Korra: How did things get so bad between you and Kuvira? I thought she was your protégé.
Su: She was more than that. She was like a daughter to me. I took her in when she was eight years old and nourished her talents. Kuvira was smart, a natural leader, and quickly rose through the ranks. I saw myself in her.
A Case for Cao Mao, the heroic Emperor - Dynasty Warriors 9
Perhaps he was Wei’s last hope for survival. What he viewed as Sima Zhao’s tyranny was something he could not live with. Wei was built upon the back of a great man, founded by his great son and made exemplary by his grandson. He would not be another Cao Fang, and he would not sit by while a clan usurped control away from his own. He made one desperate move, and sadly for him it did not pay off.
What was Wei's official stance on the the Korean Peninsula? Were Goguryeo and the other kingdoms considered independent or belonging to Wei's sphere of influence? Did Cao Cao or any of his successors have any plans on actually conquering the region at some point?
During Han’s reign, the status of the Korean Peninsula - and Goguryeo in particular - changed a lot. It was, at various times, an unwilling portion of the empire, a tribute state, and an independent nation.
Among the states of the peninsula, Goguryeo was the only one of any notable concern to the Chinese. The others were either very small or just amounted to tribal confederacies. So policies focused on Goguryeo.
During the Three Kingdoms, Goguryeo was considered an independent kingdom. The Wei emperors never expressed any desire to conquer or control Goguryeo. It was far removed from the Chinese centers of power, and their focus was always on reuniting the former territories of the Han empire. Goguryeo was something that could be ignored - particularly because any aggression from them would be met by the Gongsun family first.
This policy shifted after Sima Yi and Guanqiu Jian conquered Gongsun Yuan in 238. Goguryeo played a key role in the successful campaign. Afterwards, though, Goguryeo started trying to seize territory once held by the Gongsun family - territory which Wei now claimed. This led to a series of battles in the northeast between Guanqiu Jian and King Dongcheon.
Guanqiu Jian successfully repelled Dongcheon’s forces and led a campaign of his own to conquer Goguryeo. He met with significant success, crushing Goguryeo’s army and capturing the state’s capital. He and his subordinates subsequently received the submission of many tribes and petty states in the peninsula. Wei recognized these as tribute states and maintained diplomatic relations with them.
This campaign proved enough to secure control of the north. Through alliances with the Xianbei and Wuhuan tribes, as well as these tributaries in the peninsula, Wei could be assured that Goguryeo would not be a threat to their northern holdings anymore. So Guanqiu Jian was transferred south, to fight against Wu.
What is called “evil” has been
attributed to everything from Satan to heredity. But you only have to sit back
and think for a few moments to see the most obvious cause of evil. It is the “I-concept”,
the notion of a separate self. Were humans to lose this notion, there would be
no pride, envy, greed, desire; all these “evils” would cease to exist. Although
this may be unattainable for most, is there any reason why the upbringing and
education of every child should not be directed to this end? The more success
there is in weakening the “I-concept”, the more life on earth would resemble
According to ‘Jin Yang Qiu,’ in the 2nd year of Taishi [AD 266] the duke of Gao An Xiang, Xiahou Zuo, the grandson of Xiahou Dun, passed away. The family line ended here and the title was taken back by the court. Sima Yan’s edict said, ‘Xiahou Dun made great contributions to the Wei empire, and will be remembered in historical records. It’s a pity that his family line ended here. Besides, I inherited the throne from the Wei empire, how can I forget these great pioneers of Wei? It is necessary to find Xiahou Dun’s close relatives and present them with honorable titles.’
Taken from chapter 120 of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, by Luo Guanzhong
It was the dawning of a glorious day When first the Founder of the House of Han Xianyang’s proud Palace entered. Noontide came When Liu Xiu the imperial rule restored. Alas, that Liu Xian succeeded in full time And saw the setting of the sun of power! He Jin, the feeble, fell beneath the blows Of Palace minions. Dong Zhuo, vile though bold, Then ruled the court. The plot Wang Yun To oust him, failed, recoiled on his own head. The Li Jue and Guo Si lit up the flame of war And brigands swarmed like ants through all the land. Then rose the valiant and deployed their might. Sun Ce carved out a kingdom in the southeast, North of Yellow River the Yuans strove to make their own. Liu Zhang went west and seized on Ba and Shu, Liu Biao laid hold on Jingzhou and Chu, Zhang Lu, in turn held Hanzhong by force. Ma Teng and Han Sui kept Xiliang. Tao Qian and Gongsun Zan built up quarters, Zhang Xiu and Lu Bu challenged the bold. But overtopping all Cao Cao the strong Became first minister, and to his side, Drew many able people. He swayed the court, Without, he held the nobles in his hand; By force of arms he held the capital Against all rivals. Of imperial stock Was born Liu Bei, who with sworn brothers twain Made oath the dynasty should be restored. These wandered homeless east and west for years, A petty force. But Destiny was kind And led Liu Bei to Nanyang’s rustic cot, Where lay Sleeping Dragon, he who Already that the empire must be rent. Twice Liu Bei essayed in vain to see the sage Once more he went? And then his fortune turned. Jingzhou fell to him, followed the River Lands, A fitting base to build an empire on. Alas! He ruled there only three short years, Then left his only son to Zhuge Liang’s care. Full nobly Zhuge Liang played protector’s part, Unceasing strove to win first place for Shu; But Fate forbade; one night for aye his star Went down behind the rampart of the hills. Jiang Wei the strong inherited his task And struggled on for years. But Zhong Hui and Deng Ai Attacked the Hans’ last stronghold, and it fell. Five sons of Cao Cao sat on the dragon throne, And Sima Yan snatched the court from Cao Huang. Before him bowed the kings of Shu and Wu, Content to forfeit kingly power for life. All down the ages rings the note of change, For fate so rules it; none escapes its sway. The three kingdoms have vanished as a dream, The useless misery is ours to grieve.