wake turbulence

Often our atmosphere’s transparency masks the beautiful flows around us. This spectacular image shows a flight landing in Munich just after sunrise. Low-hanging clouds get sliced by the airplane’s passage and curl into its wake. The swirls are a result of the plane’s wingtip vortices, which wrap from the high-pressure underside of the wing toward the low-pressure upperside. The vortices stretch behind in the plane’s wake, creating turbulence that can be dangerous to following planes. In fact, these vortices are a major determining factor in the frequency of take-off and landing on a given runway. The larger a plane, the larger its wingtip vortices and the more time it takes for the turbulence of its passage to dissipate to a safe level for the next aircraft. (Image credit: T. Harsch; submitted by Larry S.)

chy_leigh In the wake of a turbulent week… Love is always the best medicine. This is Drift. Drift is a my friend. He came up to me the other night and insisted on this hug. He knew I️ needed one. And I️ accepted.
Accept love when you need it, Friends. You deserve to be valued and treated with respect and we all need a shoulder to lean on sometimes. Thank you @christophrwood for introducing me to this (not so) little gentleman and bringing to our home on set. I️ do love him so. (Don’t know if me or #AlexDanvers needed this more) #puppylove #evenabadassneedsahug

Evak’s First Vacation

Originally posted by softly-evak

Can’t stop thinking about what their first trip somewhere would look like (inspired by Henrik’s trip w/ his friends and Lea)

  • Arguing about what to pack and what stays (“Isak, you’re not allowed to take textbooks with you. Like, I’m actually offended that you thought this was an option.” “Fine, but you need to put at least four hoodies back. It’s going to be so hot there.” “But my aesthetic”)

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Malcolm Young, 6/1/53 - 18/11/17

Hello everyone,

I know this blog’s been inactive for years and years, but in light of recent events I feel a need to say something.

Malcolm was a special soul in rock n’ roll, one that pioneered countless signature riffs in AC/DC’s repertoire. He was the backbone, the foundation, of the band, and there will be none quite like him.

This comes in the wake of a very turbulent time for band, what with various members leaving and Angus remaining the sole founding member.
Let us remember him for all that he has given us and the countless bands and music he has inspired. Let us not forget the dedication and hard work he contributed to his band, and to music in general.

Let me rock, let me roll; let me rock in peace.

Originally posted by armoniapertutti


words - 1,670

featuring - minhyuk x reader x jinwoo

genre - soulmate! au

a/n - first time trying to write a soulmate au, hopefully this turned out okay?

           you and your soulmate are born with matching birthmarks

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Emirates A380 over Arabian Sea on Jan 7th 2017, wake turbulence sends business jet in uncontrolled descent.

An Emirates Airbus A380-800, registration A6-EUL performing flight EK-412 from Dubai (United Arab Emirates) to Sydney,NS (Australia), was enroute at FL350 about 630nm southeast of Muscat (Oman) and about 820nm northwest of Male (Maldives) at about 08:40Z when a business jet passed underneath in opposite direction. The A380 continued the flight to Sydney without any apparent incident and landed safely.

The business jet, a MHS Aviation (Munich) Canadair Challenger 604 registration D-AMSC performing flight MHV-604 from Male (Maldives) to Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) with 9 people on board, was enroute at FL340 over the Arabian Sea about 630nm southeast of Muscat when an Airbus A380-800 was observed by the crew passing 1000 feet above. After passing underneath the A380 at about 08:40Z the crew lost control of the aircraft as result of wake turbulence from the A380 and was able to regain control of the aircraft only after losing about 10,000 feet. The airframe experienced very high G-Loads during the upset, a number of occupants received injuries during the upset. After the crew managed to stabilize the aircraft the crew decided to divert to Muscat (Oman), entered Omani Airspace at 14:10L (10:10Z) declaring emergency and reporting injuries on board and continued for a landing in Muscat at 15:14L (11:14Z) without further incident. A number of occupants were taken to a hospital, one occupant was reported with serious injuries. The aircraft received damage beyond repair and was written off.

