visual brains

🌼🌻study smarter🌻🌼

(here are some study tips straight from my psych notes)

1. interest: the brain prioritizes by meaning, value, and relevance so u remember things better if ur interested

  • find a study partner
  • do extra practice or research
  • teach it to someone else (this works so well!)

2. intent: be actively paying attention. very little learning actually takes place without attention

  • use a concentration check sheet (every time u get distracted, put a check on ur sheet. this is supposed to program ur mind to pay attention)
  • while u read, talk back to the author
  • ask questions during lectures (this is scary ik!! but do it!)

3. basic background: make connections to what u already know

  • preview and skim the material before u read it. or google it!
  • write out a list of vocab words before a lecture and leave some spaces between them to fill in during the lecture
  • read ahead of lectures
  • watch crashcourse tbh

4. selectivity: start by studying whats important

  • look for bolded words, graphics, pictures, chapter review questions in ur readings
  • listen for verbal clues like emphasis and repetition during lectures
  • make urself a study guide as u read and write down questions for urself to answer later as review (kinda like cornell notes)

5. meaningful organization: u can learn/rmr better if u group ideas into diff categories

  • apply vocab words to ur life
  • make flashcards and sort them (try not to have more than seven items in one category!)
  • use mnemonics

6. recitation: saying ideas aloud in ur own words strengthens synaptic connections! when u say something aloud u r forcing urself to pay attention

  • after u read, ask urself questions
  • talk abt what u learned w/ classmates outside of class
  • again, teach someone else

7. visualization: ur brain’s quickest and longest-lasting response is to images

  • convert info into a chart or graph
  • draw it out
  • make a mental video of a process
  • look at picture/video examples

8. association: memory is increased when facts are consciously associated w something u already know. memory = making neural connections

  • ask urself: is this something i already know?

9. consolidation: give ur brain some time to establish a neural pathway

  • make a list of what u remember from class
  • review notes at the end of the day, every day
  • stop after reading each prg to write a question in ur notes
  • make ur own practice quiz

10. distributed practice: we all know cramming doesnt work but we do it anyway! but yeah short and frequent study sections work better

  • make a daily/weekly study schedule
  • create a time budget/time tracker (track everything ur doing for a week and see how u can be more efficient w/ the time u waste)
  • divide the reading/vocab by the number of days before an exam and do a little bit each day (u can use sticky notes to divide ur reading)

other tips:

  • stop stressing! this sounds stupid and it isnt going to be easy, but anxiety causes u to lose focus. try ur best to think positively. sleep a lot. minimize ur caffeine intake. take a walk maybe
  • when u need to remember something, look upward or close ur eyes (when ur eyes are open ur using visual parts of ur brain that u might not need to be using)
  • find a rival! (like the person right above u in class rank) secretly compete w/ them (envy can improve mental persistence bc it makes u focus more intensely) but dont overdo it! 
  • walking and sleeping build memory storage in ur brain
  • eat flavonoids! (grapes, berries, tea leaves, cocoa beans make neurons in the brain more capable of forming new memories + increase blood flow to the brain)
  • obstacles force ur brain to try harder, so space learning lessons apart or create a puzzle to solve or change ur physical setting

Damian wasn’t sure what woke him. The predawn light shining through the window, the creaks and groans of the old farmhouse, or the funky smell that came with sleeping on Jon’s messy floor.

’Probably all three,’ Damian groggily thought as he rolled over to see Jon, perched up on his bed with his attention completely focused out the window.

“Jon? What-?”

In the room across the hall, Clark’s eyes snapped open at a sound he recognized all too well from his years of battle experience. With only enough time to shield Lois with his body, he could only shout in warning for the boys.

“Jon! Get him out of here!”

Jon’s head snapped towards his dad’s voice, confusion written all over his features.

“Dad?”

Damian’s eyes went wide as the light outside began to brighten at an alarming rate. Not wasting any time, he darted up and grabbed Jon, dragging his body down to cover his own.

Despite his flailing at the abrupt manhandling, Jon didn’t hesitate to wrap his arms tightly around Damian’s smaller form as the world around them exploded in a flash of light and debris.

