western performance

Anyways western artists are gonna be needing to take a pen and notebook to take notes EDIT: stop reblogging saying that they are influenced by western artists, I know, but they are performers who bring it every single time that is what I was referring to BTS know how to perform most western artists just stand there they are only 4 western artists with dance routines (5h,Little mix, Ariana grande and Beyoncé) I wasn’t discrediting the work of western artists, stop spamming my inbox with “they are influenced by…” I KNOW!!

Transgenderism and Cultural Appropriation: A Gender-Critical Analysis

An anonymous friend in my inbox (which seems to be a very busy place… I’m new to this platform so please allow me time to decide how/if I wish to publish or reply to those) asked me to write about cultural appropriation. I have many thoughts that will have to be dispersed through a few posts. (The angry hijabis in my inbox aren’t going to happy. Neither are the people who followed me thinking I’m a liberal feminist, but I don’t care.)

Essentially, this post aims to break down the similarities and differences between the trend known as “cultural appropriation” and the ideology behind the transgender movement, specifically behind male humans who self-identify as women. I will explain my reasons for this below.

Let’s start with cultural appropriation, then. Here’s the definition I took from Wikipedia, which I realize can be flawed by I’m trying to retain some sense of neutrality by using the first available option when I Google English search “define cultural appropriation”:

Cultural appropriation is the adoption or use of the elements of one culture by members of another culture. Cultural appropriation is sometimes portrayed as harmful, framed as cultural misappropriation, and claimed to be a violation of the intellectual property rights of the originating culture. Often unavoidable when multiple cultures come together, cultural appropriation can include using other cultures’ traditions, fashion, symbols, language, and cultural songs without permission. According to critics of the practice, cultural (mis)appropriation differs from acculturation, assimilation, or cultural exchange in that the “appropriation” or “misappropriation” refers to the adoption of these cultural elements in a colonial manner: elements are copied from a minority culture by members of a dominant culture, and these elements are used outside of their original cultural context—sometimes even against the expressly stated wishes of representatives of the originating culture.

I want to focus on this part: “The adoption of these cultural elements in a colonial manner: elements are copied from a minority culture by members of a dominant culture, and these elements are used outside of their original cultural context.”

This really gets to the problem with cultural appropriation: Members of a dominant group use cultural elements of another group without the proper respect for where those come from.

For example, I’m Iraqi. Henna is really popular in parts of Iraq, and across Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. My own family has used it before for specific ceremonies, like weddings, but also just for fun sometimes.

Now, henna is has become a trend in lots of places. American women might wear henna to a music festival because they think it’s beautiful. On one hand, it’s flattering that other people think this part of our culture (which is, admittedly, part of our own beauty ritual) something they want to copy.

But, on the other hand, Iraqi people might face discrimination for performing our own cultural ceremonies that Americans can do for fun. For Americans, henna is a fun trend, but for Iraqis, it is a part of our culture. Since the American army has killed so many Iraqis in the recent past just for being Iraqi, you can see where this might be hurtful.

However, I want to stress something here that is not very popular with the liberal feminist crowd. Cultural appropriation is a symptom of a bigger problem. It is a demonstration of existing racial power structures. In other words, cultural appropriation is important in that it can hurt feelings and point to these power structures, but it is not in itself violent.

If no Americans wore henna at Coachella this year, the United States still would have invaded Iraq. If no white people had dreadlocks, black people would still be disproportionately killed by police. If Selena Gomez stopped wearing the bindi, South Asian women would still be called “dot heads.” If no white people wore “Aztec prints,” the empire would still have been invaded and destroyed by the Spanish.

When people are socially, politically, or economically rejected, it is hurtful to then distort their cultural symbols without addressing those problems.

That is why I label the word “colonial” as imported here. In this sense, people from an oppressed culture cannot appropriate the dominant culture. In fact, it should be unsurprising that people act in accordance with the dominant culture, since it is dominant.

I’ll use myself as an example. I partake in a lot of “Western” cultures, from speaking English and Spanish to watching American and British television to wearing Topshop when I have the chance. However, I am not appropriating these cultures because I don’t have the institutional power to do that. Part of the reason many Iraqis know English so well is because of colonialism and invasions by English-speakers. The idea that we could appropriate those cultures is laughable! Iraqis don’t perform Western cultures for fun, but for survival.