Oman’s Civil Aviation Authority had told Omani media on Jan 8th 2017, that a private German registered aircraft had performed an emergency landing in Muscat on Jan 7th 2017 declaring emergency at 14:10L (10:10Z) and landing in Muscat at 15:14L (11:14Z). The crew had declared emergency due to injuries on board and problems with an engine (a number of media subsequently reported the right hand engine had failed, another number of media reported the left hand engine had failed).

According to information on March 4th 2017 the CL-604 passed 1000 feet below an Airbus A380-800 while enroute over the Arabian Sea, when a short time later (1-2 minutes) the aircraft encountered wake turbulence sending the aircraft in uncontrolled roll turning the aircraft around at least 3 times (possibly even 5 times), both engines flamed out, the Ram Air Turbine could not deploy possibly as result of G-forces and structural stress, the aircraft lost about 10,000 feet until the crew was able to recover the aircraft exercising raw muscle force, restart the engines and divert to Muscat.

No radar data are available for the business jet, it is therefore unclear when the business jet departed from Male and where the actual “rendezvous” with the A380 took place. Based on the known time of the occurrence at 08:40Z as well as the time when the CL-604 reached Omani Airspace declaring emergency and landed in Muscat, as well as which A380s were enroute over the Arabian Sea around that time the most likely A380 was EK-412 and the “rendezvous” took place 630nm southeast of Muscat, which provides the best match of remaining flying time (2.5 hours) and distance for the CL-604 also considering rather strong northwesterly winds (headwind for the CL-604, tailwind for the A380s) - this analysis was confirmed on Mar 23rd 2017 by BFU information.

On Jan 7th 2017 there were also other A380-800s crossing the Arabian Sea from northwest to southeast: a Qantas A380-800, registration VH-OQJ performing flight QF-2 from Dubai to Sydney, was enrooted at FL330 about 1000nm southeast of Muscat and about 400nm northwest of Male at 08:40Z. An Emirates A380-800 registration A6-EDO performing flight EK-406 from Dubai to Melbourne, VI (Australia) was enrooted at FL350 about 470nm southeast of Muscat at 08:40Z. Another Emirates A380-800 registration A6-EUH performing flight EK-424 from Dubai to Perth, WA (Australia), was enrooted at FL350 about 350nm southeast of Muscat at 08:40z.

Air Traffic Control all around the globe have recently been instructed to exercise particular care with A380s crossing above other aircraft.

A number of Wake Turbulence Encounters involving A380s already reported:

Incident: Virgin Australia B738 near Bali on Sep 14th 2012, wake turbulence from A380
Incident: Air France A320 and Emirates A388 near Frankfurt on Oct 14th 2011, wake turbulence
Accident: British Airways A320 and Qantas A388 near Braunschweig on Oct 16th 2011, wake turbulence injures 4
Report: Antonov A124, Singapore A388 and Air France B744 near Frankfurt on Feb 10th 2011, wake turbulence by A388 causes TCAS RA
Report: REX SF34 at Sydney on Nov 3rd 2008, wake turbulence injures one
Incident: Armavia A320 near Tiblisi on Jan 11th 2009, turbulence at cruise level thought to be A380 wake

On Mar 18th 2017 an EASA safety information bulletin released stating:

With the increase of the overall volume of air traffic and enhanced navigation precision, wake turbulence encounters in the en-route phase of flight above 10 000 feet (ft) mean sea level (MSL) have progressively become more frequent in the last few years.

The aim of this SIB is to enhance the awareness of pilots and air traffic controllers of the risks associated with wake turbulence encounters in the en-route phase of flight and provide recommendations with the purpose of mitigating the associated risks.

The draft reasons:

The basic effects of wake turbulence encounter on a following aeroplane are induced roll, vertical acceleration (can be negative) and loss or gain of altitude. The greatest danger is an induced roll that can lead to a loss of control and possible injuries to cabin crew and passengers. The vortices are also most hazardous to following aircraft during the take-off, initial climb, final approach and landing.

However, en-route, the vortices evolves in altitudes at which the rate of decay leads to a typical persistence of 2-3 minutes, with a sink rate of 2-3 metres per second. Wakes will also be transported by wind.

