon if you’re looking to see if there is an e-book - they will most likely have it)." 

Additionally: for the love of god, please wait until you have your first class before you go and rent/buy a textbook. Sometimes you won’t even need it, and, although the professor can’t or really shouldn’t tell you that (money-grubbing colleges don’t particularly like that, as I’m sure you can tell), they may hint to it. If they don’t explicitly state you need the textbook, you may be fine without it. Never hesitate to reach out to them if you are having financial trouble (unless they are total assholes!). They may have a solution or could let you borrow a book. 

To give you an example of what these tips have done, I spent about $500 my first semester of college buying my books. For 4 classes. Never again. This semester, I paid a whopping $58 for a book that was not in e-book form. I could have gotten the 8th edition for cheaper, but "all the page numbers were different,” according to my professor. I figured I could spare the expense. ;)

By the way, I just sold back 2 of those books I bought - 1 from the first semester and 1 from another time when I had to get the book, for about $60 bucks on Amazon. At least I made something from it. If you have any textbooks sitting around your house, and they’re not too old, you may be able to sell them back to Amazon, provided they’re in good condition. 

Summary: never buy, always rent. E-books, e-books, e-books. Penultimate editions. Amazon.

meet-me-onthe-equinox  asked:

And maybe Trust for the One Word List? Thaanks!!

You have my eternal thanks for always sending me these awesome prompts! :D

[AO3 Version] [More Prompts Here]

“Trust”

“Babe, when I went to pick up Melody today, Katie’s mom asked me if I could help out with her daughter’s birthday party next Thursday.”

April looked up from her work, her glasses perched on the tip of her nose as her fingers were poised above her laptop, mid-sentence of some boring e-mail she was writing.

“Like with Johnny Karate stuff?” she asked.  

“No,” Andy shook his head as he cleared the table after dinner, scraping uneaten bits of food off the kids’ plates into the trash, so used to this routine by now he could do it in his sleep.  “Like, just to help set up and stuff, and maybe help out with the kids.  She said I’m the only dad who’s tall enough to hang decorations and stuff like that,” he shrugged.

“Uh-huh,” April crossed her arms.  “Yeah, I’m sure that’s all it is.  It’s not like she has a husband to do that…or, y’know, chairs to stand on,” she rolled her eyes.  “And who the hell has a kid’s party on a Thursday afternoon?”

“Yeah,” Andy sighed.  “I dunno…  She said it would be easier because all the kids can come over after school for a couple of hours.”

“That sounds boring.”

“I know,” Andy sat beside her at the little kitchen table, bringing a beer for each of them.  “I wasn’t going to, but when Melody heard her friend’s mom ask, she got all excited at the idea of me being there.  You know how shy she can be, especially if it’s a drop-off party.  If it means she’ll have fun, then maybe it’s for the best?”

April smiled.  Andy was always thinking of their children first.

“Yeah,” she said softly.  “I think Melody would like that.”

“Awesome,” he leaned in and kissed her cheek.  “You’re the best.”

Of course April didn’t like it when Andy was ogled by the other school moms when he went to pick up or drop off their children, or the countless other times they flirted with him when he was one of the many parent chaperones at a field trip or during a kid’s birthday party.  Kids flocked to him, and rightly so.  He was amazing.  He was born to be a dad.  He was Johnny Karate for God’s sake.

This was the lot she was cast as his wife, because that was the deal they’d made.  Since their fourth was born, he’d had to cut back on some of his studio work, and that was fine.  April was going to be the primary worker of the two of them, while Andy was part stay-at-home dad and part whatever else he could be.  Not to mention, April hated most of the other school moms and despised any time she had to interact with them.  It worked out.

It worked out, because every single day, she got to come home to him.  Every single night, she fell asleep in his arms, the stresses of the day fading away with that first touch.  Every single morning, his face would still light up when she woke next to him.  Four kids and many years later, he still loved her just as much.  Nothing had changed, and nothing would ever change.

“No, you are,” she said, leaning into him.  “Really Andy…you’re literally the best dad around.”

“Well, then we can both be pretty awesome,” he suggested.