5

Here’s one of my favourite weather phenomena, the Asperitas cloud. Added just last month, It’s the first new addition to the International Cloud Atlas since the cirrus intortus was included in 1951. It was first proposed in 2009 by Gavin Pretor-Pinney, the founder of the Cloud Appreciation Society.

Common in the American plains, Scotland, and Australia, Asperitas clouds may look stormy, but they rarely herald tempestuous weather.

Gavin Pretor-Pinney says that classifying clouds makes us care more about what’s above us, and observing them gives our minds a chance to focus on something other than our busy modern life.

anonymous asked:

Science please!!!

The grandeur of a human sense

Walking with your eyes blindfolded is probably one of the most nerve-wracking experiences that I ever had to endure.

The lapse of data from a mere one sense totally threw me out of my game! I went around in rounds and crashed into things.. It was a disaster!

But then there are visually impaired people playing sports like cricket or soccer!!


Visually impaired Cricket

How do they do that ?

Well, essentially the ball has lots of ball bearings in them that make a rattling sound as it moves.

The auditory cue is captured by the player, the brain processes the data, and then there is response. ( A feedback loop )


By constantly training they have mapped the ball position with the sound that they hear. And this mapping is so intricate that it makes the playing seem seamless.


Visually Impaired Soccer


SuperHumans

These guys are SuperHumans in every sense of the word. Now I have worked with sensor technologies for quite some time, but none that as powerful as this.

The level of feedback that one needs, to execute running and kicking the ball per se, is extremely complex. But to witness these guys do it with such grace is definitely a superhuman skill.

Kudos !


Sources:

Blind Soccer in Brazil - NYT

Tommy Edison’s channel on YouTube

Blind Cricket match

Rules of Blind Cricket

How playing an instrument benefits your brain - TedEd

Hack Your Body To Have Superpowers  

Dissociation tiers

Disclaimer: These are based on my own experiences and what I’ve read of other people’s experiences. I am not a doctor, nor do I represent anyone but myself who experiences dissociation/depersonalization/derealization. Some of these points may assume an abled body, as that is the type of body I have and am familiar with. Tier 0 also assumes no other mental/neurological disorders, which is untrue to my own brain but used for simplicity’s sake. Very simplistic list in general, mainly due to it being a list.

Tier 0

  • No brain fog.
  • No visual fog.
  • Senses are generally clear.
  • Reflection is recognizable.
  • Friends and family are recognizable.
  • When you touch something, you feel it immediately.
  • Everything is the correct distance away.
  • You can walk easily.
  • You can speak and easily understand yourself.
  • You can easily understand others when they speak.
  • You can multitask.
  • You are not detached from the world in any way.
  • Memory is mostly consistent.

Tier 1

  • Mild brain fog.
  • Visual fog is minimal or nonexistent.
  • Some other senses may be dulled, such as smell.
  • You know your reflection is your reflection, but you may not have a connection to it.
  • You can recognize your friends and family, but you might have to think about it.
  • Sense of touch may have minimal lag.
  • The floor may seem closer or further than normal.
  • The world in general may seem too close or too far, but not debilitatingly so.
  • Walking may require some focus.
  • Voice may feel thick in your mouth, but no one else seems concerned.
  • Other people’s voices may seem far away or too loud.
  • Multitasking is difficult, but doable.
  • You’re slightly detached from the world.
  • Memories are harder to hold on to.

Tier 2

  • Moderate brain fog; thinking is becoming difficult.
  • The world may seem significantly grayer or fuzzier.
  • Other senses are dulled to some degree.
  • You cognitively know your reflection is supposed to be you, but it doesn’t seem right.
  • You can’t immediately recognize your friends and family. They could be who you think they are, but you aren’t sure.
  • When you touch something, a lag of about a second or more occurs before you recognize any feeling, or even that you touched anything at all.
  • All distances are wrong. The floor is wrong, objects are wrong, other people are wrong, etc.
  • You need to focus to get one place to another.
  • Other people may notice differences in your speech. You might not be able to.
  • You aren’t always sure people are speaking the same language as any you know. You might ask them to repeat themselves more than once.
  • You can do one task at most without extreme difficulty and/or slowness.
  • You feel as though you and the world are on separate planes.
  • You can’t remember much from these points in time. You might even have “lost time.”

