volcanic ashes

Scientists explain ancient Rome's long-lasting concrete

Researchers have unlocked the chemistry of Roman concrete which has resisted the elements for thousands of years.

Ancient sea walls built by the Romans used a concrete made from lime and volcanic ash to bind with rocks.

Now scientists have discovered that elements within the volcanic material reacted with sea water to strengthen the construction.

They believe the discovery could lead to more environmentally friendly building materials.

Unlike the modern concrete mixture which erodes over time, the Roman substance has long puzzled researchers.

Rather than eroding, particularly in the presence of sea water, the material seems to gain strength from the exposure. Read more.

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This is an animated still photograph of the Colima volcano eruption earlier this year, but still rather impressive and neat.

anonymous asked:

Hey! I have a kind of random question: what korean beauty products do u use?? I am really curious bc I need recommendations? Sorry; it's a weird question.

It’s a great question, don’t worry! I can understand that, I love finding something new (and if that something new fits me perfectly then I’m super happy so!)

Sweats, I have a lot of stuff though so it might be a bit long-ish…

I’ll just start with skincare because it’s always what I’m looking for first:

The Face Shop Rice water bright rich cleansing oil (from normal to dry skin). The first cleansing oil I actually tried. It’s a pleasure using it, the smell is amazing, I will definitely buy it again. Removes make-up well for me, but I’ve read people saying it has a bit of a trouble re-moving very strong make-up, but since I don’t use it I’ll give it an A+.

• I have a few foams; one from The Face Shop as well - Rice water bright cleansing foam. Smells amazing as well, I nearly finished it. I have one stored I want to try, so not yet sure if I buy it again, but I love this one too. Also I have one from Skinfood Egg white pore foam - I think I’ll buy this one. These two might be a bit drying to your skin if using without a uh..bubble maker? Not sure how that thing called in english. It dried me out, I made that thing that helps making richer foam, now I don’t have any dryness so! Skinfood will probably be great for oilier skin.

• Theeen I have The Secret key’s Milk brightening toner. Still not sure about it, I broke out a lot when I was using it, but I am not sure if it was from it or from..period, I’m sorry, Still haven’t retried it, so don’t have an opinion except that I think the smell is pretty good.

• UUH i bought a lot of creams in the search for the perfect one. I have Tony Moly Pure eco snail moisture gel (smells fantastic, used it for the face a lot, didn’t break out, nothing really changed nor for the worst nor for the better, now use it mostly on my hands); I also recently bought Mizon’s All in one Snail repair cream (because I REALLY REALLY want a few marks to fade); comparing to Tony Moly’s it does make skin very soft to the touch. But I’ve been using it for like, six days, so other than that I can’t say how effective it’s going to be. Doesn’t quite smell, pleasant to use. Depending on how it goes next, I think I’ll re-buy it. I also use Aloe Soothing Gel by Nature Republic. used it all the time before i bought Mizon’s, never broke out. for now uh.. I kind of use it after shaving. HUGE container. I wonder if I will be able to finish it before it expires. Next (GOd, there are so many) Skinfood Fresh Apple sparkling water cream. Use it before make-up. It’s supposed to keep your skin matte, I love the smell of it, nice to use. My skin is pretty normal, so I don’t know how much it actually does what it’s supposed to. I’ll try it in summer and find out:”D

