voodoo ceremony

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TIMELINE OF HAITIAN HISTORY

The following list regroups some of the most important dates in Haitian history. Other important instances (such as the complete chronology of the Haitian Revolution) have been omitted to make this list more comprehensible. (Furthermore, this outlined timeline does not go beyond the end of the Duvalierist Regime.) References provided at this end of this page should be used for a fuller analysis of the dates presented. This document ought to be regarded as an introductory tool.

Timeline 

1492-1500: European arrival to Hispaniola (present day Haiti and Dominican Republic); island inhabited by Taino Arawak population 

1492-1560s: Steady decline of Taino population, + or – 86% of population dies within few decades of European contact (original population estimate vary from + or – 1 million to 3.77 million in 1492, to a scarce dozens by the 1560s)

1502: Introduction of first African slaves

1521: First slave revolt in the New World 

1600s: Rise of French Flibustiers culture on Spanish territory 

1664: French West Indian Company administers island of Tortuga

1685: Louis XIV’s Code Noir issued

1697: Treaty of Ryswick, France gets ⅓ of the Western shore of Hispaniola (Saint-Domingue, now Haiti)

1724-1803: French government directly administers Saint-Domingue as its colony

1785-1790: Peak of colonial era; approximately 30, 000 African slaves are imported each year to Saint-Domingue (slave population of about 500, 000 by outbreak of the slave uprising)

1789: Beginning of the French Revolution, hostilities explode in Saint-Domingue between (and among) whites and the gens de couleurs 

1791 (21August): Bois-Caiman Voodoo Ceremony?

1791 (22 August): Slave uprising begins (first in the North)

1793: Gradual abolition of slavery in Saint-Domingue via French commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel

1794 (4 February): National Convention abolishes slavery in all French possessions 

1794-1801: Louverture rises to power in Saint-Domingue

1795: Treaty of Basel – Spain cedes Santo-Domingo to France

1801 (January): Louverture campaigns in Santo-Domingo, now part of the French Empire 

1801 (July); Louverture’s Constitution, partly in reaction to Napoleon seizing power in France 

1801 (November): Moïse rebellion against Louverture

1802: Napoleon’s Leclerc expedition 

1803 (November): French capitulation, Battle of Vertières

1804 (1 January): Haiti proclaims her independence; Jean-Jacques Dessalines becomes the first leader

1806 (October): Assassination of Dessalines

1807-1820: Henri Christophe succeeds Dessalines

1807/11-1820: Haiti secedes between a kingdom in the North (governed by Christophe) and a Republic in the South (presided by Pétion)

1811: Henri Christophe crowns himself Henry 1er, governs the North of Haiti as kingdom until his suicide in 1820

1807-1818: Alexandre Pétion becomes president of Southern Haiti until his death in 1818

1818-1843: Jean-Pierre Boyer is president of Haiti

1820: Boyer reunites the two Haitis after the death of Henri Christophe; annexes the Dominican Republic

1825: Indemnity to France for recognition of independence, originally 150M Francs (at 1789 values)

1826: Boyer’s (particularly unpopular) Rural Code

1838: Indemnity reduced to 90M, advantage tariffs for French commerce maintained

1843: “Liberal” Revolt against Boyer

1844: Dominican Republic declares independence from Haiti (and in1864 from Spain)

1844: Piquet Rebellion 

1844-1915: With few notable exceptions, beginning of a period of political instability

1849-1859: Faustin Soulouque becomes president and crowns himself emperor of Haiti

1879-1888: Presidency of Lysius Salomon

1890s-1915: Greatest period of political instability, sovereignty undermined, less Haitian-owned businesses, social classes tighten; “color question” intensify 

1915-1934: US Marine Occupation, puppet presidencies to serve US and elite interests 

1917-1929: Cacos Wars againts the US Occupation

1919: Death of Caco leader Charlemagne Peralte, photo of dead body paraded by Americans to discourage further resistance 