Considering the high operating air speeds in cruise, wake can be encountered up to 25 nautical miles (NM) behind the generating aeroplane, with the most significant encounters reported within a distance of 15 NM. This is larger than in approach or departure phases of flight.

The encounters are mostly reported by pilots as sudden and unexpected events. The awareness of hazardous traffic configuration and risk factors is therefore of particular importance to anticipate, avoid and manage possible wake encounters. The draft issues following recommendations.

As precautionary measures, operators and pilots should be aware that:

- As foreseen in Reg. 965/2012 AMC1 to CAT.OP.MPA.170, the announcement to passengers should include an invitation to keep their seat belts fastened, even when the seat belt sign is off, unless moving around the cabin. This minimises the risk of passenger injury in case of a turbulence encounter en-route (wake or atmospheric).

- As indicated in ICAO PANS-ATM, for aeroplanes in the heavy wake turbulence category or for Airbus A380-800, the word “HEAVY” or “SUPER”, respectively, shall be included immediately after the aeroplane call sign in the initial radiotelephony contact between such aeroplanes and ATS units.

- When possible, contrails should be used to visualise wakes and estimate if their flight path brings them across or in close proximity.

- When flying below the tropopause altitude, the likelihood of wake encounter increases. The tropopause altitude varies (between days, between locations).

- Upwind lateral offset should be used if the risk of a wake encounter is suspected.

- Timely selecting seat belt signs to ‘ON’ and instruct cabin crew to secure themselves constitute precautionary measures in case of likely wake encounters.

In case of a wake encounter, pilots should:

- Be aware that it has been demonstrated during flight tests that if the pilot reacts at the first roll motion, when in the core of the vortex, the roll motion could be amplified by this initial piloting action. The result can be a final bank angle greater than if the pilot would not have moved the controls.

- Be aware that in-flight incidents have demonstrated that pilot inputs may exacerbate the unusual attitude condition with rapid roll control reversals carried out in an “out of phase” manner.

- Be aware that if the autopilot is engaged, intentional disconnection can complicate the scenario, and the autopilot will facilitate the recovery.

- Avoid large rudder deflections that can create important lateral accelerations, which could then generate very large forces on the vertical stabiliser that may exceed the structural resistance. Although some recent aircraft types are protected by fly-by-wire systems, use of the rudder does not reduce the severity of the encounter nor does it improve the ease of recovery.

- Make use of specific guidance available through AOM for their specific type(s)/fleet.

ATS providers and air traffic controllers should:

Enhance their awareness about en-route wake turbulence risk, key factors and possible mitigations, based on the information provided in this document and other relevant material. This could be achieved through flyers, e-learning, and refresher training module.

Possible risk mitigations may consist of:

- Make use of the wake turbulence category (WTC) indication in the surveillance label and/or the flight progress strip (whether electronic or paper), and observe closely separated aeroplanes that are at the opposite extremes of the WTC spectrum;

- As the best practice, provide traffic information, advising “CAUTION WAKE TURBULENCE”, when you identify that a ‘HEAVY’ or ‘SUPER HEAVY’ wake category traffic is climbing or descending within 15 NM of another following traffic;

- Manage en-route traffic crossings such as , when possible while preserving safe tactical management of overall traffic in the sector, avoiding to instruct climb or descend to ‘HEAVY’ or ‘SUPER HEAVY’ traffic within 15 NM distance from another following traffic;

- If at all possible, avoid vectoring an aeroplane (particularly if it is LIGHT or MEDIUM category) through the wake of a HEAVY or SUPER HEAVY aeroplane where wake turbulence may exist.


Joint venture with @heart-attack-harry

Chapter 5


It had been almost a week since the party.  A week of not talking to Fiona at all.  She wouldn’t answer me no matter what I did.  

I tried apologizing.


I tried being cute.


I tried being funny.


I thought about going to Starbucks but cornering her at work where she couldn’t escape seemed rude.  So I did the next best thing.  I parked my ass outside of her house and waited until she got home.