• nooow MASKS. oh, my love. sweet, sweet masks. I think my AAABsolute favourite is Skinfood’s Black sugar wash off mask. A present from my friend. Basically a scrub that you let to stay on your skin after you scrubbed. Smells amazing, leaves skin suuuper soft afterwards, will definitely 100% buy it again. Theeen I have Volcanic ash pore pack by secret nature. After using it the skin seems a bit brighter, a bit softer. Nothing too outstanding, but it’s fairly pleasant overall. I wanted to try Holika Holika’s Soda Pore Cleansing Bubble mask BECAUSE O MY GOD. BUBBLES. ON. MY FACE. BUBBLES. I swear I’m a child. I WAS REALLY CURIOUS OKAY. Pretty much the same effect as with Volcanic ash pore. Probably one time fun for me. (I mean. one bottle time, ahah). Theeen I wanted to try Elizavecca’s Hell Pore Clay mask, I think it was the first mask I bought. Wasn’t painful for me, skin is pretty soft afterwards, but I don’t think it does much for my skin? Probably because I don’t quite have that much to push out. It doesn’t quite catch it. Can remove dead skincells though, I’m sure. God. IS this all? No. I recently bought Holika Holika Honey Sleeping pack (I have canola); I’m still not sure, I had quite a big zit when I went to bed with it, in the morning it was, like, much paler and didn’t feel on my skin. Was it the mask’s doing? was the zit supposed to fade away? Not yet sure, since I bought it very recently with mizon. For masks I think that’s all. Kinda sticky because of the honey, but smells nice.

• I have one emulsion by The Saem Urban Eco Harakeke. Moisturising, smells good, make-up goes smoothly on it.

• the last for skincare: Ciracle pore control blackhead off sheet. I only used it twice, and it’s quite tricky and I guess takes some used to. basically does the job of steaming the face without steam and probably works a bit better. Pushes out everything from your nose, you just have to remove it. Didn’t push out as much as I’ve seen on pictures and in reviews for me, but it does it’s job. Nose is as smooth as a jellyfish. SO SMOOTH afterwards.

FINALLY I THINK WE ARE DONE WITH SKINCARE. OH DEAR GOD, not a million of products have passed.

Nooooow up to Make-uuuup~~ 

• BB CREAMS. I swear on those. I. am. a nerd. Before I tried any bb or cc creams that are sold in our stores they never fit me ever. They always felt so greasy and dark for me. I don’t know, I had the curse of bb creams and now i think it’s finally gone. The first korean one I tried was Aritaum Full Cover. The coverage IS nice, can be a bit shiny in a certain lighting, and feels pretty heavy on the skin. I think my problem with it was mostly my dislike for powders, so it felt sticky, but I think with people who DO use powders it’s going to work better. After that I tried Holika Holika Petit BB (Moisturizing). MY LOVE STARTED. I love how it feels, in certain lighting it makes the skin seem absolutely perfect, pleasant on daylight, doesn’t fell like a mask on a skin. Has universal tone. The Last one is CC, actually, but not less amazing. I’ve been using mostly it recently, CC Color change blemish balm. This one is MAAGIC because it’s like greenish-white, and then you put it on the face, and it turns into your face and it’s MAGIC i swear I love how it feels(doesn’t) on the skin, the coverage is decent for me, Baaaarely noticeable on the skin. I’ll definitely buy holika holika and this one again.

• as for concealers I have Aritaum Full cover liquid concealer for undereye (the tube is huge for concealer, I’m not sure if I will ever finish it since it takes such a minimum for me); and Facetone Creamy Tip concealer for any spots. Good coverage, most likely I’ll buy it as well.

• I have Sweet Cotton pore cover base by Holika Holika, still not sure about it, doesn’t quite hide pores much, at least for me, but the make up does seem to stay longer with it. I’ve read the reviews for people to whom it really worked in regard of hiding pores, so! Might just be me, striving for absolute perfection.

• I have A’pieu Cheek Chok blush. Overall nice, but I think it’s a bit too pigmented for me and it seems to be a bit hard to blend. Creamy texture, but not quite as creamy as I wanted.

• last but not least… tints. Fresh cherry tint, pleasant texture, but I think I picked a bit of a wrong shade for me, though if I use it with The Saem’s Saemmul Real Tint (it’s orangish) it gives a fantastic effect. I also have the latter in dark purple. Love those tints, stay forever (especially the dark one - which is also quite hard to wash off) surprise, tint leaves a tint! :”D Love these, gotta buy again most likely. If I ever finish those, ahah.