1920s: Emergence of the Haitian Indigéniste movement

1928: Haitian intellectual Jean Price-Mars publishes Ainsi Parla L’Oncle and strongly criticizes the Haitian elite for their lack of social usefulness 

1930s: “Color question” intensify further; Marine occupation seen as an humiliation  

1934: Departure of Americans, yet political ties remain

1934: Creation of the Haitian Communist Party with members such as Jacques Roumain

1930s-1940s: Noirisme movement “grows out” of Indigénisme

1946: “Revolution of 1946”; victory of Noirisme movement; election of Dumarsais Estimé 

1950: Coup against Estimé

1950-1956: Presidency of Paul Eugène Magloire

1957: Election of 1957; François Duvalier becomes president

1957-1986: Duvalier Dictatorship 

1964: François Duvalier names himself president for life (until 1971)

1971-1986: Jean-Claude succeeds his father as next dictator of Haiti

1986: End of Duvalier dictatorship

1986-?: Interminable transition to democracy

* Please do not copy this list without permission from its authors, that is, both moderators at HH and universalayititoma. Use for educational purposes only. 

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REFERENCES:

Fick, Carolyn E. The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below. Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1990.

Fischer, Sibylle. Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution. Duke University Press, 2004.

Frostin, Charles. Les révoltes blanches à Saint-Domingue aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Haïti avant 1789). Ecole, 1975.

Geggus, David Patrick. Haitian Revolutionary Studies. Indiana University Press, 2002.

James, C. L. R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. Penguin Books Limited, 2001.

Landers, Jane, and Barry Robinson. Slaves, Subjects, and Subversives: Blacks in Colonial Latin America. UNM Press, 2006.

Leyburn, James G. The Haitian People, by James G. Leyburn, Yale University Press, 1948.

Oliver, Jose R. Caciques and Cemi Idols: The Web Spun by Taino Rulers Between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. University of Alabama Press, 2009.

Stone, Erin Woodruff. “America’s First Slave Revolt: Indians and African Slaves in Española, 1500–1534.” Ethnohistory 60, no. 2 (March 20, 2013): 195–217. doi:10.1215/00141801-2018927.

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Haiti, State Against Nation: The Origins and Legacy of Duvalierism. Monthly Review Press, 1990.

Wilson, Samuel M. Hispaniola: Caribbean Chiefdoms in the Age of Columbus. University of Alabama Press, 1990. 

The Haitian Revolution was one of the largest slave rebellions in history. Although it was not the first slave revolt to take place in what was then known as Saint Dominigue, it had one of the greatest impacts on society. The fighting began in August of 1791, but the desire for independence began long before. Fueled by the cruel and inhumane treatment by white slave owners, Slaves would call for a voodoo ceremony to prepare to TAKE their Freedom. During the ceremony, the slaves would call upon the voodoo warrior Spirit, Ogun, and leaders would be selected to lead the revolt. Now contrary to popular belief, Toussaint l’Overture would not be among the first leaders of the rebellion; he would come later. It would be a man named Boukman.

After the ceremony, over 10,000 slaves marched to battle and began killing their white oppressors. In a few short days, thousands of whites had been killed and the morale of the Black army was sky high. This battle would serve as the catalyst for the Haitian revolution and eventually over 500,000 slaves and Free Blacks would join the battle for Independence. For years this Black Army, now lead by Toussaint l’Overture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, would fight and defend their land. They would defeat the French armies several times along with the English and Spanish. In 1803, Toussaint would eventually be captured and die in prison but the revolution would not end there. Dessalines would lead the blacks and defeat the French once again forcing them to leave the land for good.