I played every game on my phone at least twice.  I organized my Spotify into playlists.  I even went through and cleaned out my contacts.

She finally drove up after four hours.  She slowed when she saw my truck, she knew I was here.  I stepped out onto the street, closing my door and shoving my hands into my pockets.  

She rolled her eyes, I could see it from where I was standing it was so pronounced.  She pulled her car into the driveway and killed the engine.  I waited until she got out, which she took her sweet time doing, I might add.

She locked the door and made her way towards me, looking both ways before she crossed the street.  She folded her arms over her chest,

“Hey.”  She said after a few moments of awkward silence.

If I’d have been smarter I’d have sat in my truck for the last four hours and figured out what I was going to say.  But, I didn’t.

I took a breath,


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Hognesia (Pt. 3), a Sonic Boom fanfic

So, part three of my little drabbling. This piece leans a bit further from the boom!ness and more on the sonamy!ness ;) Sorry that it’s a little longer than the other pieces… been in a good mood so I just kind of kept writing and writing. Anyway, enjoy!!

Part 1 Part 2 Part 4

The meal at Meh Burger started off pretty awkward. Sonic was a bit disheartened to find out that his non-amnesic self didn’t feel anything special for the pink hedgehog across from him. And Amy was silently sulking in the fact that she could have at least had a chance with Sonic while he is in this lost state of his if she had played devil’s advocate instead of being truthful. Amy had her eyes fixed down at her meal, focusing on it to make sure her eating habits were presentable as she cut her burger with a fork and knife. Sonic however was letting his hands do the work, guiding the chili dogs to his mouth where he would mindlessly take a bite, all the while starring at Amy observing her features and behavior.

‘How could I not have a thing for her??’ Sonic thought to himself as he chomped down on his meal. ‘I mean, not me me, but…ugh this is confusing.’ As he watched her eat, he noticed how elegant she was trying to be and though it made her appear even more graceful, he could tell she was slightly forcing it. “What are you doing?”

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Here you can see vortices coming from this 777 due to atmospheric conditions. The fog streamers are at the center of the much larger vortices. You can see fog over the wings for the same reason as the streamers - lowered pressure from the airplane’s wing cutting through the air causes water vapor to instantly condense into fog when humidity is high.

Vortices are part of an aircraft’s wake. Just like a boat’s wake, airplane wakes can cause turbulence and even crashes. There are rules which spell out a minimum distance large and small planes keep from each other to maintain safety from wake turbulence.

The wake vortex is much more powerful than the small streamers suggest. You can hear them at ground level from low flying airplanes. Check the sound out in the following video. (tl;dw: the vortex hits at about 0:40 and there is a very excited girl or two after that.)


Wingtip vortices are the result of high-pressure air from beneath a wing sneaking around the end of the wing to the low-pressure area on top. They trail for long distances behind aircraft, and are, most of the time, an invisible hazard for other aircraft. If you’ve ever sat in a line of airplanes waiting to take off and wondered why there is so much time between subsequent take-offs, wingtip vortices are the answer. The larger a plane, the stronger its vortices are and the greater their effect on a smaller craft. Much of the time between planes taking off (or landing) is to allow the vortices to dissipate so that subsequent aircraft don’t encounter the wake turbulence of their predecessor. Crossing the wake of another plane can cause an unexpected roll that pilots may not be able to safely correct, a factor that’s contributed to major crashes in the past. (Image credits: flugsnug, source video; submitted by entropy-perturbation)

Turbulence theory?

So I’ve been talking with @markificent about all the Turbulence theories and I shared something I noticed with her from the “Fly” mv and I just wanted to post it here to see if anyone else noticed it too!

As you know, Jackson’s character in the Fly & Turbulence MVs is consistently recording everything with his camera.

but in the Fly mv when it comes to the part right before Jinyoung “falls” it only shows FIVE of the members still “flying”

JB & Yugyeom ↑

BamBam & Youngjae ↑

& Mark ↑

All 5 of them, no Jackson ↑

So, when Jinyoung wakes up in the Turbulence Trailer, Jackson’s camera is lying on the ground near him

So maybe this means by some miracle Jackson “survives the crash” as well?