I’ve been writing this message for so long. I’m sorry it’s huge. I’m sorry I’m a nerd when it comes to makeup and skincare. Goodbye, money, GOODBUY. ;)

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photos from a glacial cave under the breiðamerkurjökull glacier, which is an outlet glacier to the larger vatnajökull glacier at the northern end of jökulsárlón glacial lagoon in southern iceland.

as air bubbles, which would otherwise interfere with the passage of light, become compressed from the pressure above, the denser ice which forms the cave is better able absorb yellow and red light, giving it this vibrant blue colour. 

volcanic ash, however, does become trapped in the ice, streaking certain areas of the cave with black. the glacier sits atop a volcano, whose geothermal heat carved out the cave. 

photos by nicolas broussearon franklin, erez maronaron franklin, iurie belegurschi and hougaard malan

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Eroding columns of volcanic ash, Red Rock Canyon state park, California

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Eroding volcanic ash columns, Plaza Blanca, northern New Mexico

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Rooms carved into columns of eroding volcanic ash, Cappadocia, Turkey

Lingering Effects: Arrow 6x01 Review (Fallout)

Hello friends!!! Missed you guys! Man it has been a long writing break for me. I hope I remember how to do this!

Another hellatus survived! Another season premiere! Six seasons - wow. We’ve put in a chunk of time with this show. What I admire about Arrow is they really pay attention to what worked and what didn’t in the previous season and try incorporate those lessons into the next. Arrow has five years of lessons informing their sixth season premiere and the episode reflected it.  

There is a seamless fluidity and confidence to “Fallout.” Arrow knows what it does best and what it doesn’t. The captain of the Arrowverse, the original DC TV show, “the veteran” is owning their experience. The cast feels incredibly well integrated, it’s fast paced, funny and emotional. Most importantly it answers the long awaited “cliffhanger” while still leaving some unanswered questions and launching new mysteries.

The term “Fallout” is an interesting choice for the episode title. It stuck with me as I watched because of the open endedness to the term. The definition of fallout is:

1 a :the often radioactive particles stirred up by or resulting from a nuclear explosion and descending through the atmosphere; also :other polluting particles (such as volcanic ash) descending likewise

b :descent (as of fallout) through the atmosphere

2 :a secondary and often lingering effect, result, or set of consequences

There is no conclusion or end to what happened on Lian Yu and what Adrian Chase did.  The characters are still falling through the consequences. Some are grappling more than others with the, but the lingering effects are shifting them all in new directions. For some, these new directions are wonderful. For others, it is like a radioactive particle slowly descending all around them… like a cancer taking hold.

Let’s dig in…

Keep reading

Solas’s Stories Transcribed

I couldn’t find these anywhere (except in video form which is too long) so I just transcribed them.

RUINS:

I found the ruin of Barindur, a lost Tevinter city buried deep beneath a dead and barren wasteland. Volcanic ash had sealed it tight. In one dark moment, every living creature in the city seared and smothered. They were statues in the ashes, like a mold made to recall the lost.

I found an ancient dwarven thaig no longer sheltered by the stone. An earthquake had exposed it all to daylight. A thousand dwarven corpses lay, the victims of a darkspawn horde, their last stand marked by one great ring of armor. In the middle, one small body, clutching tightly to a small stuffed toy.

I found in the Korcari Wilds a humble cottage far removed from any of the simple Chasind tribesmen. The trees and weeds had not reclaimed the home nor did the Chasind dare to come and steal the trinkets still remaining. It was empty, long abandoned, but the world feared that she might return.

SPIRITS:

I met a friendly spirit who observed the dreams of village girls as love first blossomed in their adolescence. With subtlety, she steered them all to village boys with gentle hearts who would return their love with gentle kindness. The Matchmaker, so I called her. That small village never knew its luck.

The Alamarri crossed the Frostback Mountains to escape a beast they called the shadow goddess in their stories. I met the spirit that they fled. She walks the Fade along the southern tundra, weeping, lonely, and forgotten. Great Ferelden formed because a lonely spirit drove her prey away.

I found an ancient spirit who had once been undisputed king of almost every land I had discovered. Like Pride or Rage, it was the Fade’s reflection of a feeling. When I asked which one it was, the spirit faltered. “They’ve forgotten,” said the spirit. “There remains no word for what I was.”

