western interior

I was surprised to see that Hesperornis could be almost as big as the average human, wich also puts it around the same size as a female Pteranodon (minus the latter’s wingspan). Following recent research on pterosaurian competence underwater, here’s a female Pteranodon being harassed by two much more agile Hesperornis into giving up on her fish.

Roman Red Jasper Gemstone Depicting Mēn, 2nd-3rd Century AD

Mēn was a lunar god worshipped in the western interior parts of Anatolia. He is attested in various localised variants, such as Mēn Askaenos in Antioch in Pisidia, or Mēn Pharnakou at Ameria in Pontus.

Mēn is often found in association with Persianate elements, especially with the goddess Anahita. Lunar symbolism dominates his iconography. The god is usually shown with the horns of a crescent emerging from behind his shoulders, and he is described as the god presiding over the (lunar) months. Strabo describes Mēn as a local god of the Phrygians. Mēn may be influenced by the (feminine) Zoroastrian lunar divinity Mah, but his male sex is apparently due to the Mesopotamian moon god Sin.

anonymous asked:

I like to think Victor got his apartment in the DVD version from, like, the will of an aunt or a grandma that passed away when he was in his late teens or so. I agree as well that the TV apartment looked a lot more fitting for him (cough and empty cough) and the first vibes I got from the dvd apartment was "the house came furnished" so. But yeah! Really interesting how they changed it up tbh (also it's still loads better than the "western" interiors of the yoi porn movie sNORTS)

ohhh this is a good headcanon and i approve of it! i think the reason they changed it might have to do with copyright or something like that, since the tv version was exactly the same as the one i linked in the comparison post? (also the porn is so painfully awkward lmao why do i even have it….. there’s nothing good about in afafhgkdfhja)

Dakotaraptor steini

Source: Me! I drew it! Yay! I don’t usually draw things! 

Name: Dakotaraptor steini

Name Meaning: Dakota Thief

First Described: 2015 

Described By: DePalma et al. 

ClassificationDinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda, Neotheropoda, Averostra, Tetanurae, Orionides, Avetheropoda, Coelurosauria, Tyrannoraptora, Maniraptoriformes, Maniraptora, Pennaraptora, Paraves, Eumaniraptora, Dromaeosauroidea, Dromaeosauridae, Eudromaeosauria

Dakotaraptor is a new dromaeosaurid from Hell Creek that has been in the rumor mill a long time.  It’s a very large dromaeosaurid, from Hell Creek - we don’t have many of those, only Utahraptor, Achillobator, and Austroraptor in addition to Dakotaraptor - with quill knobs on its arms. As we all know from Velociraptor, this is direct evidence of heavily used pennaceous feathers, making the phylogenetic certainty of these complex integumentary structures on dromaeosaurs of all sizes even stronger. In short, it is now especially inexcusable that the raptors in Jurassic World don’t have feathers. Come on, guys. Stop the madness. Also, that one tumblr user who insists that Utahraptor didn’t have feathers is… somehow even more wrong now. He was already 100% wrong before. We live in a glorious, wondrous, amazing world. 

Source: @ewilloughby (Emily Willoughby; directly from the paper. What a gorgeous reconstruction!) 

Dakotaraptor itself is known from arm and leg bones, as well as some tail vertebrae, and teeth. Based on these remains, its size was estimated to be between 5 and 5.5 meters long, meaning only Utahraptor actually exceeded Dakotaraptor in size. This is impressive, but what is even more startling is the size of it’s characteristic sickle claw: it appeared to have been about 16 cm long, and 24 cm along the dorsal curve. It is proportionally larger than the claw of Deinonychus; it is about 29% of the length of the femur, whereas Deinonychus’ is about 23%. It is similar to that of Utahraptor, but more robust. The quill knobs on the arm are completely, without a doubt, quill knobs, similar to those found on Velociraptor, Archeopteryx, and Microraptor, and were points where the secondary remiges (so the VERY LONG very complex pennaceous feathers) could attach. Not all birds even have quill knobs; they are indicative of heavy use of the feathers themselves and Dakotaraptor probably had about 15 of them (Velociraptor had 14, Archaeopteryx 12, and Microraptor 18). 

