walt disney animated features

10

Saludos Amigos

19 of x in animated feature film history
Release: Aug. 24th, 1942
Country: USA
Director: Norman Ferguson, Wilfred Jackson, Jack Kinney, Hamilton Luske, William Roberts

“Set in Latin America, Saludos Amigos is made up of four different segments. 

Pedro involves the title character, a small airplane from an airport near Santiago, Chile, engaging in his very first flight. In another segment, American tourist Donald Duck visits Lake Titicaca and meets an obstinate llama. Gaucho Goofy shows American cowboy Goofy getting taken mysteriously to the Argentine pampas to learn the ways of the native gauchoAquarela do Brasil (or "Watercolor of Brazil”), the finale, involves brand-new character José Carioca from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing Donald Duck around South America.

In early 1941, before U.S. entry into World War II, the United States Department of State commissioned a Disney goodwill tour of South America, intended to lead to a movie to be shown in the US, Central, and South America as part of the Good Neighbor Policy. Disney was chosen for this because several Latin American governments had close ties with Nazi Germany, and the US government wanted to counteract those ties. Mickey Mouse and other Disney characters were popular in Latin America, and Walt Disney acted as ambassador. 

The tour, facilitated by Nelson Rockefeller, took Disney and a group of roughly twenty composers, artists, technicians, etc. to South America, mainly to Brazil and Argentina, but also to Chile and Peru. The film itself was given federal loan guarantees, because the Disney studio had over-expanded and was struggling with labor unrest at the time.

The film included live-action sequences featuring modern Latin American cities with skyscrapers and fashionably dressed residents. This surprised many US viewers, and contributed to a changing impression of Latin America. Film historian Alfred Charles Richard Jr. has commented that Saludo Amigos ‘did more to cement a community of interest between peoples of the Americas in a few months than the State Department had in fifty years.’

It garnered positive reviews and was only reissued once, in 1949, when it was shown on a double bill with the first reissue of Dumbo.

The film also inspired Chilean cartoonist René Ríos Boettiger to create Condorito, one of Latin America’s most ubiquitous cartoon characters. Ríos perceived that the character Pedro, a small, incapable airplane, was a slight to Chileans and created a comic that could supposedly rival Disney’s comic characters.“


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6

‘A Dream Come True and a Career Curtailed:

The True-Life Fairy Tale of Adriana Caselotti, the Voice of Snow White’

by Brian Sibley, via Independent.co.uk

If the animated princess in the fairy tale represented a child-like innocence and naive goodness Adriana Caselotti - even well into her old age - still embodied those qualities. In our more cynical age, there were those who dismissed her as eccentric, or, worse, as plain batty. But she preserved and defended the image of the character she helped to create and took great joy in being loved for what was a unique contribution to cinema history.

She was 18 years old when Walt Disney embarked on a revolutionary project: the world’s first feature-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Not only had no one attempted such a film, but no one knew whether audiences would sit through a 90-minute “cartoon”. However, Disney believed that as long as his artists could create characters with believable personalities, the film would succeed.

The search for someone to speak and sing for Snow White began in 1934 when Disney’s casting director, Roy Scott, sought the advice of Guido Caselotti, a Los Angeles singing teacher. His younger daughter, Adriana, picked up the telephone extension while they were speaking and heard Scott asking her father if he knew of a little girl who could speak as a child and yet could sing operatic-style songs.

The eavesdropper immediately interrupted the conversation with a request that she might try out for the part, followed by a demonstration of her best coloratura trills. She was the first person to be auditioned for the role.

Since the part was intended for a 14-year-old, Adriana Caselotti knocked two years off her age and told Disney’s musical director, Frank Churchill, that she was only 16. When she sight-read Churchill’s song Someday My Prince Will Come, Walt Disney (who was listening behind a screen, so as to concentrate on the voice without being distracted by the singer’s appearance) felt sure that he had found his Snow White. That said, no fewer than 148 other hopefuls were auditioned!

It was a remarkable vocal performance: her singing was exquisite and her rendition of the dialogue was full of naivete, gentleness and compassion. She was paid $20 a day for her work on Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and her total earnings for the film were just $970, although the film went on to earn millions of dollars for Disney. It was only when, uninvited, she managed to sneak into the film’s rapturously-received premiere, in December 1937, that she realized she had taken part in something that was destined for enduring fame. However, none of the actors who spoke for the characters was credited on the film.

