i love the term “partners” are we dating? are we robbing a bank? do we run a legal firm? are we the dedicated detectives who investigate these vicious felonies and are members of an elite squad known as the special victims unit? who knows.
There, we came right out and said it. They can’t help it; it’s just what happens when you have a star that’s heavier than our sun but as small as a city. Neutron stars give us access to crazy conditions that we can’t study directly on Earth.
Here are five facts about neutron stars that show sometimes they are stranger than science fiction!
1. Neutron stars start their lives with a bang
When a star bigger and more massive than our sun runs out of fuel at the end of its life, its core collapses while the outer layers are blown off in a supernova explosion. What is left behind depends on the mass of the original star. If it’s roughly 7 to 19 times the mass of our sun, we are left with a neutron star. If it started with more than 20 times the mass of our sun, it becomes a black hole.
2. Neutron stars contain the densest material that we can directly observe
While neutron stars’ dark cousins, black holes, might get all the attention, neutron stars are actually the densest material that we can directly observe. Black holes are hidden by their event horizon, so we can’t see what’s going on inside. However, neutron stars don’t have such shielding. To get an idea of how dense they are, one sugar cube of neutron star material would weigh about 1 trillion kilograms (or 1 billion tons) on Earth—about as much as a mountain. That is what happens when you cram a star with up to twice the mass of our sun into a sphere the diameter of a city.
3. Neutron stars can spin as fast as blender blades
Some neutron stars, called pulsars, emit streams of light that we see as flashes because the beams of light sweep in and out of our vision as the star rotates. The fastest known pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, spins 43,000 times every minute. That’s twice as fast as the typical household blender! Over weeks, months or longer, pulsars pulse with more accuracy than an atomic clock, which excites astronomers about the possible applications of measuring the timing of these pulses.
4. Neutron stars are the strongest known magnets
Like many objects in space, including Earth, neutron stars have a magnetic field. While all known neutron stars have magnetic fields billions and trillions of times stronger than Earth’s, a type of neutron star known as a magnetar can have a magnetic field another thousand times stronger. These intense magnetic forces can cause starquakes on the surface of a magnetar, rupturing the star’s crust and producing brilliant flashes of gamma rays so powerful that they have been known to travel thousands of light-years across our Milky Way galaxy, causing measurable changes to Earth’s upper atmosphere.
5. Neutron stars’ pulses were originally thought to be possible alien signals
Beep. Beep. Beep. The discovery of pulsars began with a mystery in 1967 when astronomers picked up very regular radio flashes but couldn’t figure out what was causing them. The early researchers toyed briefly with the idea that it could be a signal from an alien civilization, an explanation that was discarded but lingered in their nickname for the original object—LGM-1, a nod to the “little green men” (it was later renamed PSR B1919+21). Of course, now scientists understand that pulsars are spinning neutron stars sending out light across a broad range of wavelengths that we detect as very regular pulses – but the first detections threw observers for a loop.
We’re incredibly lucky to live on a planet
drenched in water, nestled in a perfect distance from our sun and wrapped with
magnetic fields keeping our atmosphere intact against harsh radiation and space
We know from recent research that life can
persist in the cruelest of environments here on Earth, which gives us hope to
finding life thriving on other worlds. While we have yet to find life outside
of Earth, we are optimistic about the possibilities, especially on other ocean
worlds right here in our solar system.
So…What’s the News?!
Two of our veteran missions are providing
tantalizing new details about icy, ocean-bearing moons of Jupiter and Saturn,
further enhancing the scientific interest of these and other “ocean worlds” in
our solar system and beyond!
scientists announce that a form of energy for life appears to exist in Saturn’s
moon Enceladus, and Hubble
researchers report additional evidence of plumes erupting from Jupiter’s moon
The Two Missions: Cassini and Hubble
spacecraft has found that hydrothermal vents in the ocean of Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus
are producing hydrogen gas, which could potentially provide a chemical energy
source for life.
Cassini discovered that this little moon of
Saturn was active in 2005. The discovery that Enceladus has jets of gas and icy
particles coming out of its south polar region surprised the world. Later we
determined that plumes of material are coming from a global ocean under the icy
crust, through large cracks known as “tiger stripes.”