As we will later analyze further, this is the same reason the declarations of transmen do not have the same impact on society and its structure as the declarations of transwomen. A woman cannot “appropriate” (this is the wrong word but we’ll get to that too) the demeanor of a man because women do not have the same institutional power to steal the culture of masculinity, which privileges men, in such a way.

But again, appropriate is not the correct word. Masculinity and femininity are not cultures. They are collections of traits that cultures have assigned to people based on their genders. Genders are the social expectations assigned to people based on their sexes. Human males are boys and men and expected to perform masculinity. Human females are girls and women and expected to perform femininity.

Masculinity and femininity can change through different cultures and therefore cannot be cultures themselves. For example, in present-day Egypt, wearing makeup is expected of women. But in ancient Egyptian culture, both men and women wore Egypt to be considered beautiful.

It is the belief of myself and many other gender-critical feminists that men and women should be able to express culturally masculine and feminine characteristics because they’re arbitrary to begin with. There is nothing to suggest biologically (or even historically) that female people should enjoy wearing makeup more than male people. If men feel happy wearing makeup, they should wear it! If women don’t want to wear makeup, they shouldn’t have to!

But we cannot pretend these choices are equal or equally empowering. Women in the West had to fight against the patriarchy for their rights to wear pants in the workplace. Why did they want to in the first place? Because masculine characteristics indicate maleness, which is the dominant sex and carries more power with it.

I’m sure Western men who wear skirts in the workplace (without calling themselves trans) exists, and good for them. But we cannot pretend women’s reasons for desiring to perform masculinity and men’s reasons for desiring to perform femininity are the same. Women have to imitate maleness in some situations to be taken seriously or even to stay safe. Men also have to be “masculine” in order to claim the most of their maleness, but when they choose to perform femininity, it’s not for the purpose of claiming some power they did not have before.

This is because women are not the dominant sex. Women are not more powerful than men. We might have characteristics assigned to us that some men find desirable, and they’re welcome to perform those. For example, crying when you’re sad can actually be a really healthy outlet, and it’s a shame men are told not to cry. Men might even help subvert the current oppressive power structure by doing things like this. But, men have no institutional power to gain by performing femininity.

But here, we reach the major difference between cultural appropriation and transgender ideology. People of the dominant culture who appropriate another culture are not claiming to be members of that culture. Transwomen are men who perform femininity and then claim to be women.

The issue is not men acting feminine, but the declaration that acting or feeling or identifying as feminine makes a person a woman. Feminism has actually been more generous than cultural discourse in how it has actually encouraged people of both sexes to break gender barriers in order to break down the entire system.

Take the Rachel Dolezal case as an example. The problem was not that Rachel Dolezal culturally appropriated. Cultural appropriation is a problem, but people do that all the time. The problem is that she claimed performing certain stereotypes changed her entire identity.

The reason the Dolezal case is exceptional, and made so many people angry, is because she claimed that because she “felt” black and she “acted” black, she was black. It wasn’t specifically the adoption of stereotypes that upset people, but the idea that performing those stereotypes could actually change who she was.

We recognize that is nonsense for a few reasons:

  1. Race is visible. Even though educated people know there is no biological difference between the brains of people with different races (just like there is no biological difference between the brains of people with different sexes) we can still see that society is constructed in many ways around the color of a person’s skin (and other traits that define race), just like we can see society is structured in certain ways around a person’s biological sex. Rachel Dolezal tried to change her appearance and there were great debates (and laughs) on television over whether she was “passing.”
  2. Black people have a socialization that white people just don’t have. Rachel Dolezal didn’t grow up with the idea that her ancestors were slaves in her country, or that they immigrated from African colonies, or that she has to be careful around police because they might suspect her of doing something wrong because of her skin. (Just like men do not have to grow up with the collective conscious that the people of their sex before them couldn’t own property or file for divorce, or have to worry about going out late at night because a man might rape them.)
  3. Liking black culture and embracing black stereotypes doesn’t make someone black. Lots of white people enjoy rap music made by black people about black issues, but they aren’t black and they don’t claim to be. (Lots of men enjoy wearing dresses but they aren’t women and they don’t claim to be.) When black people embrace rap culture they are sometimes called thugs and even killed while unarmed, but white people don’t usually have those problems.