On January 1, 1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared the nation Independent and renamed it Haiti. Haiti would become the first black republic in the world and one of few nations to win its independence from a European power. Slavery was abolished and a constitution would be provided that granted rights to all Haitian people. Most of all, the Haitian Revolution provided the inspiration for nations, not just black, but all over the world to begin to fight for Freedom. Had it not been for this Black Allegiance, lands such as Dominican Republic would never have gained their Independence.
“The Only Thing Necessary for Evil to Prevail Is for Good Men to do Nothing.”
Written By @KingKwajo

Coming Home

Author’s Note: So @piecesofscully and I had been bouncing ideas back and forth last week and based on our conversation I started writing this AU family fluff piece that has morphed into something a lot longer than I intended for it to be.  So, enjoy!


Emily shifted back and forth on her feet, clutching her mother’s hand and trying to peer through the sea of travelers surging out of the baggage claim. She looked up at her mom, who wore a serene smile on her face as she texted someone with her cell phone in one hand, and squeezed Emily’s hand gently with her other one. 

“What is it, Em?“ Scully asked, feeling her daughter’s eyes on her.  She glanced sideways at Emily, tilting her head down to peer into Emily’s cherubic face.

"How will I recognize Auntie Missy and Auntie Monica when they’ve been gone for so long? What if they changed their hair?”

Scully smiled and knelt down next to her daughter, careful to remain balanced on the balls of her feet with the added weight of her pregnant belly. “When was the last time you remember seeing Auntie Missy and Auntie Monica?" 

"At their wedding.”

“Right. And when was that? How many months ago? Do you remember?”

“Ummmm…four?” Emily’s little face scrunched up, and a familiar furrow appeared between her pale blonde eyebrows as she calculated backwards in her head.

“Close.  It was five months ago.  It was July, remember?  Right after you and me and Daddy watched the fireworks for the 4th of July, right?”

Emily nodded. “And I got to stay up late two nights in a row!”

Scully smiled again. “That’s right. You got to stay up late to go to the wedding.”

“And I got to dance with Daddy! And throw flower petals!”

“And you did a great job throwing those petals, Em,” a low male voice said from behind them before a tall, brown-haired man swept Emily up and threw her on top of his shoulders. Emily giggled and wrapped her hands around her father’s head, almost completely covering his eyes with her small fingers.

“Mulder, please be careful,” Scully murmured in a tone that was meant to be disapproving but was failing miserably as she bit back a smile. 

Keep reading

3
The Haitian Revolution was one of the largest slave rebellions in history. Although it was not the first slave revolt to take place in what was then known as Saint Dominigue, it had one of the greatest impacts on society. The fighting began in August of 1791, but the desire for independence began long before. Fueled by the cruel and inhumane treatment by white slave owners, Slaves would call for a voodoo ceremony to prepare to TAKE their Freedom. During the ceremony, the slaves would call upon the voodoo warrior Spirit, Ogun, and leaders would be selected to lead the revolt. Now contrary to popular belief, Toussaint l’Overture would not be among the first leaders of the rebellion; he would come later. It would be a man named Boukman. After the ceremony, over 10,000 slaves marched to battle and began killing their white oppressors. In a few short days,  thousands of whites had been killed and the morale of the Black army was sky high. This battle would serve as the catalyst for the Haitian revolution and eventually over 500,000 slaves and Free Blacks would join the battle for Independence.  For years this Black Army, now lead by Toussaint l’Overture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, would fight and defend their land. They would defeat the French armies several times along with the English and Spanish. In 1803, Toussaint would eventually be captured and die in prison but the revolution would not end there. Dessalines would lead the blacks and defeat the French once again forcing them to leave the land for good.  On January 1, 1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared the nation Independent and renamed it Haiti. Haiti would become the first black republic in the world and one of few nations to win its independence from a European power. Slavery was abolished and a constitution would be provided that granted rights to all Haitian people. Most of all, the Haitian Revolution provided the inspiration for nations, not just black, but all over the world to begin to fight for Freedom.  Had it not been for this Black Allegiance,  lands such as Dominican Republic would never have gained their Independence. “The Only Thing Necessary for Evil to Prevail Is for Good Men to do Nothing.” Written By @KingKwajo