weak verbs

To help move away from summary and toward ANALYSIS, it’s important to incorporate strong verbs into your writing when discussing the writer’s rhetorical choices. Below is a list of verbs that are considered weak (imply summary) and a list of verbs that are considered strong (imply analysis). Strive to use the stronger verbs in your essays to help push yourself away from summary and toward analysis: ex “The writer flatters…” NOT “The writer says…”

Weak Verbs (Summary):

  • says 
  • explains
  • relates 
  • states 
  • goes on to say 
  • shows 
  • tells 
  • this quote shows

Strong Verbs (Analysis):

Argues, admonishes, analyzes, compares, contrasts, defines, demonizes, denigrates, describes, dismisses, enumerate, expounds, emphasizes, establishes, flatters, implies, lionizes, lists, minimizes, narrates, praises, processes, qualifies, questions, ridicules, suggests, supports, trivializes, vilifies, warns       

Powerful and Meaningful Verbs to Use in an Analysis (Alternatives to Show): 

  • Acknowledge, Address, Analyze, Apply, Argue, Assert, Augment
  • Broaden
  • Calculate, Capitalize, Characterize, Claim, Clarify,Compare, Complicate, Confine, Connect, Consider, Construct, Contradict, Correct, Create, Convince, Critique
  • Declare, Deduce, Defend, Demonstrate, Deny, Describe, Determine, Differentiate, Disagree, Discard, Discover, Discuss, Dismiss, Distinguish, Duplicate
  • Elaborate, Emphasize, Employ, Enable, Engage, Enhance, Establish, Evaluate, Exacerbate, Examine, Exclude, Exhibit, Expand, Explain, Exploit, Express, Extend
  • Facilitate, Feature, Forecast, Formulate, Fracture
  • Generalize, Group, Guide
  • Hamper, Hypothesize
  • Identify, Illuminate, Illustrate, Impair, Implement, Implicate, Imply, Improve, Include, Incorporate, Indicate, Induce, Initiate, Inquire, Instigate, Integrate, Interpret, Intervene, Invert, Isolate
  • Justify
  • Locate, Loosen
  • Maintain, Manifest, Manipulate, Measure, Merge, Minimize, Modify, Monitor
  • Necessitate, Negate, Nullify
  • Obscure, Observe, Obtain, Offer, Omit, Optimize, Organize, Outline, Overstate
  • Persist, Point out, Possess, Predict, Present, Probe, Produce, Promote, Propose, Prove, Provide
  • Qualify, Quantify, Question
  • Realize, Recommend, Reconstruct, Redefine, Reduce, Refer, Reference, Refine, Reflect, Refute, Regard, Reject, Relate, Rely, Remove, Repair, Report, Represent, Resolve, Retrieve, Reveal, Revise
  • Separate, Shape, Signify, Simulate, Solve, Specify, Structure, Suggest, Summarize, Support, Suspend, Sustain
  • Tailor, Terminate, Testify, Theorize, Translate
  • Undermine, Understand, Unify, Utilize
  • Validate, Vary, View, Vindicate
  • Yield  

What are weak verbs?

Weak verbs are action words that are used so frequently that they have little weight or meaning. While these words are natural parts of dialogue, they work less effectively in narrative to describe action.

“She ran through the trees.”

versus:

“She careened through the trees.”

The word “run” is a weak verb and doesn’t paint as vivid of a picture as “careen”. The suggestions above are suggestions only and will change the action and emotional value of your sentence depending on which one you choose.

Consider the moment you’re trying to convey. Consider your character. Consider the mood and the level of danger. A character who’s terrified will careen through the trees. A character who’s furious will blast through the trees. A character who’s chasing something will zip through the trees.

MY WRITING MASTERPOST

I just have a lot of writing tips and masterposts and just stuff in my likes and I decided to put them all into this. All rights goes to the people who made them.

Cool Other Masterposts:

  • Writing Specific Characters
  • Writing References
  • Writing Masterpost
  • Character Guides
  • Writing Help for Writers
  • Ultimate Writing Resource List
  • Lots of RP Guides
  • Online Writing Resources
  • List of Websites to Help You Focus
  • Resources for Writing Bio’s
  • Helpful Links for Writing Help
  • General Writing Resources
  • Resources for Biography Writing
  • Mental Ilnesses/Disorders Guides
  • 8 Words You Should Avoid While Writing
  • The Ultimate Writing Masterpost

General:

  • The Official Ten-Step Guide to Becoming the Next Gatsby
  • The Periodic Table of Storytelling
  • Joss Whedon’s Top 10 Writing Tips
  • Getting Out of Your Comfort Zone
  • 34 Writing Tips that will make you a Better Writer
  • 50 Free resources that will improve your writing skills
  • 5 ways to get out of the comfort zone and become a stronger writer
  • 10 ways to avoid Writing Insecurity
  • The Writer’s Guide to Overcoming Insecurity
  • The Difference Between Good Writers and Bad Writers
  • You’re Not Hemingway - Developing Your Own Style
  • 7 Ways to use Brain Science to Hook Readers and Reel them In
  • 8 Short Story Tips from Kurt Vonnegut
  • How to Show, Not Tell
  • 5 Essential Story Ingredients
  • How to Write Fiction that grabs your readers from page one
  • Why research is important in writing
  • Make Your Reader Root for Your Main Character
  • Writing Ergonomics (Staying Comfortable Whilst Writing)
  • The Importance of Body Language
  • Fashion Terminology
  • All About Kissing
  • Genre Help: Romance
  • 187 Mental Illnesses
  • Types of Mental Illness
  • Eye Color List
  • Spectral Groupings
  • Do you have trouble creating your titles?
  • On being a co-writer || Additional tips on effective co-writing 
  • The length of a chapter
  • How to deal with too many story ideas
  • On writing two stories simultaneously || a similar ask
  • When a story stops working
  • Copyright
  • Reading critically for writers
  • The question of outlining
  • Avoiding publishing scams
  • Finding story ideas
  • Tips on building a platform [guest blog]
  • How much does writing “in genre” matter?
  • What a “real writer” is
  • Pennames and aliases
  • A series of thoughts on series titles
  • The self-pub miniseries: the why
  • The self-pub miniseries: the what
  • Rewriting fanfiction into original fiction
  • Formatting long quotes and songs 

Characters:

  • 10 days of Character Building
  • Name Generators
  • Name Playground
  • Universal Mary Sue Litmus Test
  • Seven Common Character Types
  • Handling a Cast of Thousands Part 1 - Getting To Know Your Characters
  • Web Resources for Developing Characters
  • Building Fictional Characters
  • Fiction Writer’s Character Chart
  • Body Language Cheat
  • Body Language Reference Cheat
  • Tips for Writers: Body Language
  • Types of Crying
  • Body Language: Mirroring
  • Character Building Workshop
  • Tips for Characterization
  • Character Chart for Fiction Writers
  • Villains are people too but…
  • How to Write a Character Bible
  • Character Development Exercises
  • All Your Characters Talk the Same - And They’re Not A Hivemind!
  • Medieval Names Archive
  • Sympathy Without Saintliness
  • Family Echo (Family Tree Maker)
  • Behind The Name
  • 100 Character Development Questions for Writers
  • Aether’s Character Development Worksheet
  • The 12 Common Archetypes
  • Six Types of Courageous Characters
  • Kazza’s List of Character Secrets - Part 1, Part 2
  • Creating Believable Characters With Personality
  • Angry
  • Bad Asses
  • Bitches (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
  • Childishness
  • Emotional Detachment
  • Flirtatious
  • The Girl Next Door
  • Introverts (2)
  • Mean Persons (2)
  • Psychopaths
  • Party Girls
  • Rich (2) 
  • Rebels
  • Sarcasm
  • Serial Killers (2)
  • Shyness (2, 3)
  • Sluts
  • Villains (2)
  • Witt
  • Body Language Cheat Sheet
  • Creating Fictional Characters Series
  • Three Ways to Avoid Lazy Character Description
  • 7 Rules for Picking Names for Fictional Characters
  • Character Development Questionnaire
  • How to Create Fictional Characters
  • Character Name Resources
  • Character Development Template
  • Character Development Through Hobbies
  • Character Flaws List
  • 10 Questions for Creating Believable Characters
  • Ari’s Archetype Series
  • How to Craft Compelling Characters
  • List of 200 Character Traits
  • Writing Characters of the Opposite Sex
  • Making Your Characters Likable
  • Do you really know your characters?
  • Character Development: Virtues
  • Character Development: Vices
  • Character Morality Alignment
  • List of Negative Personality Traits
  • List of Positive Personality Traits
  • List of Emotions - Positive
  • List of Emotions - Negative
  • Loon’s Character Development Series - Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4
  • Phobia List A-L (Part 1), M-Z (Part 2)
  • 30 Day In Depth Character Development Meme
  • Words for Emotions based on Severity
  • Eight Bad Characters
  • High Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types
  • How Not to Write Female Characters
  • Writing Female Characters
  • How to write empowering female characters
  • Why I write strong female characters
  • Red Flags for Female Characters Written by Men
  • Writing strong female characters
  • The Female Character Flowchart
  • Eight Heroine Archetypes
  • Eight Hero Archetypes
  • Help on picking character names
  • A tip about realistic characters
  • Strategies to create believable characters
  • Additional tips on writing PoC characters
  • Advice on writing genders
  • Creating unstable characters
  • Ambiguous Antagonists
  • A tidbit on psychological trauma [trigger warnings]
  • On writing accents
  • What makes characters stick with me
  • Sweetening up character description
  • Making an introverted character stand out
  • Conveying too much or too little character “inner reflection”
  • Revealing a character’s asexual orientation
  • Revealing a character’s gender & orientation
  • A habit of killing characters
  • When characters aren’t standing out
  • Breaking hearts with character deaths
  • Quick tips on expressing character 
  • Character development versus pacing 
  • A mini guide to character voice
  • A Description Resource
  • 55 Words to Describe Someones Voice
  • Describing Skin Colors
  • Describing a Person: Adding Details
  • Emotions Vocabulary
  • 90 Words For ‘Looks’
  • Be More Descriptive
  • Describe a Character’s Look Well
  • 100 Words for Facial Expressions
  • To Show and Not To Tell
  • Words to Describe Facial Expressions
  • Describing Clothes
  • List of Actions
  • Tone, Feelings and Emotions
  • Writing A Vampire
  • Writing Pansexual Characters
  • Writing Characters on the Police Force
  • Writing Drunk Characters
  • Writing A Manipulative Character
  • Writing A Friends With Benefits Relationship
  • Writing A Natural Born Leader
  • Writing A Flirtatious Character
  • Writing A Nice Character
  • Fiction Writing Exercises for Creating Villains
  • Five Traits to Contribute to an Epic Villain
  • Writing Villains that Rock
  • Writing British Characters
  • How To Write A Character With A Baby
  • On Assassin Characters
  • Disorders in general (2, 3, 4, 5) 
  • Attention Deficit Disorder
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Anxiety (2, 3, 4, 5) 
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Alice In Wonderland Syndrome
  • Bipolar Disorder (2, 3)
  • Cotard Delusions
  • Depression (2, 3, 4, 5, 6)   
  • Eeating Disorders (2, 3)
  • Facitious Disorders
  • Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Multiple Personality Disorder (2)
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Night Terrors
  • Kleptomania (2)
  • A Pyromaniac
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • Psychopaths
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (2) (3)
  • Sex Addiction (2)
  • Schizophrenia (2)
  • Sociopaths (2)
  • Aspergers Syndrome
  • Apathy 
  • Autism
  • Someone Blind (2)
  • Cancer (2, 3)
  • Disability
  • Dyslexia
  • Muteness (2, 3)
  • Stutter
  • Actors
  • Ballet Dancer (2)
  • Christianity
  • Foreigners
  • Gamblers
  • Hinduism
  • Hitmen
  • Satanism
  • Smokers
  • Stoners
  • Taoism
  • Journalists
  • Vegetarians
  • Alcohol Influence (2, 3, 4, 5)
  • Cocaine Influence
  • Ecstasy Influence (2)
  • Heroin Use
  • LSD Influence
  • Marijuana Influence (2, 3)
  • Opiate Use

Tips on Writing Dialogue:

  • It’s Not What They Say…
  • Top 8 Tips for Writing Dialogue
  • Speaking of Dialogue
  • The Great Said Debate
  • He Said, She Said, Who Said What?
  • How to Write Dialogue Unique to Your Characters
  • Writing Dialogue: Go for Realistic, Not Real-Life

Tips on Writing Point of View:

  • Establishing The Right Point of View
  • How to Start Writing in the Third Person
  • The I Problem

Style & Craft of Writing:

  • The literary “weak verb”
  • Do you have word tics?
  • Victoria’s Vitamins: vague descriptive words
  • Victoria’s Vitamins: mood
  • Breaking writing habits
  • Varying sentences
  • Describing colors
  • Sweetening up character description
  • Purple prose
  • Grammar is a tricksy thing
  • “Smartening” the language of your narrative
  • Building suspense and making readers sweat
  • A couple tips about description in fast-paced scenes

Content:

  • The story of exposition
  • 10 ways to hit your reader in the gut
  • Make your reader root for your main character
  • Make your reader hold their breath
  • What’s the big deal about intros?
  • A tip about description
  • The word count of your manuscript
  • Things that make me keep reading
  • Choosing ideas and endings
  • When to describe setting
  • Battling cliches
  • Is your story YA, NA, or adult?
  • When a plot isn’t strong enough to make a whole story
  • Flashbacks with multiple POVs
  • Bulking up your word count
  • Avoiding cliches
  • Conquer that opening line || response || discussion
  • Tips on revealing setting awesomely kind of
  • Deciding between different ideas for the same story 

Revision:

  • You’ve finished your manuscript! Now what?
  • Revision sucks but doesn’t have to suck
  • Where to find beta readers/critique partners
  • Tips on taking critique
  • Tips on giving critique
  • What to do with bad writing advice
  • Additional insight on bad writing advice
  • Five quick steps to get into revising that manuscript
  • When to say you’re done revising
  • Beginning the awesome journey of revision
  • Friends are not always the best readers 

Plot, Structure, & Outline:

  • Writing A Novel Using the Snowflake Method
  • Effectively Outlining Your Novel
  • Conflict and Character Within Story Structure
  • Outlining Your Plot
  • Ideas, Plots and Using the Premise Sheets
  • How To Write A Novel
  • Creating Conflict and Sustaining Suspense
  • Plunge Right In…Into Your Story, That Is
  • Tips for Creating a Compelling Plot
  • 36 (plus one) Dramatic Situations
  • The Evil Overlord Devises A Plot: Excerpt from Stupid Plot Tricks
  • Conflict Test
  • What is Conflict?
  • Monomyth
  • The Hero’s Journey: Summary of Steps
  • Outline Your Novel in Thirty Minutes
  • Plotting Without Fears
  • Novel Outlining 101
  • Writing The Perfect Scene
  • One-Page Plotting
  • The Great Swampy Middle
  • How Can You Know What Belongs In Your Book?
  • Create A Plot Outline in 8 Easy Steps
  • How to Organize and Develop Ideas for Your Novel
  • Create Structure in your novel using index cards
  • Choosing the best outline method for you
  • Hatch’s Plot Bank

Setting & Making Your Own World

  • Magical Word Builder’s Guide
  • I Love The End Of The World
  • World Building 101
  • The Art of Description: Eight Tips to Help Bring Your Settings to Life
  • Creating the Perfect Setting - Part 1
  • Creating a Believable World
  • Setting
  • Character and Setting Interactions
  • Maps Workshop - Developing the Fictional World Through Mapping
  • World Builders Project
  • How To Create Fantasy Worlds
  • Creating Fantasy and Science Fiction Worlds

Helpful Tools & Software:

  • Tip Of My Tongue - Find the word you’re looking for
  • Write or Die - Stay motivated
  • Stay Focused - Tool for Chrome, lock yourself out of distracting websites
  • My Writing Nook - Online Text Editor, Free
  • Bubbl.us - Online Mind Map Application, Free
  • Family Echo - Online Family Tree Maker, Free
  • Freemind - Mind Map Application; Free; Windows, Mac, Linux, Portable
  • Xmind - Mind Map Application; Free; Windows, Mac, Linux, Portable
  • Liquid Story Binder - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free trial, $45.95; Windows, Portable
  • Scrivener - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free trial, $39.95; Mac
  • SuperNotecard - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free trial, $29; Windows, Mac, Linux, portable
  • yWriter - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free; Windows, Linux, portable
  • JDarkRoom - Minimalist Text Editing Application; free; Windows, Mac, Linux, portable
  • AutoRealm - Map Creation Application; free; Windows, Linux with Wine