“Sounds good, babe,” she nodded, closing her laptop and climbing into his lap.

They sat there, sipping their beers and listening to the sounds of the TV faint in the living room, as the kids slept upstairs.

“Hey,” Andy said suddenly, and April lifted her head off his shoulder to look at him.  “You don’t think she was asking me because she’s got a crush on me or something, do you?” he asked, like he’d only just figured it out.  “Because if so, that’s kinda not cool…”

“Andy,” April laughed.  “I’m sure that’s exactly what it is.  But don’t worry.  I think she know’s I’ll come find her if she tries anything.”

“Aww,” Andy laughed as he kissed her.  “I love it when you get all creepy, babe.”

Okay so I have an odd minor concern that I feel like you folks could maybe answer

For years I’ve had a habit of saying “and that” at the end of sentences or phrases “and other such things” or “and stuff like that” (e.g. “Talking about death and that makes me uncomfortable”, “I like sci-fi and horror and that”)

I don’t remember why I started doing that but I am pretty sure I either learned or was under the impression that it’s a speech pattern used in Britain or at least some parts of it (like how Geordie English speakers will put “like” at the end of a sentence). However I’m now like. Beginning to wonder if that’s true and it’s not just something my brain made up when I was 8 years old and also an Anglophile

So like….does anyone know? If using the phrase “and that” to mean “and other such things” is something done in any British dialects/places/speech patterns/idek what I call things sometimes.etc. or like an English-speaking country at all. is that real. Have I just been saying something that people actually think is weird because nobody does that at all. Does anyone know

anonymous asked:

Hello!! So I want to start learning Japanese (・ω・)ノ I was wondering if you had any like tips or suggestions on what to start learning first or anything like that. Thank youuuu! ♪

Hello, sorry for the late reply & glad to hear that you’re interested in starting! I’ve already created a few posts for this type of question (linked at the very end), so I’ll try to add on some more additional information here again :3 This time, I’ve tried create a more detailed schedule off of my personal experience! Of course, everyone has a different way of learning the most efficiently, so try & keep what you like! I have arranged it by proficiency “levels” though some of the 2nd & 3rd levels (& a bit of the 4th) can be mixed together. Hope this helps!

*Disclaimer: I am not a Japanese instructor of any sort & I am still learning myself, though I have tutored students on Japanese before.   

Beginner Order of Learning:

  • Alphabet: Hiragana & Katakana
  • Basic Greetings
    • Time Greetings: Good morning, afternoon, evening
    • Gratitude & Apology: Thank you, Sorry (& the various politeness levels), Good work
  • Basic Grammar w/ a Focus on Relationals
    • Do you know when to use を (wo), へ (e), に (ni), で (de)?
    • The difference between は (ha) and が (ga) in sentences
    • Your first verbs: います、あります、いきます、きます、かえります、たべます、のみます
    • When do & don’t use です?
  • Transforming Grammar to Sentences
    • Learn the basic sentence structure in Japanese: Subject or nouns are written first, while verbs are at the end
    • Piece together all of the relational, verb, etc rules
  • Basic Sentences
    • Present & Past Tense
    • Naming a Place & Time
    • Describing Nouns with Adjectives
    • Asking questions

Easing into Regular Studies:

  • Create Vocabulary Lists / Flashcards
    • 15~30 words depending on your motivation
    • Separate the columns/categories by: Japanese (Hira/Kata), Romaji, English
    • If written on paper, fold the columns so you can test yourself on the other 2 categories by only looking at 1 in your free time
    • Add a column/category for example sentences, & create 1 sentence (no matter how simple) for each vocabulary word
    • Set yourself a deadline: When must you memorize the entire vocabulary list by? On that day, test yourself on every word
    • After testing yourself, if you receive a score you’re satisfied with, move on and repeat the vocabulary list process
  • Look for sample sentences or dialogues online to read & translate
    • Read orally to improve your own pronunciation and reading pace
    • Translate for practice: However for beginning practice, it’s essential to an answer key of sorts b/c you will be making mistakes 
    • Sentences and dialogues with professional translations are most found in textbooks & online guides
  • Write short writing entries
    • For starters, journals or diaries with 3-5 sentences would be nice
    • If you just learnt a new sentence structure, use it immediately in your journal (otherwise, you’ll forget it faster than you know it)
    • As you improve, increase the number and variety of sentences you write. and change the topics/themes for your journals
  • Choose a beginner/intermediate Japanese learning guide either online or via textbook
    • It is essential to build a strong foundation in early years for languages before continuing on to more complexities
    • In this way, you can expand your grammar, sentence structures, & vocabulary without being confused on what to study next
  • Follow a regular schedule, especially if self-studying
    • Whether it’s weekly or biweekly, you should allot a certain time frame for serious studying so you don’t slack off b/c knowledge can easily slip from the mind 