For Adriana Caselotti, being Snow White was a once-in-a-lifetime job; in different circumstances it might have brought her great stardom. Jack Benny wanted her as a guest star on his radio show, but Disney vetoed the appearance, writing, “I’m sorry, but that voice can’t be used anywhere. I don’t want to spoil the illusion of Snow White.” And, whilst Caselotti always hoped that Disney would find her another screen role, he wisely knew that the voice of Snow White was unique and should never be used again. Her only other cinematic contribution, for which she was paid $100, was to sing the falsetto line “Wherefore Art Thou, Romeo", in the Tin Man’s song in The Wizard of Oz.

Later, Disney sent her on film-promotion tours, dressed as Snow White and accompanied by Pinto Colvig, who spoke for the dwarfs Sleepy and Grumpy. Adriana Caselotti confided to me that on one tour she and Colvig had a fling - the idea of a romance between Snow White and Grumpy is certainly an intriguing one.

In 1938, Caselotti and the actor who voiced Prince Charming unsuccessfully sued Disney and RCA (for $200,000 and $100,000, respectively) for a share of soundtrack-record profits. After this episode, though, she appeared to have been fairly loyal to Disney for the rest of her life.

Gracious and generous-hearted, Caselotti lived out the role of Snow White for the rest of her life: singing Whistle While You Work to strangers in the street, allowing herself to be photographed in the famous costume and permitting the public cataloging of her marriages to four Prince Charmings.

But despite making only one movie, Adriana Caselotti nevertheless secured for herself a kind of immortality. The last time I left her, she remarked that Snow White would never die; then, with a laugh, she added: “And when I’m in that coffin, d'you know what you’ll hear? Someday My Prince Will Come, because you see my voice will live for ever.”

Adriana Caselotti, actress: born in Bridgeport, Connecticut on May 6, 1916; died in Los Angeles January 18, 1997. R.I.P. Adriana!

10

The Jungle Book

136 in x of animated feature film history
Release: Oct. 18th, 1967
Country: USA
Director: Wolfgang Reitherman

“The Jungle Book was inspired by the 1894 book of the same name by English author Rudyard Kipling. Directed by Wolfgang Reitherman, it was the last film to be produced by Walt Disney, who died during its production. The plot follows Mowgli, a feral child raised in the Indian jungle by wolves, as his friends Bagheera the panther and Baloo the bear try to convince him to leave the jungle before the evil tiger Shere Khan arrives.

After The Sword in the Stone was released, storyman Bill Peet claimed to Walt Disney that ‘we [the animation department] can do more interesting animal characters’ and suggested that Kipling’s The Jungle Book could be used for the studio’s next film. Disney agreed and Peet created an original treatment, with little supervision, as he had done with One Hundred and One Dalmatians and The Sword in the Stone. However, after the disappointing reaction to The Sword in the Stone, Walt Disney decided to become more involved in the story than he had been with the past two films, with his nephew Roy E. Disney saying that ‘[he] certainly influenced everything about it. (…) With Jungle Book, he obviously got hooked on the jungle and the characters that lived there.’

Peet decided to follow closely the dramatic, dark, and sinister tone of Kipling’s book, which is about the struggles between animals and man. However, the film’s writers decided to make the story more straightforward, as the novel is very episodic, with Mowgli going back and forth from the jungle to the Man-Village, and Peet felt that Mowgli returning to the Man-Village should be the ending for the film. Some plot points were taken from Kipling’s 1895 novel The Second Jungle Book. 

Disney was not pleased with how the story was turning out, as he felt it was too dark for family viewing and insisted on script changes. Peet refused, and after a long argument, Peet left the Disney studio in January 1964. Disney then assigned Larry Clemmons as his new writer and one of the four story men for the film, giving Clemmons a copy of Kipling’s book, and telling him: ‘The first thing I want you to do is not to read it.’ Clemmons still looked at the novel, and thought it was too disjointed and without continuity, needing adaptations to fit a film script. Although much of Bill Peet’s work was discarded, the personalities of the characters remained in the final film.

Many familiar voices inspired the animators in their creation of the characters and helped them shape their personalities. This use of familiar voices for key characters was a rarity in Disney’s past films. The staff was shocked to hear that a wise cracking comedian, Phil Harris was going to be in a Kipling film. Disney suggested Harris after meeting him at a party. Harris improvised most of his lines, as he considered the scripted lines ‘didn’t feel natural’. After Harris was cast, Disneyland Records president Jimmy Johnson suggested Disney to get Louis Prima as King Louie, as he ‘felt that Louis would be great as foil’. Walt also cast other prominent actors such as George Sanders as Shere Khan and Sebastian Cabot as Bagheera.