Grammer & Revision:

  • How To Rewrite
  • Editing Recipe
  • Cliche Finder
  • Revising Your Novel: Read What You’ve Written
  • Writing 101: Revising A Novel
  • 20 Common Grammar Mistakes That (Almost) Everyone Makes
  • Synonyms for the Most Commonly Used Words of the English Language
  • Grammar Urban Legends
  • Words Instead of Walk (2)
  • Commonly Confused Adjectives
  • A Guide on Punctuation
  • Common Writing Mistakes
  • 25 Synoms for ‘Expession’
  • How to: Avoid Misusing Variations of Words
  • Words to Keep Inside Your Pocket
  • The 13 Trickiest Grammar Hang-Ups
  • Other Ways to Say..
  • Proofreading
  • 300+ Sophiscated and Underused Words
  • List of Misused Words
  • Words for Sex
  • 100 Beautiful and Ugly Words
  • Words to Use More Often
  • Alternatives for ‘Smile’ or ‘Laugh’
  • Three Self Editing Tips
  • Words to Use Instead of ‘Walk’, ‘Said’, ‘Happy’ and ‘Sad’
  • Synonyms for Common Words
  • Alternatives for ‘Smile’
  • Transitional Words
  • The Many Faces and Meanings of ‘Said’
  • Synonyms for ‘Wrote’
  • A Case Of She Said, She Said

Creativity Boosters:

  • *Creative Writing Prompts
  • *Ink Provoking
  • *Story Starter
  • *Story Spinner
  • *Story Kitchen
  • *Language is a Virus
  • *The Dabbling Mum
  • Quick Story Idea Generator
  • Solve Your Problems By Simply Saying Them Out Loud
  • Busting Your Writing Rut
  • Creative Acceleration: 11 Tips To Engineer A Productive Flow
  • Writing Inspiration, Or Sex on a Bicycle
  • The Seven Major Beginner Mistakes
  • Complete Your First Book with these 9 Simple Writing Habits
  • Free Association, Active Imagination, Twilight Imaging
  • Random Book Title Generator
  • Finishing Your Novel
  • Story Starters & Idea Generators
  • Words to Use More Often
  • How to: Cure Writer’s Block
  • Some Tips on Writer’s Block
  • Got Writer’s Block?
  • 6 Ways to Beat Writer’s Block
  • Tips for Dealing With Writer’s Block

Improvement:

  • Improve Your Writing Habits Now
  • 5 Ways to Add Sparkle to Your Writing
  • Getting Over Roleplaying Insecurities
  • Improve Your Paras
  • Why the Right Word Choices Result in Better Writing
  • 4 Ways To Have Confidence in Your Writing
  • Writing Better Than You Normally Do
  • How’s My Driving?

Motivation:

  • Backhanding procrastination
  • On habits and taking care of yourself || Response
  • More troubles with writing motivation
  • The inner critic and ways to fight it
  • The writing life is hard on us
  • For troubles with starting your story
  • Writing to be published
  • “You’re a writer, will you write this for me?”
  • Writing a story that’s doomed to suck
  • Writing stamina builds slowly
  • When depression goes and writing goes with it
  • Additional inner critic strategies
  • Tips on conquering NaNoWriMo (or any project, really)
  • You will change as a writer
  • Ways to keep writing while in school
  • 13 quick tips when you’re starting your novel
  • First draft blues
  • Getting in your own way 

Writing an Application:

  • How to: Make That Application Your Bitch
  • How to: Make Your App Better
  • How to: Submit a Flawless Audition
  • 10 Tips for Applying
  • Para Sample Ideas
  • 5 Tips on Writing an IC Para Sample
  • Writing an IC Sample Without Escaping From the Bio
  • How to: Create a Worthy IC Para Sample
  • How to: Write an Impressive Para Sample
  • How to: Lengthen Short Para’s

Prompts:

  • Drabble Stuff
  • Prompts List
  • Writing Prompts
  • Drabble Prompts
  • How to Get Into Character
  • Writing Challenges/Prompts
  • A Study in Writing Prompts for RPs
  • Para Prompts & Ideas
  • Writing Prompts for Journal Entries
  • A List of Para Starters

anonymous asked:

I'm yet to get to German subjunctive but your post intrigued me so much, could you tell me more about this German awesomeness? :3

This… is gonna be long.

Okay, so in German, we have two forms of the subjunctive, creatively called Konjunktiv I (the present tense) and Konjunktiv II (the past tense). Konjunktiv II is much better known because it’s also what we use for the conditional, so I’ll start with that one before going on to what I meant before.

So first of all: forming it. You take the imperfect forms, if there’s a possibility to stick an umlaut on, you do so, and you add in an -e(-) as part of the ending if there wasn’t one already. Eg:

war       -      wäre
warst    -      wärest
war       -      wäre
waren   -      wären
wart      -      wäret
waren   -      wären
Here you see the added umlaut as well as some e’s

hatte       -      hätte
hattest    -      hättest
hatte       -      hätte
hatten     -      hätten
hattet      -      hättet
hatten     -      hätten
Here there were no e’s to add, but we have the umlaut

ging       -      ginge
gingst    -      gingest
ging       -      ginge
gingen   -      gingen
gingt      -      ginget
gingen   -      gingen 
Here there are no umlauts, but you see the extra e’s still

Many weak verbs have no difference in form, eg passte could be indicative or subjunctive. 
With some exceptions, the only verbs that are really used in Konjunktiv II are auxiliaries or modals (so sein, haben, werden, müssen, wollen*, sollen*, wissen, dürfen, können, mögen..). Wollen and sollen don’t take umlauts, and some of these verbs have forms you may have already seen (ich möchte, ich könnte for example). Werden (würde, würdest, würde, würden, würdet, würden) is used as an auxiliary for most other verbs, eg ich würde passen instead of ich passte and ich würde gehen instead of ich ginge.

The main use of the imperfect subjunctive / Konjunktiv II is for the conditional or for hypothetical situations etc. For example:

Wenn ich reich wäre, würde ich nie wieder arbeiten.
If I were rich, I’d never work again.
Wenn ich die Zeit hätte, würde ich gern mitkommen.
If I had the time, I’d gladly come along.
Wenn ich Auto fahren könnte, müsste ich nicht den Bus nehmen.
If I could drive a car, I wouldn’t have to take the bus.

Onto the present / Konjunktiv I then. First we’ll talk about forming it, then I’ll explain its uses. This also works with extra e’s - you take the stem of the infinitive (ie remove the -en), and add the endings -e, -est, -e, -en, -et, -en. So we get:

leben
lebest
lebe
leben
lebet
leben
You’ll notice that the ich, wir, and sie forms are all the same as the indicative, as they already had the e.

gehe
gehest
gehe
gehen
gehet
gehen

But what’s important is that almost all irregularities (except for sein, which I’ll get to) leave when you do this - you really do just take the stem, regardless of the verb.

habe
habest* (not like hast)
habe
haben
habet
haben
Here again the ich, wir, and sie forms are still the same.

könne (not like kann)
könnest (not like kannst)
könne
können
könnet
können
Here you’ll see that the ich form is also different because it’s not longer irregular like it used to be, though wir and sie are still the same

As I said, the one verb which has its own forms is sein, which goes sei, seiest, sei, seien, seiet, seien.

The most important thing that the present subjunctive is used for is reported speech. If you’re relaying somebody else’s words, you kind of “take a step back” from it, and so people can see that what you’re saying is not what you think, or even necessarily true, but what someone else has said. You’ll see it all the time in newspapers and any journalistic writing, really.
(I’m looking for good example sentences and so many of them are relationship advice hahaha)

Er sagt, ich sei seine Traumfrau (oder: Er sagt, dass ich seine Traumfrau sei).
He said that I’m his dream woman.
Sie sagte mir auf Englisch, sie könne kein Deutsch (oder: .. dass sie kein Deutsch könne).
She told me in English that she couldn’t speak German.
Er sagte, er habe das schon gemacht (oder: Er sagte, dass er das schon gemacht habe.
He said he already did it / had already done it.