Oppressed people don’t have the option to just stop being oppressed. Black people cannot “identify” as white to stop the police from shooting them. Women cannot “identify” as men to stop men from raping us.

But for some reason, we allow male people to enter into the oppressed group of “women.” We allow them into our women-only spaces, like bathrooms, domestic violence shelters, and women’s universities. We change our language to accommodate them, using terms like “people with vaginas” instead of “women” to describe pressing issues like FGM. We tell them that by “feeling” like a woman and embracing a set of gender roles, they have the same experiences, or are even more oppressed than us.

All of this directly interferes with the liberation of women. If we cannot define ourselves as an oppressed class, or if anyone is permitted to enter or leave that class at will, then women cannot claim we are oppressed. If women cannot name that oppression, we cannot fight the patriarchy.

Transgenderism is not men acting in traditionally feminine ways. It is men saying that these actions, or the desire to do these actions, make them women. This is why it is uniquely dangerous. It frames womanhood as a set of feelings and actions based on those feelings rather than a specific oppression based on biological fact.

People of certain cultures are not oppressed because they “identify” as that specific culture. They are oppressed from the time they are born because society assigns them this “culture” and determines certain social, political, and economic factors through that. When other people then steal that culture for themselves without the associated oppression, it’s rubbing salt in the wounds.

Women are not oppressed because we “identify” as women. We are oppressed from the time we are born because society assigns us “womanhood” and determines certain social, political, and economic factors through that. When other people steal femininity for themselves and claim it makes them women, it mocks the oppression we have been through.

anonymous asked:

Hello. I have read that all geiko/maiko movements (when they dance) have a meaning and that makes the whole perfomance have a meaning, like a story or some kind of beautiful opera (the one you can enjoy in occidental theatres). Is this true? Can you please share with us your knowledge about dances? I hope you can understand my question, english is not m y first language. Thank you so much for this blog!

I sadly know very little about Japanese dance, I don’t really have many resources to learn about it. I will tell you all that I know though!

All Maiko and Geiko of Kyoto perform a style called “Kyo Mai”. It’s heavily influenced by the graceful and sophisticated mannerisms and movements by members of the Imperial Court, which used to be in Kyoto, and came into existence in the 17th century.

Each of the five hanamachi of Kyoto has it’s own, unqiue style of dancing though, because every district follows different dance schools. While I’m far from being an expert, I’d say that you can tell them apart after a while of watching Maiko and Geiko dance.

Gion Kobu’s dance school is the Inoue School, and it’s the most famous out of the five dance schools taught in Kyoto and belongs to the most well-known dance schools across Japan. It derives its style from Noh theater which was founded in the 14th century and used to be watched mainly by nobles. Its dance style is very static and minimalistic, especially when you compare it to Kabuki, and only few props are used (mainly masks), and so is the Inoue style. The Inoue Style breaks down complex emotions and stories into small, seemingly simple and strong and decisive, yet graceful movements.

The Inoue School was founded around 1800 by Sato Inoue who was a lady-in-waiting at the Imperial Court and also taught the dances used in ceremonies at the court. The Inoue School is only taught in Gion Kobu, unlike all of the other dance schools taught in Kyoto’s hanamachi, which are taught nation-wide.

The head of the Inoue School is called Iemoto, and is basically the dance master. She has pretty much absolute power in Gion Kobu and she is the “model” all of the Maiko and Geiko aspire to become. Her power and influence also expand far out of Gion Kobu, and she is one of the most important figures in Kyoto’s hanamachi and Japan’s traditional dance. They are also the only person allowed to compose new pieces in the Inoue Style of Dance. All Iemoto have been trained from a very young age, usually from ages 3 to 6. They study to become dance teachers and take the position of Iemoto when the last Iemoto chooses to resign or dies and choreograph and manage the Miyako Odori.

The young girls chosen to become the next Iemoto one day are either already part of the family or adopted into it. Every Iemoto takes the title “Yachiyo Inoue”. The current Yachiyo Inoue V was born as Michiko Inoue in 1956 and took up the position in 2001.

All other four hanamachi of Kyoto follow dance schools that are mainly inspired by Kabuki Theater, which came into existence in the early 17th century and used to be mainy enjoyed by common people, because of it’s dynamic, broad and dramatic display of emotions and lavish costumes and secenery.