Tier 3

  • You’ve lost all memory of this point.
  • Friends say you acted off, but that’s all you know.

Thanks for reading.

bad | 04

 He was the cliché bad boy. He was the guy you couldn’t stand. He was the handsome, hot kid who made girls go weak in the knees. He was a brat. You had never liked him one bit, but you had also never gotten involved with anything concerning him. Until one day, when you were in the wrong place, at the wrong time.

Originally posted by mvssmedia

MEMBER: jeon jungkook x reader (ft. kim taehyung)

GENRE: romance, future smut, badboy!jungkook

WORDS: 3 155

WARNINGS: cussing, mature

01 | 02 | 03 | 04 | 05 | 06 | 07coming soon ↠ 

A/N: this part’s kinda weird. it’s more of a build-up chapter. there might end up being about 8 parts lol. thank yOU FOR 900, OMG

Keep reading

YUZURU ON KENJI’S ROOM EPISODE 2 TRANSLATION (2015)

The full episode 2 of Yuzu’s interview at Kenji’s room was also uploaded by the kind fan so my completionist instincts kicked in and I had to translate ( : 

Disclaimer: my Japanese is far from perfect so corrections are welcome. This is more of the ‘gist’ of the conversation and not always word for word (Ep 1)

  • Axel talk: Yuzu jumped the 2A at the end of Year 3 in Primary School when he was a Novice and doesn’t quite remember it (cutely, he was like ‘desu ka ne?? desu ka ne?’ and I assume he was searching for his mum off-camera to confirm haha)

    When he was aiming for the Japanese Nationals as a Novice, his coach (Suzuki-sensei?) at the time told him the 2A was the ‘king of jumps’ and so if he didn’t master it, he couldn’t progress. 

    Yuzu loves Axel the most of all the jumps. It’s special because the other jumps are all backwards jumps and the method of takeoff is the same. Yuzu is the type who really places emphasis on having an image in his mind (visual learner). He jumped his first 2A just from watching his older sister jump it. He absolutely wanted to jump the jumps his sister could do. He jumped 3A after seeing Mao do it at the Japanese Nationals. Seeing how thin Mao was and how she didn’t really use a lot of muscles to jump it, he thought he should be able to do it too. He jumped the axel after 3 tries at that practice (after stepping out the first 2 times). 

  • Kenji: That’s….weird (he’s deeply impressed and disbelieving haha).
    Yuzu: But afterwards, I had a long period (1yr) where I couldn’t land the axel properly in competitions. 

  • Kenji was still in awe Yuzu got the axel after 3 tries and then the staff member asked him to talk about when he landed the 3A lol. 

  • Kenji’s axels: Kenji was bad at flips and struggled with 2F. He was nervous about the 3A and found it difficult so actually tried jumping the 4T first. However, Kenji rotated too much and so actually jumped about 3.5 revolutions and ended up hitting the wall and slid down like a manga character.
    Yuzu: But you rotated 3.5 times. You could have tried the Axel.
    Kenji: No, I was scared of the axel.

    They talked about axels at an ice show when they met. Kenji was trying to jump a single axel and Yuzu said ‘Eh? Your hands are weird’. Yuzu said their frames (bodies) are different but at the time… Kenji’s way of jumping was indeed weird. 

    Kenji: But after you taught me, I jump the axel properly now each time so thank you very much. 

  • Yuzu’s jumps (again, struggled to hear words): I think he’s saying he only gets one shot to master the Lutz so it’s a close-call jump (he uses ギリギリ which suggests he’s barely mastered it) and so he didn’t really practice it. Over anything, the probability of landing (?) the 3Lz-3T is the lowest so he needs to place emphasis on it. Yuzu also changes his jump timing to match the music and it affects whether he jumps straight or at a curve. Kenji mentions how your sense for the jump changes and Yuzu agrees that he can’t jump a 2A right now and the 3T is also pretty bad due to him losing his ‘sense’ for the jump by doing too many 3A and 4Ts. He had to jump a 2A at a group number during an ice show and realised he didn’t have a sense for them anymore. 