MEMORIES:

I saw a savage human horde go marching toward the battlefront. They sang a soldier’s hymn to keep formation. The primal music shook the ground. These savage unwashed warriors carried harmonies no Chantry choir has mastered. Though their cause was all but hopeless, they sang songs that made the spirits weep.

I saw a dwarf emerge into the light of day and shield his eyes against the sun, the first time he had seen it. The tears were streaming from his eyes. I thought them from the blazing light until I saw the rock he held so tightly. Then he laid the rock down gentle, and he left it as he walked away.

I saw a young Qunari working in a simple kitchen, baking bread as she was ordered every morning. In every loaf she broke the rules. She’d take a punch of sugar and would fold it to the center, like a secret. And this act of small rebellion brought a shining smile across her face.

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One more guatemalan volcano panorama - this one catches Fuego in the act!

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Excavated ruins from the ancient city of Pompeii, buried in meters of ash and volcanic rock after the eruption of Mt Vesuvius in 79 AD (background). An estimated 10,000 people were killed, wiping out the entire city in one catastrophic swoop. Pompei was lost for more than 1500 years, lying undiscovered until 1599. Because of the lack of exposure to air and moisture, their bodies were found in the exact positions in which they died, some of them fetal and others of them clamoring for safety. But also in these ruins is clear evidence of an active, thriving 1st century Roman town, complete with an amphitheater, a temple, baths, a forum, gymnasium and a complex water system. The site is elaborate and astonishingly well-preserved.


Pompeii, Italy

The Machinery of Evil: Angband

In comparison to the more ragtag, disorganized orc led armies of the later Ages, Angband is an impressively effective force that is strong enough to withstand centuries of near isolation and self-sufficiency under constant siege. This suggests to me an extremely organized and structured system acting as its backbone.

I don’t think there were the modern kind of taxes or wages because I doubt there was a free market economy that needed those things to drive it. Angband is essentially a state built to fuel an army and I doubt that dark lords care much about the desire of their minions for luxury goods. So I think the most likely system was a command economy, where central planning makes all the economic decisions about how to use and distribute resources. For example, your orc will never have to worry about the cost of his helmet, because the dark lords arrange the production and delivery of all his equipment in exchange for labor at mining, farming, soldiering etc. as a specialist. Higher ranking orcs or beings probably get a bigger share of the resources and better stuff as an incentive to move up the ranks as much a possible. So there’s still a definite status system and ‘wealthier’ orcs.

Of course this opens up a host of problems too. This system takes an incredible amount of knowledge and planning to carry out, and if you don’t get the right number of helmets or chickens you need, you may end up executing rioters or having poorly equipped soldiers who lose battles. Not to mention you have to police the system rigorously for graft, theft, cheating, corruption, misreporting surplus, plain incompetence etc. Having a command economy also requires the creation of an enormous entrenched bureaucracy to organize and implement decisions made at the top.

Naturally this means that no currency is necessary, eliminating the cost in wasted metals and labor. I think that they might have created a currency later on for the sole purpose of trade with the Evil Men of the East, but I find it equally likely that Angband adopted one of their Eastern allies’ currency as long as the standard was valuable metal weights. Their chief trade goods were probably knowledge and high quality processed goods rather than raw materials anyway. This eliminates the problem of inflation internally, but not of scarcity.

Now, if you’re an orc and want a bit more than your regular rations or a nice present for your mother’s birthday, you’re going to have to barter for it.  Your options for getting trade goods are limited. You can steal a little extra from what you produce as a farmer, smith, miner etc. but this might get your head chopped off. You can save some of your rations and trade that, but this can be dangerous if you don’t have enough left for yourself or trade away vital items like armor, underwear etc. You can trade services for goods like ‘I’ll sharpen your knives if you give me your shiny stone.’ But your best option for getting trade-able items is loot taken from enemies. Angband didn’t have taxes, but you probably had to tithe a portion of your plunder to the dark lords and possibly your commander. I’m thinking that a footsoldier got to keep one-tenth, a general one-third or some kind of system like that was in place but there was probably a lot of fighting over the best items between individual orcs too.