Pontocho follows the Onoue School of Dance, Kamishichiken follows the Hanayagi School of Dance, Miyagawacho follows the Wakayagi School of Dance and Gion Higashi follows the Fujima School of Dance. These dance schools use a much wider set of moves and are visibly more dynamic than the Inoue School of Dance. Kamishichiken’s and Pontocho’s dance schools are especially close to Kabuki. All of these dance schools are highly technically demanding and require a good deal of strength, especially in leg-muscles, and general physical health. In Kyomai and in a lot of traditional Japanese dance, deep emotions are coveyed via subtle, graceful movements. While the movements are much less dramatic, dynamic and “athletic” than what we are used to from many traditional western dances, they are performed with absolute precision, elegance and the constant strive for perfection.

Out of the five, I’d personally say that Miyagawachos dance school is the most upbeat and dynamic and the easiest to enjoy for the untrained eye.

Other hanamachi in different parts of Japan follow different dance schools - pretty much every hanamachi has “their own" (although they are usually taught nationwide). The differences are often remarkable and easy to see, even for the untrained eye, especially since no other hanamachi in Japan dances Kyomai, and therefore their movements are often more dramatic.

Most of traditional Japanese songs talk about old folklore, heroes and heroines, the beauty of nature and the four seasons and love, be it unhappy, unrequited or happy and most songs performed by Maiko and Geiko are about love and nature.

The movements of the Maiko and Geiko accompany the lyrics of the song and often tell a story. There sadly are only three traditional Japanese songs to which I know the full English translation, the Gion Kouta, Harusame and the Kamishichiken Yakyoku. The Gion Kouta (”Ballad of Gion”) is about the beauty of the Gion district and Harusame (”Spring Rain”) is about a courtesan leaving her district after paying off her debts, to live a new life with her lover and the Kamishichiken Yakyoku is basically an ode to Kamishichiken and its beauty.

However, I do know the general plot of some other ones as well, for example: “Himesanja” (my favourite), “Three Princesses” is about three princesses, sisters, who all fall in love with the same prince. The song is about their fighting and wrangling, which eventually leads to the suicide of the youngest princess. The song “Natsu Wa Hotaru” is about catching fireflies in the summer.

Once you know about the lyrics or even just the general plot of the song, the dance immediately makes much more sense. I think the Gion Kouta is a great example for this, listen to it once ot twice while reading the lyrics and then watch Maiko or Geiko perform it and the movements will make sense.

Hands and fans can be used for a very broad variety of movements and the mai tenugui is usually used to smybolize some sort of headwear from the Edo Period. When you see a Geiko biting down on it, it’s a sign that the character she is portraying is in great emotional turmoil; this is a classic gesture taken from Kabuki of women in despair.

Sometimes other props like hanagasa, floral hats, or cherry blossoms or wisteria blossoms are used, but I can’t really tell you about individual movements with those.

If you are interested in learning more about the Inoue School, here is a link to a fantastic documentary about the current Yachiyo Inoue V succeeding her grandmother, Yachiyo Inoue IV, who passed away in 2004: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wVExO0O1x4

And here are some videos of dances that I’d recommend to get an idea of the different styles of dancing used in Kyoto’s hanamachi:

Suzume Odori - danced by Gion Kobu’s Maiko (a special dance only performed during the Gion Matsuri)

Kabuki Odori - danced by Pontocho’s Maiko and Geiko (a special dance only performed during the Gion Matsuri)

Konchiki Odori - danced by Miyagawacho’s Maiko (a special dance only performed during the Gion Matsuri)

Komachi Odori - danced by Gion Higashi’s Maiko (a special dance only performed durig the Gion Matsuri)

Kamishichiken Yakyoku - danced by Kamishichiken’s Maiko and Geiko (the final dance of the Kitano Odori, sometimes also performed outside of the odori for special occassions)

Ayame Yukata - performed by Geiko from Gion Higashi during the Miyako No Nigiwai

Kishi No Yanagi - performed by Geiko from Kamishichiken during the Miyako No Nigiwai

Seigaiha Part 1 and 2- performed by Geiko from Miyagawacho during the Miyako No Nigiwai

Genroku Hanami Odori - performed by Geiko from Gion Kobu during the Miyako No Nigiwai