It’s almost exclusively used in the 3rd person (sometimes in the 1st but not really ever in the 2nd). Because it communicates the idea of reported speech, you can use it without a clear “speech” word (sagen, behaupten, laut etc) and it means it can sort of take the idea of “supposedly/supposed to” or “apparently”. 
(NB - it also has a small use in like “wishes”, in parallel to other languages, so sentences like “long live… (Germany, the king etc)” or “thank god!/god be praised!” (es lebe… (Deutschland, der König usw) / Gott sei dank!) would also take this)

Finally, although it’s the present subjunctive that is normally used for reported speech, if the form is the same (so normally for the plural), you would replace it with the past. For example, in the sentence Die Leute sagen, sie haben kein Geld (The people say they have no money), haben could be indicative or subjunctive, so you’d see it put into the Konjunktiv II instead to make sure it’s clear - Die Leute sagen, sie hätten kein Geld.

This is a very long post and yet I feel like I’ve covered an awful lot in a very short space of time. Let me know if there’s anything I messed up or anything else you want further clarified!

Basic checklist for your story

This checklist can be used during both planning and editing stages.

Your Protagonist

  • Does your protagonist have a personality beyond being heroic and nice?
  • Does your protagonist have agency?
  • Does your protagonist’s personality change?
  • Did your protagonist have a life and relationships before the events of the story?
  • Does your protagonist have flaws?
  • Is your protagonist active as opposed to passive or reactive?

Your Setting

  • Is your setting described well enough that readers can imagine themselves there?
  • Is your setting used or described differently than similar settings by other authors?
  • Do readers have a sense that your world extends outside the events of your story?
  • Does your setting have its own unique atmosphere aside from being a backdrop for your plot?
  • Is it important that the events in your story take place in this setting and not another?

Your Romantic Subplot/Plot (if applicable)

  • Does the relationship have flaws?
  • Does the relationship take time to develop?
  • Does the love interest have their own personality beyond their romantic traits?
  • Does the love interest have agency both inside and outside the relationship?
  • Does the love interest have flaws?

Your Major Non-Protagonist Characters

  • Do your major characters have varying opinions on your protagonist?
  • Do your major characters have traits outside of their relationships with the protagonist?
  • Do your major characters have varying gender identities, races, ability statuses, and sexual orientations, unless there is a good plot reason otherwise (such as the story taking place mainly at a male prison or a gay bar)?
  • Do your major characters have different worldviews and senses of morality?
  • Do most of your major characters have agency?
  • Do your major characters have flaws?
  • Do all of your major characters need to be there?
  • Do most of your major characters’ personalities change?

Your Minor and Background Characters

  • Do most of your minor characters have something that makes them interesting and memorable?
  • Do your minor characters have varying gender identities, races, ability statuses, and sexual orientations, unless there is a good plot reason otherwise (such as the story taking place mainly at a male prison or a gay bar)?
  • Do all of your minor characters need to be there?

Your Antagonist

  • Does your antagonist have a reasonable motive for their actions?
  • Does your antagonist have agency?
  • Has your antagonist done enough to be taken seriously?
  • Does your antagonist have good traits?
  • Does your antagonist have traits outside of their relationship with the protagonist?

Your Plot

  • Do your scenes flow logically?
  • Are all of your questions either answered or left unanswered for a reason?
  • Are there too many coincidences?
  • Does your plot begin at the perfect spot?
  • Does your plot end at the perfect spot?
  • Is there conflict?
  • Are there any scenes that could be left out?
  • Does your plot happen because of the actions, reactions, and decisions of your characters?

Your Mechanics

  • Are there any spelling or grammatical errors?
  • Are there any sentences that could be left out?
  • Are most of your sentences active instead of passive?
  • Do you use mostly strong verbs (ex: drank, ran) instead of weak verbs (ex: was, did)?
  • Do you use too many adverbs?
  • Are your sentences varied in structure?

This is a censored version of madisonsmagazine’s fantastic writing masterlist! I claim absolutely no credit for this wonderful list of resources! (I also hold no responsibility for any offensive material on any outgoing links).

Cool Other Masterposts:

  • Writing Specific Characters
  • Writing References
  • Writing Masterpost
  • Character Guides
  • Writing Help for Writers
  • Ultimate Writing Resource List
  • Lots of RP Guides
  • Online Writing Resources
  • List of Websites to Help You Focus
  • Resources for Writing Bio’s
  • Helpful Links for Writing Help
  • General Writing Resources
  • Resources for Biography Writing
  • Mental Ilnesses/Disorders Guides
  • 8 Words You Should Avoid While Writing
  • The Ultimate Writing Masterpost

General:

  • The Official Ten-Step Guide to Becoming the Next Gatsby
  • The Periodic Table of Storytelling
  • Joss Whedon’s Top 10 Writing Tips
  • Getting Out of Your Comfort Zone
  • 34 Writing Tips that will make you a Better Writer
  • 50 Free resources that will improve your writing skills
  • 5 ways to get out of the comfort zone and become a stronger writer
  • 10 ways to avoid Writing Insecurity
  • The Writer’s Guide to Overcoming Insecurity
  • The Difference Between Good Writers and Bad Writers
  • You’re Not Hemingway - Developing Your Own Style
  • 7 Ways to use Brain Science to Hook Readers and Reel them In
  • 8 Short Story Tips from Kurt Vonnegut
  • How to Show, Not Tell
  • 5 Essential Story Ingredients
  • How to Write Fiction that grabs your readers from page one
  • Why research is important in writing
  • Make Your Reader Root for Your Main Character
  • Writing Ergonomics (Staying Comfortable Whilst Writing)
  • The Importance of Body Language
  • Fashion Terminology
  • All About Kissing
  • Genre Help: Romance
  • 187 Mental Illnesses
  • Types of Mental Illness
  • Eye Color List
  • Spectral Groupings
  • Do you have trouble creating your titles?
  • On being a co-writer || Additional tips on effective co-writing
  • The length of a chapter
  • How to deal with too many story ideas
  • On writing two stories simultaneously || a similar ask
  • When a story stops working
  • Copyright
  • Reading critically for writers
  • The question of outlining
  • Avoiding publishing scams
  • Finding story ideas
  • Tips on building a platform [guest blog]
  • How much does writing “in genre” matter?
  • What a “real writer” is
  • Pennames and aliases
  • A series of thoughts on series titles
  • The self-pub miniseries: the why
  • The self-pub miniseries: the what
  • Rewriting fanfiction into original fiction
  • Formatting long quotes and songs

Characters:

  • 10 days of Character Building
  • Name Generators
  • Name Playground
  • Universal Mary Sue Litmus Test
  • Seven Common Character Types
  • Handling a Cast of Thousands Part 1 - Getting To Know Your Characters
  • Web Resources for Developing Characters
  • Building Fictional Characters
  • Fiction Writer’s Character Chart
  • Body Language Cheat
  • Body Language Reference Cheat
  • Tips for Writers: Body Language
  • Types of Crying
  • Body Language: Mirroring
  • Character Building Workshop
  • Tips for Characterization
  • Character Chart for Fiction Writers
  • Villains are people too but…
  • How to Write a Character Bible
  • Character Development Exercises
  • All Your Characters Talk the Same - And They’re Not A Hivemind!
  • Medieval Names Archive
  • Sympathy Without Saintliness
  • Family Echo (Family Tree Maker)
  • Behind The Name
  • 100 Character Development Questions for Writers
  • Aether’s Character Development Worksheet
  • The 12 Common Archetypes
  • Six Types of Courageous Characters
  • Kazza’s List of Character Secrets - Part 1, Part 2
  • Creating Believable Characters With Personality
  • Angry
  • Bad A**es
  • Childishness
  • Emotional Detachment
  • Flirtatious
  • The Girl Next Door
  • Introverts (2)
  • Mean Persons (2)
  • Psychopaths
  • Party Girls
  • Rich (2)
  • Rebels
  • Sarcasm
  • Serial Killers (2)
  • Shyness (2, 3)
  • Villains (2)
  • Witt
  • Body Language Cheat Sheet
  • Creating Fictional Characters Series
  • Three Ways to Avoid Lazy Character Description
  • 7 Rules for Picking Names for Fictional Characters
  • Character Development Questionnaire
  • How to Create Fictional Characters
  • Character Name Resources
  • Character Development Template
  • Character Development Through Hobbies
  • Character Flaws List
  • 10 Questions for Creating Believable Characters
  • Ari’s Archetype Series
  • How to Craft Compelling Characters
  • List of 200 Character Traits
  • Writing Characters of the Opposite Sex
  • Making Your Characters Likable
  • Do you really know your characters?
  • Character Development: Virtues
  • Character Development: Vices
  • Character Morality Alignment
  • List of Negative Personality Traits
  • List of Positive Personality Traits
  • List of Emotions - Positive
  • List of Emotions - Negative
  • Loon’s Character Development Series - Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4
  • Phobia List A-L (Part 1), M-Z (Part 2)
  • 30 Day In Depth Character Development Meme
  • Words for Emotions based on Severity
  • Eight Bad Characters
  • High Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types
  • How Not to Write Female Characters
  • Writing Female Characters
  • How to write empowering female characters
  • Why I write strong female characters
  • Red Flags for Female Characters Written by Men
  • Writing strong female characters
  • The Female Character Flowchart
  • Eight Heroine Archetypes
  • Eight Hero Archetypes
  • Help on picking character names
  • A tip about realistic characters
  • Strategies to create believable characters
  • Additional tips on writing PoC characters
  • Advice on writing genders
  • Creating unstable characters
  • Ambiguous Antagonists
  • A tidbit on psychological trauma [trigger warnings]
  • On writing accents
  • What makes characters stick with me
  • Sweetening up character description
  • Making an introverted character stand out
  • Conveying too much or too little character “inner reflection”
  • Revealing a character’s asexual orientation
  • Revealing a character’s gender & orientation
  • A habit of killing characters
  • When characters aren’t standing out
  • Breaking hearts with character deaths
  • Quick tips on expressing character
  • Character development versus pacing
  • A mini guide to character voice
  • A Description Resource
  • 55 Words to Describe Someones Voice
  • Describing Skin Colors
  • Describing a Person: Adding Details
  • Emotions Vocabulary
  • 90 Words For ‘Looks’
  • Be More Descriptive
  • Describe a Character’s Look Well
  • 100 Words for Facial Expressions
  • To Show and Not To Tell
  • Words to Describe Facial Expressions
  • Describing Clothes
  • List of Actions
  • Tone, Feelings and Emotions
  • Writing A Vampire
  • Writing Pansexual Characters
  • Writing Characters on the Police Force
  • Writing Drunk Characters
  • Writing A Manipulative Character
  • Writing A Friends With Benefits Relationship
  • Writing A Natural Born Leader
  • Writing A Flirtatious Character
  • Writing A Nice Character
  • Fiction Writing Exercises for Creating Villains
  • Five Traits to Contribute to an Epic Villain
  • Writing Villains that Rock
  • Writing British Characters
  • How To Write A Character With A Baby
  • On Assassin Characters
  • Disorders in general (2, 3, 4, 5)
  • Attention Deficit Disorder
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Anxiety (2, 3, 4, 5)
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Alice In Wonderland Syndrome
  • Bipolar Disorder (2, 3)
  • Cotard Delusions
  • Depression (2, 3, 4, 5, 6)  
  • Eeating Disorders (2, 3)
  • Facitious Disorders
  • Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Multiple Personality Disorder (2)
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Night Terrors
  • Kleptomania (2)
  • A Pyromaniac
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • Psychopaths
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (2) (3)
  • Schizophrenia (2)
  • Sociopaths (2)
  • Aspergers Syndrome
  • Apathy
  • Autism
  • Someone Blind (2)
  • Cancer (2, 3)
  • Disability
  • Dyslexia
  • Muteness (2, 3)
  • Stutter
  • Actors
  • Ballet Dancer (2)
  • Christianity
  • Foreigners
  • Gamblers
  • Hinduism
  • Hitmen
  • Satanism
  • Smokers
  • Stoners
  • Taoism
  • Journalists
  • Vegetarians
  • Alcohol Influence (2, 3, 4, 5)
  • Cocaine Influence
  • Ecstasy Influence (2)
  • Heroin Use
  • LSD Influence
  • Marijuana Influence (2, 3)
  • Opiate Use

Tips on Writing Dialogue:

  • It’s Not What They Say…
  • Top 8 Tips for Writing Dialogue
  • Speaking of Dialogue
  • The Great Said Debate
  • He Said, She Said, Who Said What?
  • How to Write Dialogue Unique to Your Characters
  • Writing Dialogue: Go for Realistic, Not Real-Life

Tips on Writing Point of View:

  • Establishing The Right Point of View
  • How to Start Writing in the Third Person
  • The I Problem

Style & Craft of Writing:

  • The literary “weak verb”
  • Do you have word tics?
  • Victoria’s Vitamins: vague descriptive words
  • Victoria’s Vitamins: mood
  • Breaking writing habits
  • Varying sentences
  • Describing colors
  • Sweetening up character description
  • Purple prose
  • Grammar is a tricksy thing
  • “Smartening” the language of your narrative
  • Building suspense and making readers sweat
  • A couple tips about description in fast-paced scenes

Content:

  • The story of exposition
  • 10 ways to hit your reader in the gut
  • Make your reader root for your main character
  • Make your reader hold their breath
  • What’s the big deal about intros?
  • A tip about description
  • The word count of your manuscript
  • Things that make me keep reading
  • Choosing ideas and endings
  • When to describe setting
  • Battling cliches
  • Is your story YA, NA, or adult?
  • When a plot isn’t strong enough to make a whole story
  • Flashbacks with multiple POVs
  • Bulking up your word count
  • Avoiding cliches
  • Conquer that opening line || response || discussion
  • Tips on revealing setting awesomely kind of
  • Deciding between different ideas for the same story

Revision:

  • You’ve finished your manuscript! Now what?
  • Revision sucks but doesn’t have to suck
  • Where to find beta readers/critique partners
  • Tips on taking critique
  • Tips on giving critique
  • What to do with bad writing advice
  • Additional insight on bad writing advice
  • Five quick steps to get into revising that manuscript
  • When to say you’re done revising
  • Beginning the awesome journey of revision
  • Friends are not always the best readers

Plot, Structure, & Outline:

  • Writing A Novel Using the Snowflake Method
  • Effectively Outlining Your Novel
  • Conflict and Character Within Story Structure
  • Outlining Your Plot
  • Ideas, Plots and Using the Premise Sheets
  • How To Write A Novel
  • Creating Conflict and Sustaining Suspense
  • Plunge Right In…Into Your Story, That Is
  • Tips for Creating a Compelling Plot
  • 36 (plus one) Dramatic Situations
  • The Evil Overlord Devises A Plot: Excerpt from Stupid Plot Tricks
  • Conflict Test
  • What is Conflict?
  • Monomyth
  • The Hero’s Journey: Summary of Steps
  • Outline Your Novel in Thirty Minutes
  • Plotting Without Fears
  • Novel Outlining 101
  • Writing The Perfect Scene
  • One-Page Plotting
  • The Great Swampy Middle
  • How Can You Know What Belongs In Your Book?
  • Create A Plot Outline in 8 Easy Steps
  • How to Organize and Develop Ideas for Your Novel
  • Create Structure in your novel using index cards
  • Choosing the best outline method for you
  • Hatch’s Plot Bank

Setting & Making Your Own World

  • Magical Word Builder’s Guide
  • I Love The End Of The World
  • World Building 101
  • The Art of Description: Eight Tips to Help Bring Your Settings to Life
  • Creating the Perfect Setting - Part 1
  • Creating a Believable World
  • Setting
  • Character and Setting Interactions
  • Maps Workshop - Developing the Fictional World Through Mapping
  • World Builders Project
  • How To Create Fantasy Worlds
  • Creating Fantasy and Science Fiction Worlds

Helpful Tools & Software:

  • Tip Of My Tongue - Find the word you’re looking for
  • Write or Die - Stay motivated
  • Stay Focused - Tool for Chrome, lock yourself out of distracting websites
  • My Writing Nook - Online Text Editor, Free
  • Bubbl.us - Online Mind Map Application, Free
  • Family Echo - Online Family Tree Maker, Free
  • Freemind - Mind Map Application; Free; Windows, Mac, Linux, Portable
  • Xmind - Mind Map Application; Free; Windows, Mac, Linux, Portable
  • Liquid Story Binder - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free trial, $45.95; Windows, Portable
  • Scrivener - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free trial, $39.95; Mac
  • SuperNotecard - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free trial, $29; Windows, Mac, Linux, portable
  • yWriter - Novel Organization and Writing Application; free; Windows, Linux, portable
  • JDarkRoom - Minimalist Text Editing Application; free; Windows, Mac, Linux, portable
  • AutoRealm - Map Creation Application; free; Windows, Linux with Wine

