Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Plato’s dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is “hidden behind his ‘best disciple’, Plato”. Socrates did not write anything of his own. Understanding Socrates as an individual and appreciating his exact philosophical stand-point and views, therefore, relies upon these sources, but comparison of the details of the sources reveals contradictions, thus creating a conflictual problem in reliably knowing the actual Socrates, this issue is known as the Socratic problem, or the Socratic question. There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with Socrates, that dealt with his own time and place. For instance, those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament. Historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various evidence from the extant texts I order to attempt an accurate and consistent account of Socrates’ life and work.
Pisces in Latin is the plural for “fish”. Pisces is ruled by Neptune the Roman god of the sea whose Greek counterpart is Poseidon. Pisces is also considered to be ruled over by the planet Jupiter, Jupiter the Roman king of the gods which traces back to Zeus the Greek kind of the gods.
Pisces is associated with Aphrodite and Eros, who escaped from the monster Typhon by leaping into the sea and transforming themselves into fish.In order not to lose each other, they tied themselves together with rope. The Romans adopted the Greek legend, with Venus and Cupid acting as the counterparts for Aphrodite and Eros.
Aries is Latin for “Ram”. They are associated with Mars the Roman god of war and Ares the Greek god of war.
In Greek myth Aries represents the golden winged ram whose fleece was sought by
Jason and the Argonauts. Legend has it that when King Athamus of
Boetia took a second wife, Ino, she was extremely jealous and
resentful of his existing children, especially his son, Phrixus.
She therefore deviously plotted the failure of the corn crop,
intercepted and bribed the messenger sent by her husband to
consult an oracle on the matter, and instructed him to say that
he had been told that Phrixus had to be sacrificed if the people
were to escape starvation. Despite pleadings from the boy’s mother,
Nephele, King Athamus agreed to the sacrifice but, at the very last
minute, the boy and his sister, Helle, were saved by a magnificent
ram with a golden fleece, sent by Zeus in answer to their mother’s
prayers. Unfortunately, as the ram crossed the narrow stretch of
water between Europe and Asia, Helle fell to her death (the straits
are still known as Hellespont) but Phrixus was carried safely to
the land of Colchis. He gave thanks for his deliverance by
sacrificing the ram to Zeus and giving its golden fleece to King
Aeetes. The king had the fleece placed in a sacred copse, guarded
by a fearsome dragon which never slept. Phrixus later married the
king’s daughter and remained in exile for the rest of his life, but
the fleece was eventually stolen by Jason.
An axe dedicated by a butcher, Western Greek, made in Sybaris, Calabria about 520 BC.
This elaborate bronze axehead, decorated with palmettes andvolutes, was clearly not intended for everyday use. Axes sometimes
had ceremonial uses, and could be carried like scepters, their
symbolism deriving from their use in killing animals for sacrifice.
The Greek inscription on the side of this axe makes its special
nature clear. It translates: “I am the sacred property of
Hera-in-the-plain: Kyniskos the butcher dedicated me, a tithe from
We do not know the location of the sanctuary of
Hera-in-the-plain. However, the inscription does evoke this
individual from the ancient world: we know his name, his
occupation, and something of his mentality. He obviously felt that
he should thank the gods for his prosperity, and perhaps also that
his wealth might continue if he shared it with them.