How do you keep a vast underground army supplied with food and materials? I think Angband’s production and food problems are solvable with a truly ridiculous amount of forethought and planning, pinpoint precise control of workers and a healthy amount of magic. The dark lords would need a huge amount of food, far more than could be gained through raiding; somehow crops had to be grown to feed armies, and animals had to be raised for meat and goods. Angband must have had enormous underground farms for surface plants created through the laborious process of building plant beds, bringing in soil, and creating light and air shafts. But they also might have cultivated fungi, mushrooms, moss, roots and other edible plants that naturally grow in or near caves. Pre-siege they might have had some small scale agriculture on mountain terraces and foothills and pastured sheep or goats on the side of mountains.

Post siege they had to rely on animals that could be raised underground. Orcs probably ate little meat. Those animals would have been far more valuable for the other products they could provide, like hides, fat, or horn. Eggs or milk would be more likely, depending on availability. Bats, bugs, worms, larva, spiders, proteus salamanders, and cave crabs are natural cave creatures that might be deliberately raised as food. Fish in underground lakes would yield the double benefit of food and vital water reservoirs. Their primary meat animal would probably be pigs because they eat anything and can be intensively farmed. Dogs are also scavengers so they might also be eaten for food or raised for fur. Chickens can be cage-raised in battery farms, and they also eat almost anything, so they seem likely. Sheep and goats come from wild mountain dwelling ancestors, and would have been valuable for wool and hair and milk, but I’m doubtful they could be fed enough from Angband’s resources to be worthwhile to keep. Cows are a definite no; they just are too big for underground living and not efficient enough to be regular food animals. Horses are valuable as riding animals and it is seems likely a small number were kept for commanders, messengers and scouts.

Outbreaks of disease and contamination have an easy answer: never ever ever keep all of your animals/crops/drinking water in one place/field/reservoir. If you loose one herd to disease you can isolate it and save the rest; the more separate herds you have the smaller the loss. Potential disease vectors, like corpses, have to be disposed of immediately. Genetic bottleneck is no problem if you carefully manage your herds; scientists estimate the entire population of founding taurine (non-humped) cattle was around eighty for example; low genetic variation does not necessarily mean low fitness. If stores dropped catastrophically low, trade with Evil Men or raiding could have filled the shortfall until production could be restored.

Waste management and containment would have been vital for the health of Angband’s occupants and the viability of its economy. Mines and farms are kept running though forced labor by prisoners; no one lives who does not work. Everything has to be recycled - food and metals especially. Even the corpses of prisoners and orcs are eaten. Water supplies may not have been easy to find and would have to be kept clean and uncontaminated by mineral leeching. They would have to find ways to get rid of toxic trash that couldn’t be recycled. Environmental contamination would have been a real problem, given the volcanic atmosphere and the amount of volatile metals around. Some types of environmental contamination could have been avoided through good, ruthlessly enforced waste containment measures as well.  Magic may also be a good option here.

Were Angband’s ore deposits rich enough to support centuries of war? I’m honestly a little fuzzy on the geologic requirements for the creation of metals, but I’m going to handwave this one. If Melkor can make entire mountain ranges, then I’m going to guess he can guarantee an ample supply of minerals and metals for Angband’s forges. (Plus volcanic soils are incredibly fertile which helps with the food problem. The Polynesian islands are capable of supporting agriculture only because of soils made of volcanic ash deposited by wind, fun fact.)

My general explanation for the ability of Melkor’s war machine to support itself actually relies on a bit of headcanon. Sauron managed to escape the ruin of Utumno because of an extensive underground tunnel system that existed underneath it. I like to think that this is something Melkor and Sauron continued and expanded in their next stronghold once they saw how useful it was. However tall the mountains towered above the plain, below them Angband lay many times greater and deeper. Perhaps not just the entire plain, but whole mountain ranges were honeycombed with tunnels that stretched their fingers all the way back to Utumno’s vaults.

They may be evil, but Melkor and Sauron must have been terrifyingly competent.

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Drone tour of the volcanic landscape - Lanzarote, Canary Islands