Source: RJ Palmer, of @saurian-game fame 

When analyzed for cladistic relationships, it was found to be a sister taxa (meaning, really closely related) of Dromaeosaurus. However, there are some problems with this. First off, they don’t actually include Acheroraptor in their analysis, which leaves me with some questions. First off, how do we not know that Acheroraptor isn’t a juvenile Dakotaraptor? Acheroraptor is only known from skull bones, but Dakotaraptorisn’t known from any. I do not know if you can definitevly say they’re different genera at this time, especially since the only dromaeosaurid teeth found in Hell Creek so far have belonged to one genus - Acheroraptor. I’m giving it the benefit of the doubt for now, but I really demand some new analyses. After all, the authors of this paper are… the people who are still insisting that Nanotyrannus is separate from Tyrannosaurus rex. And look, I made an ADAD entry on Nanotyrannus, but solely for completion purposes, and I really do not think its a separate genus, but rather an ontogenic state of Tyrannosaurus. The authors are fans of over-splitting, and I’m really looking forward to other people’s analyses and statements about whether or not Dakotaraptor and Acheroraptor are the same thing (and, thus, Acheroraptor would take priority). 

Source: @ryuukibart

Dakotaraptor was most similar in proportion to smaller, more agile dromaeosaurids, such as Deinonychus and Dromaeosaurus, rather than other big raptors like Utahraptor and Achillobator. The size of its “raptor claw” indicates heavy use, even more so than normal in dromaeosaurs. It was found in the Upper Hell Creek Formation, very close to the Cretaceous-Palogene Boundary, making it one of the youngest known dromaeosaurs, living in the Maastrichtian age of the Late Cretaceous, about 66 million years ago. It is known from a few specimens, including a “gracile morphotype” which is… interesting… given the taxonomic confusion regarding this animal… they say that its sexual dimorphism but I’m concerned on multiple levels. There’s a lot of iffy taxonomic stuff going on in this paper that has me cringing. And the bulk of its basis for new-genus-ness is its size. I am… Sigh. At least we know it was huge and we know it had feathers. 

Source: @spinosaurus-the-fisher! He made two versions. I refused to pick one. We all get two. 

It lived in one of the most famous prehistoric ecosystems, alongside such dinosaurs as Tyrannosaurus rex, Triceratops, Alamosaurus, Torosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Pachycephalosaurus, Thescelosaurus, Ornithomimosaurus, Troodon, Edmontonia, Dracorex, Sphaerotholus, Stygimoloch, Leptoceratops, Tatankaceratops, Struthiomimus, Anzu, Acheroraptor, Avisaurus, Cimolopteryx, Brodavis, and Potamornis. This was a forested environment, in a warm and humid subtropical climate, alongside the Western Interior Seaway. It probably competed with juvenile Tyrannosaurus for food given their similar sizes. It had very long forelimbs with robust bone structure that could have been used to protect eggs when brooding, or even the famous hypothesized attack method of dromaeosaurs with flapping of wings to help with holding onto prey. Also, they could have been used for mating display, territorial behavior, and shielding the young. 

Source: @spookydunsparce!

Dakotaraptor and Utahraptor, though similar in size, had different anatomies and thus probably filled different ecological niches and evolved their large sizes for different reasons (though, of course, new material from Utahraptor [the so-called “Utahraptor Block” has yet to be described). It seems that Utahraptor was not very good at pursuit capabilities - meaning, not very fast. Dakotaraptor, on the other hand, had proportions similar to smaller dromaeosaurs, and probably would have been at least a little bit faster and able to pursue animals for food. It was a medium sized predator, in addition, allowing it to feed on food not really pursued by either the large predators of Hell Creek or the small. More research definitely needs to be done on this dinosaur, and I really want that classification issue to be resolved, and for people to look at it who aren’t proponents of Nanotyrannus, but, for now, it’s still truly wonderful to have evidence of substantial feathers on large dromaeosaurs. 

Source: @mei-longart!

Source for text: 

DePalma, R. A.,D. A. Burnham, L. D. Martin, P. L. Larson, R. T. Bakker. 2015. The first giant raptor (Theropoda: Dromaosauridae) from the Hell Creek Formation. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions 14: 1-16. 

Today’s shout out goes to the Saurian Developer Xane, at https://twitter.com/XaneFeather (tumbler @featheryraptor, though he doesn’t use it). Thank you for telling me about this wonderful discovery, Xane!

Afghan girls stand at the site of a suicide attack in Kabul, Afghanistan February 1, 2016. Ten people were killed and 20 wounded, most of them civilians in Monday’s suicide bomb attack outside a police station in a busy area of western Kabul, Afghan Deputy Interior Minister Ayub Salangi said in a Twitter post. REUTERS/Mohammad Ismail