Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945), Soviet geochemist. One of the first scientists to recognise the significance of living organisms in the formation of Earth’s modern atmosphere and founded The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Another Russian cosmist, Vladimir Vernadsky was a mineralogist and geochemist who posited the idea of the noosphere, what Pierre Teilhard de Chardin would later describe as the “sphere of human thought.” In his original theory, Vernadsky suggested that the noosphere would be the third phase of life on earth, after the “geosphere” (inanimate matter) and “biosphere” (biological life). The engine driving the noosphere, however, would be human cognition. Vernadsky thought that intelligence (or consciousness) would eventually converge and form a massive network of collaborating individuals. Today, its modern equivalent includes the World Wide Web, the global brain hypothesis, and some interpretations of the Technological Singularity.