we are amplified


The last Beatles concert, Candlestick Park, San Francisco, August 29th 1966. 

“By Candlestick Park it was like ‘Don’t tell anyone, but this is probably our last gig’”
[Paul, Anthology]

“There was big talk at Candlestick Park that this had got to end. At that San Francisco gig it seemed that this could possibly be the last time, but I never felt 100% certain until we got back to London. John wanted to give up more than the others. He said that he’d had enough.”
[Ringo, Anthology]

“When we got to Candlestick Park, we placed our cameras on the amplifiers and put them on the timer. We stopped between tunes, Ringo got down off the drums, and we stood facing the amplifiers with our back to the audience and took photographs. We knew. ‘This is it - we’re not going to do this again. This is the last concert.’ It was a unanimous decision.”
[George, Anthology]

“We’d like to carry on, I think. We’re not really sure yet. I’d like to carry on, certainly. Definitely. Well, shall we just watch this for a bit? Just watch it. The next song is called Paperback Writer.”
[Paul, in between songs at Candlestick Park, Source: BeatlesBible.com]

“I’m just sorry for the people who can’t see us live. Sometimes you haven’t missed anything because your wouldn’t have heard us, but sometimes I think you might have enjoyed it. I’m sorry for them.”
[John, quoted in Anthology]

“That’s it, then. I’m not a Beatle anymore.”
[George, on the plane home on 30th August, 1966. Source: BeatlesBible.com]

You - and John, Paul and Ringo - will always be Beatles… (Sorry, George). 

“The Beatles were never gone. And they could have come back.”
[Ringo, Mojo Magazine, August 2016 (in relation to the new Eight Days A Week film about The Beatles touring years)]

This post ended up far more melancholy than I intended! Don’t worry, the Beatles are infinite. We’ll go back to 1964 next and all feel a lot better. xx 

Pics 1-8: Koh Hasebe & Shinko Music, courtesy of Getty Images

Pic 9: Jim Marshall

Hacking Gut Bacteria Could Be The Next Major Class Of Medicines
MIT biologists are reprogramming gut bacteria as "live therapeutics."

“We start with the probiotics that you can literally buy over the counter at your local pharmacy,” Lu explained. “We’re trying to show that probiotics that are really engineered with our technologies can treat serious human diseases. So we take those probiotics and modify them so that we can significantly amplify their beneficial effects.”  

Here’s how it works: Lu and Dr. Jim Collins, Synlogic co-founder and biological engineer, developed “genetic circuits” made of synthetic DNA or RNA that carry instructions for certain bacteria, telling them to seek out and cure infections. Essentially, the researchers are tweaking the genetic codes within the bacteria in order to program them like a computer.

The bacteria can be programmed, for instance, to detect inflammation in the gut and create anti-inflammatory molecules on the spot, as well as producing molecules to boost immune system function.

More Than You Ever Wanted to Know About Electrical Engineering: Amplifiers, Gain, and Frequency

We’ve met amplifiers before in the form of op-amps. We’re going to see a lot more of them. In general terms, an amplifier makes a small signal bigger. But there’s some subtlety to this: not all signals are created equal. We’ve been looking at the effects of frequency on impedance, so we know that a signal of the same frequency will behave differently going through a capacitor than it will going through an inductor or a resistor. With what we know now, we have the power to create amplifiers that selectively boost some frequencies and attenuate others.

Let’s think a little bit about what this kind of amplification looks like. The kind of amp we’re all familiar with is an audio amp. If you’re amplifying an audio signal, you want all the stuff within human audible range (about 50 Hz - 15000 Hz) to be amplified equally. So the frequency response for your amplifier might look something like this:

A couple of things to notice about this graph. Gain is a unitless number describing the ratio of the output to the input. So a gain of 100 means the strength of the output is 100 times the strength of the input. The equation below shows a voltage gain, but you can also talk about other kinds of gain.

Note also that the frequency axis on the graph above is one a log scale. At the range of frequencies we’ll commonly be dealing with, this is a necessity just due to space constraints, but we’ll see later on that logarithmic graphs can give us some interesting insight into amplifier behavior.

So the amplifier in the graph above boosts signals within a range of about 50 Hz to 15 kHz more or less equally. It’s not perfect - you lose a little at the extreme high and low ranges, but there’s a solid midband letting most of the frequencies of interest come through. Suppose you wanted to boost the bass of your audio. Bass frequencies run about 40 Hz - 400 Hz. Your amplifier frequency response in this case might look like this:

You might do this by chaining two amplifiers one after the other - one for the bass, one for the rest of the signal range. We’ll look more closely at the specifics of how to make and analyze these in the coming weeks.

14 Things That Don’t Come Up In Conversation

1. The alarming fact that people my age are supposed to be adults.
2. How I really just want that cute person sitting a few tables away from me too keep smiling because it’s nice.
3. Just how weird octopi are. Seriously, they are probably aliens.
4. How sentences from old love letters can be reused to form suicide notes.
5. How I secretly enjoy that symmetry because love and death are equally destructive.
6. How do we forgive ourselves for everything we haven’t said?
7. Why the alphabet is in that particular order, because I want to know if there’s a person I can blame for making the letter A more important than the letter Z.
8. How do we forgive ourselves for everything we have said?
9. The infinite nature of the night sky and how tiny we are in comparison.
10. My theory that silence is the loudest sound because it’s just everything we don’t say amplified to a volume we can’t understand, so everyone just pretends they can’t hear anything because no one is brave enough to admit something is there in the first place.
11. How I really want to discuss these topics with someone, but I’m terrified someone will actually bring these topics up.
12. The fact that on the worst days, I can feel the world collapsing around me.
13. The correct answer when someone tells you “I like your shoelaces”.
14. Can we forgive ourselves for everything we did not become?
15. How do we forgive ourselves for turning the volume up?