  • Shizuka and Yamato: He didn’t have much of a chance to skate together with Arakawa Shizuka even though they were in the same rink; he mostly only watched her admiringly. He didn’t really have a chance to interact with world class skaters (eg. like skating at the same rink or being in the same club etc.) He doesn’t have many memories of talking much with Shizuka but remembers Yamato Tamura a little more. ((Yamato sought him out to talk to him a bit more than Shizuka or Honda? This was one of those situations where he mumbled a lot and I have no context sorry lol)). 

  • Yuzu’s middle school graduation: He won the Junior World Championships in Year 9 (end of middle school) and graduated middle school alone in the principle’s office. He loved his Year 9 classmates a lot - he had a lot of close friends in that class and they all gathered to say ‘welcome back’ for him afterwards. This left a deep impression on him.

  • Dark stories of Junior days: Kenji was like ‘so do you have any dark stories from your Junior days?’ and Yuzu was like LET ME TELL YOU (he answered really fast and decisively like he didn’t have to think about it at all LOL).

    He placed 12th in his first Junior Worlds 2009 and it was very kuyashii (he even corrected Kenji who initially said ‘a little kuyashii’). He didn’t have a lot of time to practice and he was also injured (can’t catch precise phrases even though he uses some more here, but the idea is that he wasn’t entirely prepared?).

    At the time, he tended to make a lot of excuses for himself. He would tell himself he had a sprain etc. and people around him would say the same. After the experience at Worlds, he told himself he’d not give himself any excuses. He says strong athletes don’t give excuses for poor performance. It isn’t productive and won’t give you the ability to compete. He admires the people who can perform/jump under any condition, like Mao who performed with a broken bone. (THEN HE MUMBLED THE REST yuzu pls. I think he was essentially reiterating this ‘no excuses’ attitude was important to him)

    Kenji: Wow…that’s cool.

    Yuzu: Who? Did someone cool come in??
    (he’s making a lame joke because he’s an awkward turtle) 

    Kenji (gravely): You’re cool

  • Yuzu’s next World Junior comp (2010): He held on to the regretful feelings from last season and practised a lot. ((I’m really not sure about some of his phrases re: Olympics and also his last year of Juniors so I won’t bother trying to translate but I think he was saying that because the year he lost was the Olympic year, a lot of skaters debuted as seniors and so he wanted to challenge them at a senior level. Also he did very well in his last year of Juniors)). At the time, he was bad at the SP and tended to make up for it in the FS. He was 3rd in SP and won the FS. No matter how big the match was, he always approached it as though it was just another competition and that he would just have to win.

  • Talk about Kanako getting food poisoning from eating raw food heheh

  • Senior debut (tn: I think Yuzu was getting tired here because he essentially…stopped enunciating the ends of his words, rolls some words into each other and trails off. This makes translating by ear super hard, as a non-native speaker who can’t guess at the words. I could only get bits and pieces so I’m sorry the next section is a bit incomplete/inaccurate): 

    Yuzu really realised that senior skating life was very difficult. His first senior competition was NHK in Nagoya. To put it bluntly he was in a state and couldn’t jump his quads. Then he had some sort of shift in his head and in his attitude towards practice and so he did better in the next competition (including silver at the 4CC). He did feel the difficulty of the senior level. He was grateful to have been rewarded at the end of the season and for its ending and told himself he has to do better next season, especially given his silver at the 4CC, he had to aim higher.