Yoshiwara Suzme Part 1 and 2 - performed by Geiko from Pontocho during the Miyako No Nigiwai

western artist performances are so different from kpop performances i’ve been sitting through every performance waiting for the bomb ass choreography but i forgot we ain’t getting none


Stylization is a great part of westerns’ appeal—something they have in common with film noir. In particular, both forms purvey intensely stylized, ritualistic versions of masculinity. Survival in the cinematic West depends on performance, and westerns’ intense scrutiny of men’s bodies and clothes, gestures and mannerisms, subjects males to a gaze at once desiring and judgmental. Brando, with his confounding mix of raw virility and voluptuous beauty, makes a distinctly modern western hero. At once brooding and flamboyant, he’s able to carry off the most traditional western theatrics, and at the same time give glimpses into an inner landscape more vast and varied, and harder to map, than the one through which he rides.

Dark Passages: Noir on the Range

Mama show hasn’t even started yet and I cannot help but wonder where are the female artists there? Where are Mamamoo, Sistar, Hyuna, AOA, etc…
4 female artists against 12 male artists (not even including the Western artists there performing). Congrats Mnet!

Dear Bryke, You Are Not a Reflection Of Your Father

“When I was a little kid, I had very few shows to look to with brown girls like me and none with queer characters (and maybe that’s part of the reason why it took me so long to come out). Now, not only does this representation exist, but it has just been acknowledged as intentional, valid, and beautiful by its creators.

I can’t exactly articulate how Avatar the Last Airbender and Legend of Korra originally became such important shows in my life, but I can now tell you why it will remain one of the shows most dear to my heart. And for that Mike and Bryan, I want to thank you. " 


Every Avatar fan remembers this first iconic image of Korra released in the summer of 2010.  Announced as the “sequel series” to the beloved Avatar: The Last Airbender, The Legend of Korra promised not only a “strong, hot-headed heroine” but a new, modernized world in the form of Republic City.  Three years later, after the series finale was released, many news outlets praised Korra, as one of the most historically significant animated series in American television, for their confirmation of a queer relationship between the title character Korra and her longtime female friend Asami Sato, known more affectionally within the fandom community as “Korrasami.”  As one of the first academic writers following this series from its inception in 2012 (focused on queer fandom communities of all things), I should have been ecstatic, and yet, it has taken nearly two months for me to structure this more personally-driven essay about a show that infuriated me nearly as much as it inspired me with hope for the future of children’s media.  

Originally, this essay focused solely on the fans and ignored the creators, who I have often criticized for their use of at-times-questionable culturally-appropriated material, casting practices of white voice actors for POC characters, and reductionist approach to complex political ideologies.  I have often defended and highlighted the Korra fandom as the silver lining of a particularly problematic series, and whose community helped create a space of intersectionality, subversion, and exploration of queer identities.  But as I sat down to gather my research, following the finale, reading and watching fan reaction after fan reaction, there was no way to ignore the overwhelming consensus of “Thank you, Bryke!” from the fans.  

At first I was frustrated.  The fans had made Korrasami canon.  They had created a large enough demographic that the Viacom network executives felt safe putting this “progressive” ending out on the airwaves.  But as another one of my  colleagues pointed out, Bryke (the fandom-assigned name for the creators Bryan Konietzko and Michael DiMartino) are the ones who created the media that the fans consume, and thus I can’t completely remove them the equation.  So with a huge breath, I dove into my obligatory re-watch of both series, keeping an open mind about the symbiotic relationship between the fans and the creators. And after a long revision of my original outline I’ve decided to focus this essay around the most important love triangle of the series - Bryke, Korra, and the Fans.

Keep reading

i love being accustomed to kpop levels of diligence and self-awareness and then seeing posts defending mediocre live stages by Western performers with phrases like “they did so great they must have been nervous oh wowww” and then feeling my eyes roll so violently that they fall out of my head



From 1975 to 1979, London improvisors published the most innovative artists and musicians of their generation in the magazine Musics. Derek Bailey, Evan Parker, John Zorn, David Toop, John Russell, The Feminist Improvising Group, Bob Cobbing, ICP, Val Wilmer, Annabel Nicholson, Han Bennink, Eddie Prévost, David Cunningham, Steve Beresford among many others were contributors.