Steady on Your Feet?

  • Interact/practice your Japanese with others
    • If you have friends who are also studying Japanese, have Japanese-only conversations with them
    • If possible, interact with fluent Japanese speakers & natives (esp. those who are interested in learning English so it’s a fair exchange)
    • Recommendation: Lang-8 (useful for any language learners~)
  • Start testing your Japanese with actual media
    • Try reading manga / watching anime or dramas raw
    • Actually pay attention to song lyrics & pay heed to how much you can understand
    • Read websites in Japanese (not recommended for shopping sites if you’re not window-shopping; you wouldn’t want to buy anything by accident)
  • Start learning kanji & gradually adding them into your writing
    • Be clear on onyomi, kunyomi, & other special rules/features to kanji
    • Actually do handwritten repetitive exercises for your kanji to learn the stroke order and distinguish them from others that may look similar
    • Always add okurigana (small hiragana) on top of kanji you are not familiar with when writing, if you don’t write okurigana on everything
  • Create your own schedule of intended study topics, including cultural knowledge

Striving Even Higher

  • Check out the JLPT N5 (lowest) - N1 (highest) standards
    • Includes comprehensive list of vocabulary, grammar, etc that allows you to measure your skill
    • JLPT - Japanese Language Proficiency Test; actual exams that can be taken to prove your level professionally
  • Transform your journals into essays
    • Do not have to be formal essays, but perhaps opinion pieces on certain topics
    • Recommended amount: 3 paragraphs, 4-5 sentences each to start off
  • Read novels, whether that’s contemporary or classics
    • Ex. starters would be light novels, higher levels would be Haruki Murakami, Souseki Natsume (← … good luck)
    • For older literature, the grammar, sentences, & even hiragana may have changed from the current version of the language
  • Learn more country-specific vocabulary: 四字熟語, proverbs, slang, etc. 
  • Translate news articles, book excerpts, etc even without “answer keys”/professional translations
    • This is only recommended once you have a good grasp of the language, which would be understanding at least ½ of the material you want to translate w/o a dictionary
    • For public translating, I personally wouldn’t recommend people who are below ~JLPT N3 or N4 level or understand less than ¾ of what the material…? Of course, this is my own opinion.

This is all I can think of for now (& it took quite a while), but there are many more experienced Japanese speakers that can elaborate on the learning process so search around!


Other Posts I’ve Written About Japanese Learning

accidentalspaceexplorer  asked:

H, I, K?

Thanks for the asks :D 

H. Hidden Gem Book

The Glass Sentence by S.E. Grove! It has such a unique premise (in which following a disaster of unknown cause different parts of the world are thrown into different time periods) with beautiful execution. 

I. Important Moments of Your Reading Life

When I was really little my mom used to read to me, and that’s what got me first addicted to stories. When I first started reading a read Green Eggs and Ham hundreds of times until I had the entire thing memorized backwards and forwards. The Chronicles of Narnia was the first really big book I read, and Wuthering Heights is what eventually got me into classics! The Forbidden Wish was the first book I read with an Arabian protagonist, which was also pretty big for me. 

K. Kinds of Books You Won’t Read

I’m open to pretty much anything to be honest. I mean, I rarely touch contemporary and non-fiction, but that doesn’t mean I won’t read one if something catches my eye. It’s all about finding the right book.