Grammer & Revision:

  • How To Rewrite
  • Editing Recipe
  • Cliche Finder
  • Revising Your Novel: Read What You’ve Written
  • Writing 101: Revising A Novel
  • 20 Common Grammar Mistakes That (Almost) Everyone Makes
  • Synonyms for the Most Commonly Used Words of the English Language
  • Grammar Urban Legends
  • Words Instead of Walk (2)
  • Commonly Confused Adjectives
  • A Guide on Punctuation
  • Common Writing Mistakes
  • 25 Synoms for ‘Expession’
  • How to: Avoid Misusing Variations of Words
  • Words to Keep Inside Your Pocket
  • The 13 Trickiest Grammar Hang-Ups
  • Other Ways to Say..
  • Proofreading
  • 300+ Sophiscated and Underused Words
  • List of Misused Words
  • 100 Beautiful and Ugly Words
  • Words to Use More Often
  • Alternatives for ‘Smile’ or ‘Laugh’
  • Three Self Editing Tips
  • Words to Use Instead of ‘Walk’, ‘Said’, ‘Happy’ and ‘Sad’
  • Synonyms for Common Words
  • Alternatives for ‘Smile’
  • Transitional Words
  • The Many Faces and Meanings of ‘Said’
  • Synonyms for ‘Wrote’
  • A Case Of She Said, She Said

Creativity Boosters:

  • *Creative Writing Prompts
  • *Ink Provoking
  • *Story Starter
  • *Story Spinner
  • *Story Kitchen
  • *Language is a Virus
  • *The Dabbling Mum
  • Quick Story Idea Generator
  • Solve Your Problems By Simply Saying Them Out Loud
  • Busting Your Writing Rut
  • Creative Acceleration: 11 Tips To Engineer A Productive Flow
  • The Seven Major Beginner Mistakes
  • Complete Your First Book with these 9 Simple Writing Habits
  • Free Association, Active Imagination, Twilight Imaging
  • Random Book Title Generator
  • Finishing Your Novel
  • Story Starters & Idea Generators
  • Words to Use More Often
  • How to: Cure Writer’s Block
  • Some Tips on Writer’s Block
  • Got Writer’s Block?
  • 6 Ways to Beat Writer’s Block
  • Tips for Dealing With Writer’s Block

Improvement:

  • Improve Your Writing Habits Now
  • 5 Ways to Add Sparkle to Your Writing
  • Getting Over Roleplaying Insecurities
  • Improve Your Paras
  • Why the Right Word Choices Result in Better Writing
  • 4 Ways To Have Confidence in Your Writing
  • Writing Better Than You Normally Do
  • How’s My Driving?

Motivation:

  • Backhanding procrastination
  • On habits and taking care of yourself || Response
  • More troubles with writing motivation
  • The inner critic and ways to fight it
  • The writing life is hard on us
  • For troubles with starting your story
  • Writing to be published
  • “You’re a writer, will you write this for me?”
  • Writing a story that’s doomed to suck
  • Writing stamina builds slowly
  • When depression goes and writing goes with it
  • Additional inner critic strategies
  • Tips on conquering NaNoWriMo (or any project, really)
  • You will change as a writer
  • Ways to keep writing while in school
  • 13 quick tips when you’re starting your novel
  • First draft blues
  • Getting in your own way

Writing an Application:

  • How to: Make Your App Better
  • How to: Submit a Flawless Audition
  • 10 Tips for Applying
  • Para Sample Ideas
  • 5 Tips on Writing an IC Para Sample
  • Writing an IC Sample Without Escaping From the Bio
  • How to: Create a Worthy IC Para Sample
  • How to: Write an Impressive Para Sample
  • How to: Lengthen Short Para’s

Prompts:

  • Drabble Stuff
  • Prompts List
  • Writing Prompts
  • Drabble Prompts
  • How to Get Into Character
  • Writing Challenges/Prompts
  • A Study in Writing Prompts for RPs
  • Para Prompts & Ideas
  • Writing Prompts for Journal Entries
  • A List of Para Starters

anonymous asked:

hi, i'm a begginer and can i ask you how can i make sentences in past tense?

Hey there! c: 

To make a sentence in past tense, all you’ll really have to do is conjugate the verb. Just like English (and most Germanic languages), Norwegian verbs are either weak verbs or strong verbs - which can make things hella complicated - but I’ll do my best to explain the basics!

-

Svake Verb i Preteritum - Weak Verbs in Past Tense

Just like in English, weak verbs are the easiest to learn because they all follow a certain pattern. 

In Norwegian you’ll mainly find 4 different patterns for weak verbs:

-

Pattern #1: the “-te”-ending
When to use: If the verb has a long vowel OR ends with “-mme”

Examples:

Long vowels: (most verbs end on “-e”, which should be replaced by the “-te”)

Å spise” -> “spiste” (to eat - > ate)
“Å leke” -> “lekte” (to play -> played)
“Å rope” -> “ropte” (to yell -> yelled)

“-mme”-endings: (remove one “m” before adding the “-te”-ending)

“Å glemme” -> “glemte” (to forget -> forgot)
“Å klemme” -> “klemte” (to hug -> hugged)
“Å skremme” -> “skremte” (to scare -> scared)

-

Pattern “2″: the “-et”-ending
When to use: If the verb has a short vowel OR ends with “-ge” (even if there’s a long vowel)

Examples:

Short vowels: (if the verb ends on “-e”, simply add the “-t”)

Å sykle” -> “syklet” (to ride a bike -> rode a bike)
“Å jobbe” -> “jobbet” (to work -> worked)
“Å hoppe” -> “hoppet” (to jump -> jumped)

“-ge”-endings:

“Å lage” -> “laget” (to make - made)
“Å sage” -> “saget” (to saw -> sawed)

*!! you’ll also hear people say “lagde” or “sagde”, both versions are fine/correct

Pattern #3: the “-de”-ending
When to use: If the verb ends on “-eie” OR “-ve”

Examples:

“-eie”-endings:

Å leie” -> “leide” (to rent -> rented)
“Å eie” -> “eide” (to own -> owned)
“Å greie” -> “greide” (to manage -> managed)

“-ve”-endings:

Å leve” -> “levde” (to live -> lived)
“Å prøve” -> “prøvde” (to try -> tried)
“Å øve” -> “øvde” (to practice -> practiced) 

-

Pattern #4: the “-dde”-ending
When to use: If the verb does not end on “-e”

Examples:

“Å bo” - “bodde” (to live (at) -> lived (at))
“Å ro” - “rodde” (to row -> rowed)
“Å bety” - “betydde” (to mean -> meant)

-

Sterke Verb i Preteritum - Strong Verbs in Past Tense 

Strong verbs don’t really have any endings, but the verb itself will change, like how “sing” turns into “sang” in English. There aren’t that many (common) strong verbs in Norwegian, thankfully - but, unfortunately, for the ones we do have, there isn’t really any ‘pattern’ to follow.

Some of the common strong verbs would be:

“Å være” -> “var” (to be -> was)
“Å le” -> “lo” (to laugh -> laughed)
“Å gå” -> “gikk” (to walk/go -> walked/went)
“Å sitte” -> “satt” (to sit -> sat)
“Å komme” -> “kom” (to come -> came)

-

*!! Some verbs can have both - a weak verb conjugation AND a strong verb conjugation.

-

If you’d like, I could try to compile a list of common strong verbs.

-

Anyway, hope that helps you out a little bit! c: But keep in mind that some verbs can be conjugated by following more than one pattern, and that exceptions to these rules can occur! <3

-

thetwobosses  asked:

(ashamed edition meme) 1, 6, 8

A Writing Meme: The Ashamed Edition

1. What are some writing tics that persist in your work but that you dislike?
In my first drafts there are so many cases of weak verbs and over-dependence on adverbs. Even though I try to correct them in revision, more often than I would like they remain.   

6. What’s your guilty pleasure as a writer?
My guilty pleasure is fluff. Sweet little moments that I sprinkle in here and there and, which I really wish could fill the entire WIP, but alas there is the need for things like plot, maybe the occasional sprinkle of smut here and there. And angst, of course. 