David Bailey was originally cast as Mowgli, but his voice changed during production, leading Bailey to not fit the ‘young innocence of Mowgli’s character’ at which the producers were aiming. Thus director Wolfgang Reitherman cast his son Bruce, who had just voiced Christopher Robin in Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree. The animators shot footage of Bruce as a guide for the character’s performance.

The characterization of the orangutan King Louie has frequently been cited (including by Anthony Edward Schiappa, Susan Miller, and Greg Rode) as a racial stereotype, especially given the political and civil rights climates in America during the time this film was released. Initially, the producers considered famous jazz musician Louis Armstrong for the role, but to avoid the likely controversy that would result from casting a black person to voice an ape, they instead chose Italian-American musician Louis Prima.

Longtime Disney collaborator Terry Gilkyson was brought in to write the songs for the film. Gilkyson delivered several complete songs which were faithful in tone to Rudyard Kipling’s novel, but Walt Disney felt that his efforts were too dark. The Sherman Brothers were brought in to do a complete rewrite, on the condition that they not read Kipling’s book. The only piece of Gilkyson’s work which survived to the final film was his upbeat tune ‘The Bare Necessities’, which was liked by the rest of the film crew. Walt Disney asked the Shermans to ‘find scary places and write fun songs’ for their compositions, and frequently brought them to storyline sessions.

In the original book, the vultures are grim and evil characters who feast on the dead. Disney lightened it up by having the vultures bearing a physical and vocal resemblance to The Beatles, including the signature mop-top haircut. It was also planned to have the members of the band to both voice the characters and sing their song, ‘That’s What Friends Are For’. However, the Beatles member John Lennon’s refusal to work on animated films in that period led to the idea being discarded. The casting of the vultures still brought a British Invasion musician, Chad Stuart of the duo Chad & Jeremy.

The Jungle Book was released in October 1967, just 10 months after Walt’s death. Produced on a budget of $4 million, the film was a massive success, finishing 1967 as the fourth highest-grossing movie of the year. The Jungle Book received positive reviews upon release, undoubtedly influenced by a nostalgic reaction to the death of Disney. Life magazine referred to it as “the best thing of its kind since Dumbo, another short, bright, unscary and blessedly uncultivated cartoon.’ The song ‘The Bare Necessities’ was nominated for Best Song at the 40th Academy Awards, losing to ‘Talk to the Animals’ from Doctor Dolittle. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences president Gregory Peck lobbied extensively for this film to be nominated for Best Picture, but was unsuccessful.

According to Elsie Kipling Baimbridge, Rudyard Kipling’s daughter, ‘Mowgli’ is pronounced ‘MAU-glee’ (first syllable rhymes with cow), not ‘MOH-glee’ (first syllable rhymes with go). She reportedly never forgave Walt Disney for the gaffe.

After a studio screening of the finished film Walt Disney’s personal nurse Hazel George came up to animator Ollie Johnston with tears in her eyes and told him that the final shot where Bagheera and Baloo walk off into the sunset was perfect and that it was ‘just the way that Walt had gone out.’”

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FIRST POSTED: 5/15/17

6

John Favreau’s The Jungle Book- Bagheera the Black Panther

The Jungle Book was released in 2016 by Walt Disney Pictures, the noted creators of the classic 1967 animated feature film. Part live-action, part-CGI, the film was hailed as a benchmark for computer-generated realism in animation in regards to both rendering and motion-capture with the various animals and their associated actors. The tale follows Mowgli, an orphaned boy living in a jungle with several animal guardians. He must avoid the tiger Shere Khan and seek to find his place in a world where many feel he does not belong.

Bagheera, voiced by Ben Kingsley, is Mowgli’s teacher, and acts as the compassionate, patient contrast to Shere Khan’s fearsome demeanor. He is fiercely protective of Mowgli, and the reason the boy survives as a child after he finds him abandoned in the jungle.  

10

Sleeping Beauty

75 in x of animated feature film history
Release: Jan. 29th, 1959
Country: USA
Director: Clyde Geronimi, Les Clark, Eric Larson, Wolfgang Reitherman

“Sleeping Beauty was the 16th film released from Walt Disney, and was the first animated film to be photographed in the Super Technirama 70 widescreen process.