I’m not sure but it’s always bothered me that they didn’t include him on that flying scene and this was the only connection I could make with it.

What do you guys think??

anonymous asked:

I find it very interesting how the Mercury retrograde is taking a toll on everyone's life. however how do you know it is the retrograde? I am a bit skeptical on all of this like how just because Mercury is moving backwards that is causing many unfortunate events to take place

Oh yeah, and it does this three or four times a year. -.-

It’s not actually moving backwards, it just appears to be. It has to do with its orbit compared to our own. 

Here is a snippet from [this article] that might explain things a bit:

“Mercury doesn’t actually move backward. If you do a bit of stargazing, you will see that Mercury appears to move backward, just as the ancient astrologers perceived thousands of years ago. After a while – in Mercury’s case, a three-and-a-half-week period – the planet will reverse itself and move “forward” again.

“Because Mercury is the planet situated closest to the Sun, its orbit is much shorter than Earth’s. About three or four times a year, Mercury speeds past Earth, and that is when we experience a Mercury retrograde period. If you were in a car and another car passed you, you could tell it was going faster than you. But if it slowed down and you then passed it, it would appear that that car was actually going backward. Then when the other car speeds up and passes you again, it kicks up all of the dust in the road. As Mercury speeds by, it is like a train flying past, creating a powerful, turbulent gust of ‘wind’ in its wake. The turbulence and disruption Mercury creates when it retrogrades can affect what we feel on Earth in our everyday lives.”

Basically, Mercury appearing to go backwards is just an optical illusion. As to why it affects us so… [This article] offers a personal insight into why a planet appearing to go backwards makes this many people worry:

“Mercury is not made of mercury. It has a huge core with a very high density, leading astronomers to believe that it’s made mostly of iron. In fact Mercury is believed to have the highest iron content of any planet in the Solar System.

“This is all another way of saying Mercury retrograde means a huge magnet passes between the Earth and the Sun, making its closest pass to our planet at the same time. This may explain why devices act weird, but I think that it also helps explain why the mind gets wonky, such as the tendency to lose things, or to perceive problems as being worse than they are — the nervous system runs on electricity. The mind is a device that is, at least on the physical plane, rooted in electricity and magnetism.

“In my view, the effects of the retrograde are evenly distributed between a perceptual event and one in the world outside the mind. The combined interaction is powerful, the more so for not being easily discernible as a reality or as an effect of the mind. A purely mental phenomenon seems to be associated with a Mercury retrograde effect, so notice how your mind is handling problems or puzzles when they arrive. I have observed that the approach to a problem really does suggest whether and how that problem will be solved.”

I am not sure why it happens myself; as you see, I had to look it up to give you some sort of answer. Regardless - whether I cause it myself by worrying over it, if it has to do with Murphy’s law (“if something can go wrong, it will”), or it actually has an answer that we just haven’t seen yet - I, personally, and many others have felt the effects of the Mercury retrograde in our lives.

Here’s some more information on the Mercury Retrograde:

* = external link / resource

I hope that helps you.

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Fic Request: I need a hurt/comfort or angst fic where Stiles is really sick - maybe cancer or something and Lydia is just super awesome and sits with him through treatment even when it takes hours and it’s boring and gross because he’s throwing up or not feeling good and distracts him with movies or something!

Rating: T

Genre: Angst, Comfort, Established Relationship

Author: californcari

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Marshall wakes from a turbulent slumber and shakes Lily awake. “Marshall, you’ll wake the baby!” Lily exclaims. “Lily, I just had the strangest dream. It felt so real, like some heartless creature rewrote my memories into some sort of alternate reality. Robin and Barney randomly divorced and Tracy died for no reason.” “Marshmallow, thats crazy. Robin and Barney were made for each other, and Ted has earned the right to love Tracy forever. Go back to sleep, it was just a bad dream.”

Submitted by anonymous

This is a NASA photo from a research project to study wake vortex turbulent air currents behind aircraft. The experiment involved C-130 airplanes and smoke generators on the wingtips to observe the downward spiraling currents and their efffect on following planes.