But I really like giving my characters happy moments.

8. What parts of writing a fic do you think are a chore?
Action scenes are problematic for me. And sometimes dialogue heavy scenes can be a bit of a chore for me. I always worry that I’m messing up the character’s voice or that they aren’t distinct enough from one another. 

annjushkasophia  asked:

1, 6, 19, 24 for the ask thingy? :)

1.) Describe your comfort zone—a typical you-fic.

One- and two-shot expositional pieces with a focus on one aspect of a character, whether it be something canon shows us or alludes to (i.e. how Newt and Tina met, or their week together post-movie) and/or with a focus on things that canon will never, ever talk about (smut, their first time, infertility struggles, etc.)

6.) Share one of your weaknesses.

VERB TENSES! I’m a trainwreck with those, but I think I’m slowly getting better. Either that or my beta hasn’t been complaining as loudly! ;)

19.) Stephen King once said that his muse is a man who lives in the basement. Do you have a muse?

First: LOL I LOVE STEPHEN KING! Second: my muse is Newt Scamander. Seriously! He sits on my shoulder, feeds me ice cream sandwiches, and whispers all my best(?) ideas into my ear…

24.) Have you ever deleted one of your published fics?

Not yet, though Burnt Flowers Fallen is a contender for that dubious honor…

Examples of how to get rid of weak verbs

that was where their facial resemblances ended -> their facial resemblances ended there

was sitting -> sat

the pie was good -> the pie tasted good

she had to get the rubies -> she needed to get the rubies

the flowers were pink -> pink flowers lined the walkway

he was gorgeous -> he looked gorgeous

Agnes was old -> Agnes walked slowly and supported herself on a cane. Wrinkles and liver spots marred her face. White hair fell onto her shoulders.

Taylor was selfless -> Taylor always made sure the rest of her family had enough to eat before foraging for her own food.

a quick tip about showing instead of telling

Heyy writers! People are always telling you to “show” instead of “tell” when you write fiction, yes? There are lots of ways to go about this, and whether you’ve heard what I’m going to say or not, it’s always a good reminder. I’m not claiming to be the perfect expert, but I do have experience, and this advice from my first writing teachers probably had the most impact on me. 

One of the simplest ways to show instead of tell is to cut the adverbs. Just cut them. Drop them. Stop using adverbs. Not to say there isn’t a time and a place for everything. You can be intentional about using adverbs, but if you’re not sure, just be safe and avoid them. 

For the most part I mean words like the following: quickly, sadly, happily, dejectedly, etc. Yeah, those “ly” words can go first. Why? Because they tell the reader how something is going down instead of showing the reader. The thing is, if you have strong enough verbs, you don’t need an adverb. Why say “walk quickly” when you could replace that verb and weak ass adverb for a strong verb that can stand alone. Something like jog, hurry, run, stride, anything that shows the action. Familiarize yourself with good verbs! 

I’ll make a post about dialogue soon, because man I love me some good dialogue, but it’s important to drop adverbs when your characters are speaking as well. “He said longingly,” and “she said hopefully,” are unnecessary. Show that the character is longing or hopeful through their actions or just through what they’re saying. How is your character showing feeling on their own? Facial expressions? Breathing? Body language? Also, for the most part it’s best to just use “said.” But you can sometimes use verbs like snapped, shouted, murmured, etc. to convey the type of feeling you want. I’ll get into this more in a dialogue post, but for now, drop your adverbs! 

Now don’t be discouraged. Adverbs aren’t the end. J.K. Rowling used a good number of adverbs in the Sorcerer’s Stone and look where she is now. Just think about how your writing can be that much better without them. 

One more thing about showing. Just focus on leaving some room for the reader to imagine. Using words like horrible, amazing, incredible, and awful don’t do that. You’re just sticking a generic word into their head and saying “haha just in case you can’t figure out what I mean for yourself.” Again, there’s a time and a place, but try to show the reader how something is amazing. What makes it horrible?

You may have already heard one of the best quotes out there summarizing the meaning of “show instead of tell”, but I’ll drop it here anyway. “Don’t tell me the moon is shining; show me the glint of light on broken glass.” - Anton Chekhov (Think details!)   Of course, feel free to ask questions or add your thoughts! 

Said is not dead.

Said vanishes into a page. It indicates that dialogue is happening without jumping into your face.

If you overuse adverbs with said (looking at you JKR, I love HP but that’s a bad habit of yours) or use silly words like “elaborated” or “bellowed” or “cajoled” every single time, it sticks out and is disruptive for the reader.

Of course, that’s not to say that you always have to use said. If a character is yelling, use “he yelled.” If a character is upset, you can use “she said sadly” although replacing weak verb-adverb combos like this with stronger verbs (lamented, moaned, sighed, sobbed, etc.) is advisable.

Use dialogue tags other than said when the situation is appropriate, but otherwise, just stick with said. Your prose and dialogue will flow smoother that way.

noidonotplaypiano  asked:

I know a wide variety of German words but I know almost nothing about grammar and sentence structure please help

this is my lecture on some of (tbh the most stupid parts of) german grammar, aka Why Becoming Fluent In German Is A Bitch

(also i realise most of this is probably not what you need but sh)

Nouns

  • nouns are always capitalised, including the Substantivierung von Adjektiven oder Verben (nounification of adjectives or verbs) (example: „im Großen und Ganzen, literally in the large and the whole, translates as in the grand scheme of things or on the whole)
  • three “genders”: masculine feminine neuter
  • also plural
  • articles change depending on role of noun in sentence
  • nominative (subject): der (m) die (f) das (n) die (pl)
  • 3 other grammatical cases
  • genitive (possessive, “belonging to”/“of the”, also the case used after prepositions like trotz/despite or in spite of, and wegen/because of): des (m) der (f) des (n) der (pl)
  • dative (indirect object, “to the”, also the case used after prepositions like mit/with, bei/by or at, and in some cases others. some prepositions take dative usually but accusative when movement is involved e.g. Ich hänge den Bilderahmen an die Wand - I [am] hang[ing] the picture frame on the wall): dem (m) der (f) dem (n) den (pl)
  • accusative (direct object, also the case used after some prepositions like gegen/against, durch/through and others as mentioned): den (m) die (f) das (n) die (pl)
  • in certain cases the nouns also get altered by the cases: anytime after des, the noun takes -es and after den but only in plural dative (not in masculine accusative) the noun takes -n, e.g. der Mann (the man) -> des Mannes (of the man), die Kinder (the children) -> den Kindern (to the children)
  • also some nouns are classified as weak nouns and take -en whenever not in nominative like Name (name) and Herr (sir/mister), e.g. „Er ist Amerikaner, trotz seines französischen Namens“ (“He is [an] American, in spite of his French name”)
  • indefinite (ein-/kein-/etc.) and possessive articles (ein-/mein-/dein-/sein-/ihr-/unser-/euer-/Ihr-) also change according to case
  • nominative: no change (m) -e (f) no change (n) -e (pl)
  • the other 3 take the endings of the definite articles: der -> -er, die -> -e, das -> no change, des -> -es, dem -> -em, den -> -en
  • but if you think this is hard enough just wait until you add an adjective

Adjectives

  • adjectives are fucking dumb
  • they not only change with cases but also with whether what sort of article you have
  • with a definite article:
  • plural is always -en
  • nominative is always -e except plural
  • dative and genitive are always -en
  • accusative is -en for masculine and plural and -e for feminine and neuter
  • with an indefinite or possessive article:
  • plural is always -en
  • dative and genitive are always -en
  • the rest take the definite article endings (der -> -er, die -> -e, das -> no change den -> -en)
  • sometimes you have no article such as „Kleinen Kindern gefallen solche Sendungen“ (little children like shows like that, literally “to small children appeal such shows”):
  • all adjectives take the definite article endings except for genitive masculine and genitive neuter, which take -en
  • adjectives always come before the noun like in english, opposite to most adjectives in french for example