Princess Aurora is cursed by the evil witch Maleficent, who declares that before the sun sets on Aurora’s 16th birthday she will die by pricking her finger on the spindle of a spinning wheel. To try to prevent this, the king places her into hiding, in the care of three fairies. They raise Aurora as their own, calling her Briar Rose and letting her know nothing of her true identity. On the day of her 16th birthday, she unknowingly meets her betrothed prince, as well as reignites Maleficent’s wrath. 

The name given to the princess by her royal birth parents is ‘Aurora’, as it was in the original Tchaikovsky ballet. In hiding, she is called Briar Rose, the name of the princess in the Brothers Grimm’s version. Prince Phillip has the distinction of being the first Disney prince to have a name.

Following the critical and commercial success of Cinderella, writing for Sleeping Beauty began in early 1951. Partial story elements originated from discarded ideas for Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Cinderella. By the middle of 1953, director Wilfred Jackson had recorded the dialogue, assembled a story reel, and was to commence for preliminary animation, but Walt Disney decided to throw out the meeting sequence between Briar Rose and Phillip, delaying the film from its initial 1955 release date.

In December 1953, Jackson suffered a heart attack, by which directing animator Eric Larson of Disney’s Nine Old Men took over as director. Disney instructed Larson that the picture was to be a ‘moving illustration, the ultimate in animation’ and added that he didn’t care how long it would take. Because of the delays, the release date was again pushed back many times. Milt Kahl would blame Walt because ‘he wouldn’t have story meetings. He wouldn’t get the damn thing moving.’ Relatively late in production, Disney removed Larson as the supervising director, and was replaced with Clyde Geronimi.

The artistic style originated when John Hench observed the famed unicorn tapestries at the Cloisters located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.

For Sleeping Beauty, Eyvind Earle said he ‘felt totally free to put my own style’ into the paintings he based on Hench’s drawings. Furthermore, Earle found inspiration in the Italian Renaissance as well as Persian art and Japanese prints. When Geronimi became the supervising director, Earle and Geronimi entered furious creative divisions. Geronimi commented that he felt Earle’s paintings ‘lacked the mood in a lot of things. All that beautiful detail in the trees, the bark, and all that, that’s all well and good, but who the hell’s going to look at that?’

Because of the artistic depth of Earle’s backgrounds, it was decided for the characters to be stylized so it can appropriately match. While the layout artists and animators were impressed with Earles’s paintings, they eventually grew depressed at working with a style that many of them regarded as too cold, too flat, and too modernist for a fairy tale. Nevertheless, Walt insisted on the visual design. Marc Davis drew from Czechoslovakian religious paintings when designing Maleficent.

In 1952, Mary Costa was approached by Walter Schumann who told her, ‘I don’t want to shock you, but I’ve been looking (for Aurora) for three years, and I want to set up an audition. Would you do it?’ Costa accepted the offer and landed the role. Marc Davis served as directing animator over the title character with the character’s figure and features based on those of Audrey Hepburn as well as her voice actress, Mary Costa. Helene Stanley was the live action reference.

During its original release in January 1959, Sleeping Beauty earned approximately $5.3 million, not reaching its production costs of $6 million. The high production costs, coupled with the underperformance of much of the rest of Disney’s 1959–1960 release slate, resulted in the company posting its first annual loss in a decade for fiscal year 1960, and there were massive lay-offs throughout the animation department.

At first, the film had mixed reviews from critics. Nevertheless, the film has sustained a strong following and is today hailed as one of the best animated films ever made. Like Alice in Wonderland, which was not initially successful either, Sleeping Beauty was never re-released theatrically in Walt Disney’s lifetime. However, it had many re-releases in theaters over the decades.

This was the last Disney adaptation of a fairy tale for some years due to its mixed critical reception and performance at the box office; the studio did not return to the genre until 30 years later, with the release of The Little Mermaid in 1989.”

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Sleeping Beauty is available on YouTube.

7

John Favreau’s The Jungle Book- Shere Khan, the Bengal Tiger

The Jungle Book was released in 2016 by Walt Disney Pictures, the noted creators of the classic 1967 animated feature film. Part live-action, part-CGI, the film was hailed as a benchmark for computer-generated realism in animation in regards to both rendering and motion-capture with the various animals and their associated actors. The tale follows Mowgli, an orphaned boy living in a jungle with several animal guardians. He must avoid the tiger Shere Khan and seek to find his place in a world where many feel he does not belong.