  • Most memorable competition he’s ever done: Of course the Olympics but also his first at the Japanese Nationals as a Novice (his time of having mushroom hair). He was so excited the point where he wasn’t even nervous and just felt like the competition was incredibly fun, and his practice at the time was great too. As a Year 4 primary student, he also had no concept of failing (missing his jumps) and was filled with the confidence that he’d definitely win. They were still using the 6.0 scoring system at the time. World level figure skaters at the GPF and Worlds were all scoring in the 5.0s and above. In one of Yuzu’s presentation scores (they laughed because it was still called presentation), he got a single 5.2 and was super happy and surprised to get it. He then had this feeling of, ‘oh, maybe I can compete on a world level!’ ( : 

  • Yuzu’s life goal: His life goal has also not changed since primary school, from when he first watched the Salt Lake Olympics at 7yrs old and thought ‘I’m definitely getting the gold medal.’ After he won in Sochi, he kept thinking that getting a second gold at the next Olympics would definitely be legendary and so made it a goal.
    Kenji: As I thought….you’re weird
    Yuzu: It’s weird. It was also not a ‘I can or cannot get a gold medal’ feeling (tn: because that suggests he was uncertain about it) – it was ‘I will get a gold medal.’
    Kenji: Well. There’s still one more (gold). 
    Yuzu: Pyeongchang is a goal – it’s one of my biggest reasons for skating right now.
Balancing Time and Space in the Brain: A New Model Holds Promise for Predicting Brain Dynamics

For as long as scientists have been listening in on the activity of the brain, they have been trying to understand the source of its noisy, apparently random, activity. In the past 20 years, “balanced network theory” has emerged to explain this apparent randomness through a balance of excitation and inhibition in recurrently coupled networks of neurons. A team of scientists has extended the balanced model to provide deep and testable predictions linking brain circuits to brain activity.

Lead investigators at the University of Pittsburgh say the new model accurately explains experimental findings about the highly variable responses of neurons in the brains of living animals. On Oct. 31, their paper, “The spatial structure of correlated neuronal variability,” was published online by the journal Nature Neuroscience.

The new model provides a much richer understanding of how activity is coordinated between neurons in neural circuits. The model could be used in the future to discover neural “signatures” that predict brain activity associated with learning or disease, say the investigators.

“Normally, brain activity appears highly random and variable most of the time, which looks like a weird way to compute,” said Brent Doiron, associate professor of mathematics at Pitt, senior author on the paper, and a member of the University of Pittsburgh Brain Institute (UPBI). “To understand the mechanics of neural computation, you need to know how the dynamics of a neuronal network depends on the network’s architecture, and this latest research brings us significantly closer to achieving this goal.”

Earlier versions of the balanced network theory captured how the timing and frequency of inputs—excitatory and inhibitory—shaped the emergence of variability in neural behavior, but these models used shortcuts that were biologically unrealistic, according to Doiron.

“The original balanced model ignored the spatial dependence of wiring in the brain, but it has long been known that neuron pairs that are near one another have a higher likelihood of connecting than pairs that are separated by larger distances. Earlier models produced unrealistic behavior—either completely random activity that was unlike the brain or completely synchronized neural behavior, such as you would see in a deep seizure. You could produce nothing in between.”

In the context of this balance, neurons are in a constant state of tension. According to co-author Matthew Smith, assistant professor of ophthalmology at Pitt and a member of UPBI, “It’s like balancing on one foot on your toes. If there are small overcorrections, the result is big fluctuations in neural firing, or communication.”

The new model accounts for temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks and the correlations in the activity between neurons—whether firing in one neuron is correlated with firing in another. The model is such a substantial improvement that the scientists could use it to predict the behavior of living neurons examined in the area of the brain that processes the visual world.

After developing the model, the scientists examined data from the living visual cortex and found that their model accurately predicted the behavior of neurons based on how far apart they were. The activity of nearby neuron pairs was strongly correlated. At an intermediate distance, pairs of neurons were anticorrelated (When one responded more, the other responded less.), and at greater distances still they were independent.

“This model will help us to better understand how the brain computes information because it’s a big step forward in describing how network structure determines network variability,” said Doiron. “Any serious theory of brain computation must take into account the noise in the code. A shift in neuronal variability accompanies important cognitive functions, such as attention and learning, as well as being a signature of devastating pathologies like Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.”