Interview Wednesday
  • Me: It's Interview Wednesday and today I'm joined by Derek Hale aka Sourwolf.
  • Derek: ...hi.
  • Me: Hello, okay jumping right in who is or who was the best bad guy in Beacon Hills.
  • Derek: That I've seen so far, would be Nogitsune.
  • Me: Really?! Not old hag Peter!
  • Derek: *luaghs* Peter is not really a bad guy but a brat who wants his way every time.
  • Me: I can see that. This next question was sent in by an anonymous and they asked "Do you think werewolves can hear what people are saying over the phone? I mean, like if someone is talking to someone over the phone, can they hear what the person on the other side of the phone is saying."
  • Derek: Yes, simply because since our senses are amplified, we can use our hearing to hear up to great distances and the other person on the other line is still being project out from the person who's next to us. If that made sense.
  • Me: No totally, that seems like it hit the nail on the head, but that is all we have today. I want to thank Derek for being here and until next week. If you guys have questions you want to be answered ask them and in parentheses put IW so I know it's for Interview Wednesday's. Bye!

Scan - Ringo Starr, George Harrison and Paul McCartney backstage at Candlestick Park, San Francisco, CA, 29 August 1966. Photo © Jim Marshall. Scanned from Tomorrow Never Knows: The Beatles’ Last Concert (and previously posted at thateventuality here).

“There was a certain amount of relief after that Candlestick Park concert. Before one of the last numbers, we set up this camera - I think it had a fisheye, a very wide-angle lens. We set it on an amplifier, and Ringo came out of the drums, and we stood with our back to the audience and posed for a photograph, because we knew that was the last show.” - George Harrison, Rolling Stone, 5 November 1987

Upcoming Kog'Maw Changes

Hi folks,

Kog’Maw has some significant changes coming in patch 6.19 that we wanted to give some extra context on.

When we set out to update Kog last preseason, it was with the intent of doubling down on his already unique and well-supported identity of being the Marksman you could rely on to deal most of your team’s damage as long as you protect and enhance him - reinforcing the notion of ‘protect the Kog’ as a team strategy. By breaking the usual rules of attack speed, we amplified his damage even further while making him functionally less mobile in combat because he can’t move much between shots.

Unfortunately, that direction hasn’t proven successful. His unique attack speed interactions undercut the core identity that we intended to reinforce. The items and masteries that scale best with his new direction provide early- and mid-game power rather than late-game power, warping his power curve. More importantly, the ability to move in between attacks is essential for him to serve as most of his team’s damage output. He needs to be able to keep up with a moving teamfight, or else his opponents simply avoid his range and his allies can’t rely on his damage output as the primary or potentially only major damage dealer on a team.

Given that prior to the update, Kog’Maw was a unique and sustainable design that represented a strong long-term direction for the champion, we are partially reverting his update.

Specifically, his W will no longer break the attack speed cap, apply only half damage from AD, or increase attack speed gained from items, and we’ll be looking at tweaks to his other basic spells to support that direction. We are not reverting changes to his ultimate, however.

One point on other champion updates: we are reverting Kog’Maw because we believe that his pre-update state was a successful kit which hit our goals for champions in general and for Kog in particular, not simply because the update didn’t achieve its goals. We have no current plans to revert any other updates, as there aren’t other similar cases where reversion would bring us to a long-term direction.

Painful feelings are, by their very nature, temporary. They will weaken over time as long as we don’t prolong or amplify them through resistance or avoidance. The only way to eventually free ourselves from debilitating pain, therefore, is to be with it as it is. The only way out is through.
—  Kristin Neff

Fifty-five years ago today, 16 August 1960, in Harri/Beatles History, The Beatles whose lineup then consisted of John, Paul, George, Pete Best & Stuart Sutcliffe,travel to Hamburg from Liverpool to start their residency there. Manager, Allan Williams, along with his wife, Beryl chaffeured them in a green mini-van and their travel was cramped & uncomfortable.

“It was cramped. The van didn’t even have seats; we had to sit on our amplifiers. We drove down to Harwich and got the boat to the Hook of Holland. Driving through Holland, I remember we stopped at Arnhem where all the people had parachuted out to their deaths (another little Winston Churchill trick). There were thousands of white crosses in the cemetery” - George, The Beatles Anthology

Images: George and Paul, Hamburg, 1960
John, Paul, George, Pete & Stuart with Allan and Beryl Williams and Lord Woodbine at Arnhem war memorial, 16 August 1960

while both of those fusions seem confident each one is basically just a big display of pearl and amethyst’s insecurities. Sugilite is impulsive and lashes out, sardonyx has an air of arrogance about her and is literally putting on an act. I think that’s due to garnet being more of an amplifier in fusions that aren’t just her.
—  trashpislazuli (x)