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Hijab-Wearing Model Halima Aden Just Walked Kanye West's Runway
It's the Minnesota teen's NYFW debut
By Cady Lang

The Somali-American teenager (Halima Aden) was just signed to modeling agency IMG and made her fashion week debut at Kanye West’s surprisingly tame Yeezy Season 5 show, where she walked for a front row that included Anna Wintour, Insta-girl Hailey Baldwin, and La La Anthony.

Djenaba

The Niger Frontier

The pre-Colonial states of West Africa, most notably Songhai and the Kanem and/or Bornu kingdoms, were never able to establish meaningful political control over northern and northwestern Niger, specifically the areas around the Aïr Massif and Ténéré.

The first reason for this was a result of the reality that the easternmost Sahel/Central Sahara, in the regions mentioned, contained no states in the West African model that could have been conquered or made a vassal for incorporation into the devolved governance systems of any large Niger/Senegal River monarchy. This absence was a direct consequence of both the nature of the terrain and the climate, precluding the region from supporting large, sedentary human populations. Because of this, the region was, and is, home mostly to semi-nomadic people and largely autonomous oasis towns.

The second was the lack of forage for armies, and of local troops as reinforcements. Conquest and the defense of the frontier was almost impossible in this area because of the lack of water, the inability of early states to maintain complex supply lines as a substitute, the inimical conditions of the region for fortifications, and the inability to draw on traditional West African states with large-scale local levies, or feudal troops for regional defense after the initial campaigns.

The final factor was the beneficial status of the area as neutral ground, both as a buffer zone, and as an undisrupted trade route. Most of West Africa’s states lacked salt, an essential commodity for healthy human populations, and the region around the Aïr Massif is comparatively rich in it. Salt miners, and the traders who moved the goods, as well as iron miners, camel traders/breeders and the people working the oasis towns that catered to their needs were assets to any state with access to the trans-Saharan trade. Because of this, regional powers were historically reluctant to upset the status quo, or to unify long-time enemies who, suddenly finding themselves with a much more limited access to the area’s natural and human resources, would have had common cause against anyone attempting to exert exclusive control over the traditionally neutral frontier.