We have more evidence now – this time sampled
straight from the plume itself – of hydrothermal activity, and we now know the
water is chemically interacting with the rock beneath the ocean and producing
the kind of chemistry that could be used by microbes IF they happened to be
This is the culmination of 12 years of
investigations by Cassini and a capstone finding for the mission. We now know Enceladus
has nearly all the ingredients needed for life as we know it.
The Cassini spacecraft made its deepest dive
through the plume on Oct. 28, 2015. From previous flybys, Cassini determined
that nearly 98% of the gas in the plume is water and the rest is a mixture of
other molecules, including carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia.
instruments provided evidence of hydrothermal activity in the ocean. What we
really wanted to know was…Is there hydrogen being produced that microbes could
use to make energy? And that’s exactly what we found!
To be clear…we haven’t discovered microbes at
Enceladus, but vents of this type at Earth host these kinds of life. We’re
cautiously excited at the prospect that there might be something like this at
Europa is one of the four major moons of
Jupiter, about the size of our own moon but very different in appearance. It’s
a cold, icy world with a relatively smooth, bright surface crisscrossed with
dark cracks and patches of reddish material.
What makes Europa interesting is that it’s believed
to have a global ocean, underneath a thick crust of ice. In fact, it’s got
about twice as much ocean as planet Earth!
In 2014, we detected evidence of intermittent
water plumes on the surface of Europa, which is interesting because they may
provide us with easier access to subsurface liquid water without having to
drill through miles of ice.
And now, in 2016, we’ve found one particular
plume candidate that appears to be at the same location that it
was seen in 2014.
This is exciting because if we can establish that a
particular feature does repeat, then it is much more likely to be real and we
can attempt to study and understand the processes that cause it to turn on or
This plume also happens to coincide with an
area where Europa is unusually warm as compared to the surrounding terrain. The
plume candidates are about 30 to 60 miles (50 to 100 kilometers) in height and are well-positioned for
observation, being in a relatively equatorial and well-determined location.
What Does All This Mean and What’s Next?
Hubble and Cassini are inherently different
missions, but their complementary scientific discoveries, along with the synergy
between our current and planned missions, will help us in finding out whether
we are alone in the universe.
Hubble will continue to observe Europa. If
you’re wondering how we might be able to get more information on the Europa
plume, the upcoming Europa Clipper mission
will be carrying
a suite of 9 instruments to investigate whether the mysterious icy moon could harbor conditions favorable for life. Europa Clipper is slated to launch in the 2020s.
This future mission will be able to study the
surface of Europa in great detail and assess the habitability of this moon.
Whether there’s life there or not is a question for this future mission to
THE REAL STORY BEHIND THE NAMJOON, WALE, AND VENNY INCIDENT
So long story short an “army” that goes by the name of Venny is pretty good at making celebrities notice bangtan. She got a retweet from wale from an old cover from namjoon and even got tinashe to notice hobi.
But heres why you SHOULD NOT treat here as the best namjoon stan ever because she is not
*i dont want to bring up the past but a lot of people are comparing her with namjoon because VENNY IS PROBLEMATIC SHE MADE A LOT OF RACIST REMARKS AND NEVER APOLOGIZED OR OWNED UP TO THEM AND EVEN REPEATED THEM UNLIKE NAMJOON*
So basically many armys AND HER claim that the collab happened because of her WHICH I HIGHLY DOUBT BECAUSE ME KNOWING NAMJOON HE WOULD OF SAID SOMETHING HIMSELF
so then venny venn diagram releases these on her twitter (WHICH IS NOW PRIVATE COINCIDENCE I THINK NOT)
Okay but e ven before i knew that this was fake I HIGHLY DOUBTED IT namjoon would of done something himself he has the full capability to dm and message intl armys he has done so before
also she sounded soooooo shady i wasnt buying it
so then seeing this beef wale assumed namjoon knows venny venn diagram not knowing the real situation
BUT NAMJOON DOESNT KNOW WHO TF THIS PROBLEMATIC SHIT IS THIS COLLAB DIDNT HAPPEN BECAUSE OF YOU BOO
the fact that some people dont know this AND ARE ACTING LIKE SHE IS THE BEST NAMJOON STAN IS DISGUSTING BECAUSE THERE ARE SO MANY BEAUTIFUL NAMSTANS OUT THERE NOT THIS LYING SHIT WHO WANTED TO BE NOTICED SO DAMN BAD
I feel really bad for her BECAUSE SHE IS SO PETTY LIKE YOU ALREADY LIED AND EVERYONE KNOWS STOP TRYNA COVER YOURSELF UP WE ARE ARMYS WE ARE DETECTIVES WE WILL FIGURE OUT EVERYTHING
okay but basically i dont know what to do
the whole situation is so petty and stupid, like did this girl REALLY have to do this, being a namjoon stan since pre-debut i wouldnt be this thirsty to get namjoon to notice me, like i dont really know what to do because she already has done it and really cant take it back.