…a blueprint for the interlinked activities we now call sound art, field recording, improv, live electronics & audio culture. it came out six times a year and ran for twenty-three gorgeous issues. the journal covered improvised and non-western music alongside performance art, reflecting the broad interests of the so-called “second generation” of London’s improvisers, and provided a convivial focus point. overlapping with London musicians’ collective (LMC), the publication first launched in Spring of 1975, with the tagline: an impromental experivisation arts magazine and a manifesto that proposed the destruction of artificial boundaries, and linked Free Jazz, the works of John Cage, and indigenous and non-European music….

( Derek Bailey, by there )

Study demonstrates role of gut bacteria in neurodegenerative diseases

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are all characterized by clumped, misfolded proteins and inflammation in the brain. In more than 90 percent of cases, physicians and scientists do not know what causes these processes to occur.

Robert P. Friedland, M.D., the Mason C. and Mary D. Rudd Endowed Chair and Professor of Neurology at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, and a team of researchers have discovered that these processes may be triggered by proteins made by our gut bacteria (the microbiota). Their research has revealed that exposure to bacterial proteins called amyloid that have structural similarity to brain proteins leads to an increase in clumping of the protein alpha-synuclein in the brain. Aggregates, or clumps, of misfolded alpha-synuclein and related amyloid proteins are seen in the brains of patients with the neurodegenerative diseases AD, PD and ALS.

Alpha-synuclein (AS) is a protein normally produced by neurons in the brain. In both PD and AD, alpha-synuclein is aggregated in a clumped form called amyloid, causing damage to neurons. Friedland has hypothesized that similarly clumped proteins produced by bacteria in the gut cause brain proteins to misfold via a mechanism called cross-seeding, leading to the deposition of aggregated brain proteins. He also proposed that amyloid proteins produced by the microbiota cause priming of immune cells in the gut, resulting in enhanced inflammation in the brain.

The research, which was supported by The Michael J. Fox Foundation, involved the administration of bacterial strains of E. coli that produce the bacterial amyloid protein curli to rats. Control animals were given identical bacteria that lacked the ability to make the bacterial amyloid protein. The rats fed the curli-producing organisms showed increased levels of AS in the intestines and the brain and increased cerebral AS aggregation, compared with rats who were exposed to E. coli that did not produce the bacterial amyloid protein. The curli-exposed rats also showed enhanced cerebral inflammation.

Similar findings were noted in a related experiment in which nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) that were fed curli-producing E. coli also showed increased levels of AS aggregates, compared with nematodes not exposed to the bacterial amyloid. A research group led by neuroscientist Shu G. Chen, Ph.D., of Case Western Reserve University, performed this collaborative study.

This new understanding of the potential role of gut bacteria in neurodegeneration could bring researchers closer to uncovering the factors responsible for initiating these diseases and ultimately developing preventive and therapeutic measures.

“These new studies in two different animals show that proteins made by bacteria harbored in the gut may be an initiating factor in the disease process of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and ALS,” Friedland said. “This is important because most cases of these diseases are not caused by genes, and the gut is our most important environmental exposure. In addition, we have many potential therapeutic options to influence the bacterial populations in the nose, mouth and gut.”

Friedland is the corresponding author of the article, Exposure to the functional bacterial amyloid protein curli enhances alpha-synuclein aggregation in aged Fischer 344 rats and Caenorhabditis elegans, published online Oct. 6 in Scientific Reports, a journal of the Nature Publishing Group. UofL researchers involved in the publication in addition to Friedland include Vilius Stribinskis, Ph.D., Madhavi J. Rane, Ph.D., Donald Demuth, Ph.D., Evelyne Gozal, Ph.D., Andrew M. Roberts, Ph.D., Rekha Jagadapillai, Ruolan Liu, M.D., Ph.D., and Richard Kerber, Ph.D. Additional contributors on the publication include Eliezer Masliah, M.D., Ph.D. of the University of California San Diego.

This work supports recent studies indicating that the microbiota may have a role in disease processes in age-related brain degenerations. It is part of Friedland’s ongoing research on the relationship between the microbiota and age-related brain disorders, which involves collaborations with researchers in Ireland and Japan.

“We are pursuing studies in humans and animals to further evaluate the mechanisms of the effects we have observed and are exploring the potential for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies,” Friedland said.