Shere Khan, voiced by Idris Elba, is a scarred Bengal tiger, the largest of the jungle cats. He is a feared predator, although his many wounds come from his interqactions with humans. Thusly, he rules much of the jungle through fear, but himself fears and hates humans. He is hell-bent on killing Mowgli, as he establishes no human may live in the jungle. 

10

Alice in Wonderland

46 in x of animated feature film history
Release: Jul. 26th, 1951
Country: USA
Director: Clyde Geronimi, Wilfred Jackson, Hamilton Luske

“On a golden afternoon, young Alice follows a White Rabbit, who disappears down a nearby rabbit hole. Quickly following him, she tumbles into the burrow - and enters the merry, topsy-turvy world of Wonderland. Memorable songs and characters (the Mad Hatter, the Cheshire Cat, Tweedle-Dee and Tweedle-Dum)  highlight Alice’s journey, which culminates in a madcap encounter with the Queen of Hearts - and her army of playing cards.

The history of Walt Disney’s association with Lewis Carroll’s Alice books (Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass) stretches all the way back to his childhood. Like many children of the time he was familiar with them and had read them as a school boy. In 1923, when Disney was still a 21-year-old filmmaker trying to make a name for himself at the Laugh-O-Gram Studio in Kansas City, one of his shorts was Alice’s Wonderland, which was loosely inspired by the Alice books. The short featured a live-action girl (Virginia Davis) interacting in an animated world. Disney left for Hollywood and used the film as a sort of pilot to show to potential distributors. Margaret J. Winkler of Winkler Pictures agreed to distribute the Alice Comedies, and Disney partnered with his older brother Roy O. Disney and re-hired Kansas City co-workers including Ub Iwerks, Rudolph Ising, Friz Freleng, Carman Maxwell and Hugh Harman to form Disney Bros. Studios (later Walt Disney Productions). The series began in 1924 before being retired in 1927.

In 1938, after the enormous success of Snow White, Disney revived the idea of making an Alice feature and officially registered the title Alice in Wonderland with the Motion Picture Association of America and hired storyboard artist Al Perkins and art director David S. Hall to develop the story and concept art for the film. A storyreel was complete in 1939, but Walt was not pleased as he felt that Hall’s drawings resembled original illustrator Tenniel’s drawings too closely and that the overall tone of Perkins’ script was too grotesque and dark. Walt shelved production on Alice in Wonderland shortly after the screening.

In 1945, shortly after the war ended, Disney once again revived Alice in Wonderland and assigned British author Aldous Huxley (Brave New World) to re-write the script. However, Walt felt that Huxley’s version was too much of a literal adaptation of Carroll’s book. Background artist Mary Blair submitted some concept drawings for Alice in Wonderland. Blair’s paintings moved away from Tenniel’s sketchy illustrations by taking a modernist stance, using bold and unreal colors. Walt liked Blair’s designs, and the script was re-written to focus on comedy, music, and the whimsical side to Carroll’s book.

Through various drafts of the script, many sequences that were present in Carroll’s book drifted in and out of the story. This resulted in many characters being written out. The Doorknob was the only character in the film that did not appear in Carroll’s books.

In an effort to retain some of Carroll’s imaginative verses and poems, Disney commissioned top songwriters to compose songs built around them for use in the film. A record number of potential songs were written for the film, based on Carroll’s verses—over 30—and many of them found a way into the film, if only for a few brief moments. The original song that Alice was to sing in the beginning was titled ‘Beyond the Laughing Sky’. However, Kathryn Beaumont had difficulty singing, and it was decided that starting the film off with a slow ballad would be a little risky on audiences. The song, like so many other dropped songs, was not used by the producers. However, the composition was kept and the lyrics were changed. It later became the title song for Peter Pan (which was in production at the same time), ‘The Second Star to the Right’.

At the time, these creative decisions were met with great criticism from Carroll fans, as well as from British film and literary critics who accused Disney of ‘Americanizing’ a great work of English literature. Disney was not surprised by the critical reception to Alice in Wonderland – his version of Alice was intended for large family audiences, not literary critics – but despite all the long years of thought and effort, the film met with a lukewarm response at the box office and was a sharp disappointment in its initial release. This was the first Disney theatrical film to be shown on television, in 1954.

The film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Scoring of a Musical Picture, but lost to An American in Paris.