but hey im happy this happened because the twitter memes about her are so funny
peace, love, and support namjoon’s mixtape
*note* so many people are supporting namjoon remember when everyone used to fucking hate him people are giving him so much love i love armys we are amazing we need to protect namjoon
i feel bad for namjoon bc this is affecting his career, some “armys” are no different from antis using namjoon as a fucking target for everything, i remember him mentioning that he wont feel as if his life has purpose until his music affect the lives of his fans and now when he actually gets to know an intl “army” its about something negative and false accusations against him. Imagine how hard breaking he would feel GREAT START TO HIS SECOND MIXTAPE UGH
LEAVE HIM ALONE
atfirst i thought it was stupid to hate on venny as what she did was a harmless petty joke but this can really affect namjoon’s image in his rap career as wale knows about this
Lemony Snicket from outta nowhere:
Of course, in this case, 'fine' is only meant to reassure. She has never been less fine, nor was she ever fine in the first place. Here, the word 'fine' could be defined as 'I am actually slowly dying on the inside, but don't wish for anyone to worry.'
Brooklyn Nine-Nine tends to take a light-hearted approach when it comes to the long arm of the law: After all, it’s a comedy in which Andy Samberg effuses lines like “Don’t worry, we can outsmart some small-town sheriff. We’re NYPD detectives. We caught the Son of Sam! Ice-T plays us on TV! We keep the Tonys safe!” But an upcoming episode is aiming to mine humor in a serious topic involving the police: Racial profiling via the controversial stop-and-frisk program, in which officers temporarily detain and search citizens for concealed weapons and illegal goods.
In an episode airing May 2 on Fox, Terry (Terry Crews) — a sergeant in the Nine-Nine — is subjected to a stop-and-frisk (which, coincidentally, is also known as a “Terry stop“) by an officer when he’s on the street looking for his daughter’s blankie. “He tries to work it out with the cop by going out to dinner with him, but that doesn’t work out, and he has to decide whether or not to file a formal complaint,” series co-creator Dan Goor tells EW. “To a certain extent, it’s the question of: Am I blue or am I black?”
It’s a subject matter that the show’s writers have been wanting to tackle for a long time, but “because our heroes are the police, it’s difficult to talk about the police in an abstract way,” says Goor. “We’ve talked about a million different stories and I think this one really works. It felt very natural and real, but at the same time, we’ve managed to make it as funny as any other Brooklyn Nine-Nine episode.”
The idea for the story stemmed from a conversation with Crews, who revealed a similar incident in which he had been racially profiled. The writers began working on an episode but were having trouble around the halfway mark. It was a conversation about the episode with a different cast member — Andre Braugher, a.k.a. Captain Holt — that led to a breakthrough moment. “Andre told me what he thought Captain Holt would do at that moment,” says Goor. “And it was like the clouds parted and I could see for the first time. It was so unexpected, but true to the character and honest, and made for an entire act’s worth of scenes.”
In the episode, after Terry hashes it out with other members of the Nine-Nine, “ultimately it comes down to a great set of scenes between Holt and [Terry],” says Goor. “It’s Andre at the height of Andre and Terry really keeps up with him. And it’s the first time we’ve done an A story for anyone other than Jake.”
Speaking of Jake (Samberg), he and Amy (Melissa Fumero) will spend most of the episode taking care of Terry’s twins with Sharon (Merrin Dungey) out of town. “They want to know why their dad was arrested, so Jake and Amy have to talk about these issues with these kids,” says Goor. “It’s one of the funniest stories we’ve done.”