Verbs

  • verbs actually aren’t that bad
  • they do conjugate but it’s usually not that bad
  • infinitives usually (I don’t think there’s an exception but there might be) end with -en or -n, e.g. backen, spielen, fordern, sein (to bake, to play, to promote, to be)
  • the “stem” of the verb is the part before -en or -n (back-, spiel-, forder-, but not sei- because
  • pronouns: 1PS (1st person singular) ich
  • 2PS du (informal) Sie (formal. Sie has to be capitalised for reasons you’ll see later)
  • 3PS er (m) sie (f) es (n)
  • 1PP (1st person plural) wir
  • 2PP ihr (informal) Sie (formal. exactly the same as formal 2PS)
  • 3PP sie
  • conjugation is actually relatively simple in german *glares at romance languages* (as long as you stay in the simple tenses. when you get to konjunktiv II futur II lol good luck)
  • for regular verbs (most of them):
  • ich: stem + -e
  • du: stem + -st
  • er/sie/es: stem + -t
  • wir, Sie and sie (3PP): infinitive
  • ihr: stem + -(e)t (usually it’s -t, and -et is archaic, but i’m pretty sure there are some verbs that i can’t think of now because i’m lazy that still take -et)
  • common exceptions:
  • sein is fucking weird like in all languages
  • ich bin, du bist, er/sie/es ist, wir/Sie/sie sind, ihr seid (not ihr seit. lots of fluent german speakers get that wrong because there’s a word seit meaning since which is pronounced the same as seid)
  • haben is less weird but not completely obedient to the rules
  • ich habe (the -e is often dropped in colloquial speech), du hast, er/sie/es hat, wir/Sie/sie haben, ihr habt
  • some verbs called weak verbs (german loves dividing its grammar into strong and weak) such as laufen (to walk) add umlauts (the diacritical marks on ä, ö and ü) to the du and er/sie/es forms: ich laufe, du läufst, er/sie/es läuft, wir/Sie/sie laufen, ihr lauft
  • some verbs are trennbar (divisible) meaning when conjugating them you take the first part and put it at the end of the sentence or clause. these are usually (if not always) verbs with prepositional prefixes such as an-, bei- or dazu-
  • for example: anfordern is nothing to do with fordern (to promote), but means to request. however you don’t „Sie anfordern eine Überweisung“ but „Sie fordern eine Überweisung an“ (you (formal) request a bank transfer)
  • however there are prefixes that are untrennbar (indivisible) like zer-, ver-, be-, ge-, etc. and those stay in the verb, e.g. Ich versuche, meine Wochenende zu genießen

things i didn’t cover

past tense is relatively simple. some conjunctions switch sentence order in Nebensätzen (subordinate clauses). some verbs change vowels when conjugating. sentence structure is for peasants who needs it (there are some rules but usually there are multiple ways to say a sentence, although some of them sound weird). literally the whole rest of the language.

tschüss viel Spaß beim Deutschlernen

To Try, 4/4

A/N: In which things come full circle.

(Part One) (Part Two) (Part Three) (Part Four)

Ao3
ff.net


           “Um, Bentley?” Alcor asked.

           Bentley hummed and moved further down the document, taking the occasional note on the side. His grades had been slipping, and maybe if he got them up the Counselor’s Office would finally stop hounding him about his ‘alarming increase in absences’ and ‘sudden drop in classroom engagement.’
            “Do you—you’ve read that thing five times, do you think we could talk?”

           Instead of leaving like he usually did after waking Bentley up from whatever nightmare he’d been experiencing, Alcor had hung around, speaking and cutting himself off, fretting and pulling at his hands. Bentley turned around in his seat.

           “I need to get my grades up,” Bentley said.

           Alcor didn’t look persuaded. In fact, his face grew tenser, and Bentley tried to ignore how rumpled Alcor’s clothes were. “We really need to talk though. And hey, tell you what, you talk to me and I’ll help you with your grades! It’ll be a deal!”

           A deal. Of course. Bentley scowled and turned away. “No thanks.”

           Behind him, Alcor let out a strangled noise of frustration. The door slid open moments later, then slid shut, and Bentley breathed out through his nose. The words swam together on the screen, and instead of focusing on them he found himself remembering you were wrong too.

Keep reading

Editing on the sentence level

Many people get hung up editing on the sentence level and see it as a chore. I used to be that way too, and it was for a very specific reason: I didn’t know what I was aiming to fix aside from general grammar issues. I knew I wanted my sentences to be better, but I did not have a firm grasp on what “better” meant. Now I do and I find sentence level editing fun.

To make your sentences better, you can:

  • Make sure it conveys the meaning you want it to.
  • Make it succinct and delete any extraneous words. (Though never at the sacrifice of meaning. It’s better to have a clunky paragraph that says what you want than a short but confusing sentence that doesn’t get the point across.)
  • If you have two descriptions of the same thing from the same POV, choose your favorite and delete the second.
  • See if you can change weak verbs or rearrange the sentence to exclude them.
  • Alter the sentence so that it enhances the voice of the POV character (or the story, if you’re writing third person omniscient).

Last night I sat bolt upright in bed at three in the morning and said to myself, “What is the present tense of wrought?”

I am happy to be able to report to you all that!

1) ‘Wrought’ is often considered the past tense of ‘wreak’ as in ‘wreak havoc’ or ‘wreak revenge’ but this is a modern error! The correct past tense of wreak is either (weak verb) wreaked or (strong) wroke. I like wroke. 

2) ‘Wrought’ is in fact ACTUALLY the strong past of ‘work’. It is less common in modern English because we overwhelmingly prefer ‘worked’!

anonymous asked:

Hi... I'm experiencing a problem whenever it comes to writing; I have amazing plot ideas, yet when it comes to writing, my words feel... Very lukewarm, which is the only way I can describe it. Tips to make my writing more powerful, more meaningful... So that even the most mundane actions carried out by my characters do not feel boring? Thank you... :( X

Great question. Not sure if I have great answers. As always I can only offer my suggestions.

Believe in your writing.

I think many writers doubt themselves and regard their work unfairly. Perhaps you’re being hard on yourself. Learn to believe in your work. You’re okay. You’re doing well. You’re better than you think.

Write scenes, not summaries.

Summary after summary can get quite boring. Consider whether you are just summarizing scenes rather than rendering them vividly. If you’re telling more than showing, that’s a sign you’re summarizing rather than scene writing.

Use strong verbs (over weak adverbs).

Don’t rely on adverbs to convey meaning. That’s lazy. That’s what I do. Don’t be like me.

Write what excites you.

If something bores you to write, you can bet it’ll bore someone to read. So write what interests you, what fascinates you. Maybe you love mysteries. Then write an exciting mystery novel where every scene takes the reader one step closer to figuring out the murderer.

Live a meaningful life.

Self explanatory, no?

Remove the boring.

What you leave in is just as important as what you take out. Feel free to skip a day or delete a paragraph if nothing happens in it.

Create interesting characters.

Good characters have a way of making the mundane not as mundane.

Make the scene matter.

Every scene should accomplish something or a few things by the end of it. Go in with a goal and don’t get out until you achieve the goal. Even if the path to the end is different than you intended, make sure all scenes are in your story for a reason.

That’s all I have. Hope it helps.

Feel free to ask me anything.

Happy powerful, meaningful writing.

Rules and revision

So you’re revising. You want your story to be as good as possible and edit out every tiny imperfection, but at the same time you don’t want to spend the rest of your life editing the same story. Short of just deciding a random time to stop editing whether you still see errors or not, what can you do to ensure your story eventually gets fully revised?

The answer that has worked for me is that if something looks weird to me and I can’t think of an explanation why, I don’t bother with it. If I can find an explanation, I apply that explanation to similar areas that need work. I trust explanations, not my gut instincts, because my instincts often lead me east on one day and west the next. At least for me, most of the “infinite” revision time was spent going back and forth on things that didn’t seem quite right for reasons I couldn’t explain. This way, I don’t end up taking a month to decide whether to use “master” or “expert” and instead spend time getting rid of weak verbs. I don’t spend time worrying whether a character will be a girl or not and instead spend time making sure she’s well-rounded. 

There are only so many rules for revision you can figure out, so you will have a finite revision time. You won’t have to either spend a decade on a single story or call something “finished” when it isn’t. It also saves stress – no more staying up at night worrying that you should have set your story in Chicago instead of New York when the only thing the plot needed was a big city.

Instead of admitting defeat I made this one-page guide to Old English verbs, including a colour-coded guide to strong verb parts and notes on i-mutation! The pronoun alongside the verb ending is given throughout, so you just add the appropriate stem. Hopefully this will help someone. :) Click for full resolution!