Almost two decades after its original release, Alice in Wonderland suddenly found itself in vogue with the times. In fact, because of Mary Blair’s art direction and the long-standing association of Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland with drug culture, the feature was re-discovered as something of a ‘head film’ among the college-aged and was shown in various college towns across the country. The Disney company resisted this association, but then, in 1974, the Disney company gave Alice in Wonderland its first theatrical re-release ever. This re-release was so successful it warranted a subsequent re-release in 1981. By the 1980s, the initial consensus of the film proved to be outdated. The film gained critical acclaim and became one of the most popular Disney movies of all time.”

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5

John Favreau’s The Jungle Book- Kaa, the Indian Python

The Jungle Book was released in 2016 by Walt Disney Pictures, the noted creators of the classic 1967 animated feature film. Part live-action, part-CGI, the film was hailed as a benchmark for computer-generated realism in animation in regards to both rendering and motion-capture with the various animals and their associated actors. The tale follows Mowgli, an orphaned boy living in a jungle with several animal guardians. He must avoid the tiger Shere Khan and seek to find his place in a world where many feel he does not belong.

Kaa, voiced by Scarlett Johansson, is a 100-foot Indian Python, intent on devouring Mowgli. She hypnotizes Mowgli in an attempt to swallow him, but is stopped by the combined efforts of Baloo and Bagheera. 

8

Pinocchio

12 in x of animated feature film history
Release: Feb. 7th, 1940
Country: USA
Director: Ben Sharpsteen, Hamilton Luske, etc.

Pinocchio was intended to be Disney’s third film, after Bambi. However due to difficulties with Bambi, it was put on hold and Pinocchio was moved ahead in production.

The plot of the film involves an old wood-carver named Geppetto who carves a puppet named Pinocchio. The puppet is brought to life by a blue fairy, who informs him that he can become a real boy if he proves himself to be ‘brave, truthful, and unselfish’. Pinocchio’s efforts to become a real boy involve encounters with a host of unsavory characters.

Early scenes animated by Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston show that Pinocchio’s design was exactly like that of a real wooden puppet. Animator Milt Kahl felt that Thomas, Johnston and Moore were 'rather obsessed with the idea of this boy being a wooden puppet’ and felt that they should 'forget that he was a puppet and get a cute little boy; you can always draw the wooden joints and make him a wooden puppet afterwards.' Despite the iconic nature of the scene in which Pinocchio’s nose grows, it only happens once in the film.

Disney urged the writers to evolve Pinocchio into a more innocent, naïve personality that reflected this design. However, Disney found that the new Pinocchio was too helpless. Therefore, in the summer of 1938 Disney and his story team established the character of the cricket. Originally the cricket was only a minor character that Pinocchio killed by squashing him with a mallet and that later returned as a ghost.

Pinocchio marked the first time an animated film used celebrities as voice actors. Disney cast popular singer Cliff Edwards, also known as 'Ukelele Ike,’ as Jiminy Cricket. Another voice actor recruited was Mel Blanc, most famous for voicing many of the characters in the Looney Tunes cartoons from Warner Bros. Blanc was hired to perform the voice of Gideon the Cat. However, it was decided that Gideon would be mute, so all of Blanc’s recorded dialogue was deleted except for a solitary hiccup.

Pinocchio went into release accompanied by generally positive reviews. Although it became the first animated feature to win a competitive Academy Award – winning two for Best Music, Original Score and for Best Music, Original Song for 'When You Wish Upon A Star’ – it was initially a box office disaster. It eventually made a profit in its 1945 reissue.

Pinocchio was a groundbreaking achievement in the area of effects animation, giving realistic movement to vehicles, machinery and natural elements such as rain, lightning, snow, smoke, shadows and water. Many film historians consider this to be the film that most closely approaches technical perfection of all the Disney animated features.”

 

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4

John Favreau’s The Jungle Book- Akela and Raksha, the Indian Wolves

The Jungle Book was released in 2016 by Walt Disney Pictures, the noted creators of the classic 1967 animated feature film. Part live-action, part-CGI, the film was hailed as a benchmark for computer-generated realism in animation in regards to both rendering and motion-capture with the various animals and their associated actors. The tale follows Mowgli, an orphaned boy living in a jungle with several animal guardians. He must avoid the tiger Shere Khan and seek to find his place in a world where many feel he does not belong.

Raksha, voiced by Lupita Nyong'o, is Mowgli’s adoptive mother, who raises him after he is left with the wolf pack as an infant. She is fiercely protective of all of her cubs, adoptive or otherwise, and shelters them from Shere Khan. Akela, voiced by Giancarlo Esposito, is the leader of the pack, a sly and honorable elder wolf.