While the scientists examined the visual cortex, they believe their model could be used to predict activity in other parts of the brain, such as areas that process auditory or olfactory cues, for example. And they believe that the model generalizes to the brains of all mammals. In fact, the team found that a neural signature predicted by their model appeared in the visual cortex of living mice studied by another team of investigators.

“A hallmark of the computational approach that Doiron and Smith are taking is that its goal is to infer general principles of brain function that can be broadly applied to many scenarios. Remarkably, we still don’t have things like the laws of gravity for understanding the brain, but this is an important step for providing good theories in neuroscience that will allow us to make sense of the explosion of new experimental data that can now be collected,” said Nathan Urban, associate director of UPBI.

anonymous asked:

This question is related to psychology more broadly, I'm not sure if it's ok or not. What is the relationship between cognitive functions and the formation of memories? Stereotypically memories are associated with Si but wouldn't all the functions influence memory in some way because they are all involved in information processing to some extent?

Yes. Memory is actually a very complicated mental process and even though psychologists have been studying it for a long time, there are still many aspects of it that we don’t understand very well. Take a simple example like trying to remember a visual image: The brain is not like a xerox machine that just makes a copy of the image and files it; if the brain did that, you would quickly run out of shelf space because, as long as your eyes are open, you’d be making copies continuously. Since we can’t logistically remember every little single thing we perceive, there must be some method of “filtering” or “choosing” things to remember, though that choice is not always conscious. That’s likely where the cognitive functions enter, they influence what sorts of things we pay attention to, what sorts of things are given priority over others, which would likely include the kinds of information we pick out to store (particularly with the perceiving functions):

  • Si: potent personal impressions of physical details
  • Ni: contextual details with personalized meaning
  • Se: new, unique, unusual, striking physical details
  • Ne: interesting ideas or promising possibilities
  • Ti: mental blueprints that map cause-effect experiences
  • Fi: moral instincts derived from subjective experience
  • Te: rules and standards that lead to efficient results
  • Fe: social knowledge derived from (in)harmonious feelings

To store an item in memory, we tend to use the whole brain in finding the appropriate “sticky notes” to attach to that item for easy retrieval, so we each use our own interpretations to remember things. E.g. The other day, I was doing a geography quiz to remember the names of world countries. My friend, who is studying for a citizenship exam, needed to brush up on geography, so we went through a quiz together just for fun. I did the quiz first by explaining how I remembered each item, I would say things like: Place A is where that earthquake just happened, B is where this celebrity lives, I took an interesting trip to C when I was in high school, my mom loves the beaches in D, my ex was born in E, etc. My friend (Se Sensor) noticed that it was very interesting how I turned everything into a mini-narrative and I couldn’t remember the names of places that I hadn’t attached any story to. By contrast, their learning method was just to stare at the map and memorize the visual outlines and then rehearse the names and remember through repetition, perhaps only adding a “story” for very difficult items - very simple strategy but seemingly impossible for me.

When I have to remember random details, my strategy is to attach as many Ni(Fe) anecdotes as I can to each item. Since Sensing is my inferior function, I don’t prioritize visual details very well, so the details of an image shift around in my mind very easily, like placing a completed jigsaw puzzle in a box and shaking it vigorously. If I look at a geographical map only a day after I’ve studied it very carefully, NOTHING is where I remember it to be (frustrating!); I can’t draw the map accurately at all but I can remember the relative position of items because that’s how I stored them (“this place is next to that place which is just north of the other place”) and then I piece the chunks together into a very ugly blob that barely resembles the real map. This sad result happens even though I studied the details meticulously, even though I draw as a hobby and often pay very close attention to reproducing details, even though I swear an oath to remember certain details later on. In other words, how you store memories is often dependent on what information you unconsciously value, which is often determined by the dominance of the cognitive functions at work. Of course, your skill in remembering things can improve through practice or employing special strategies, but it’s possible that cognitive functions place some limits on you, e.g., if my friend employed my memory strategy more vigorously, it would lead to confusion and getting all the details mixed up because of being overwhelmed by so many seemingly random and overcomplicated interconnections.

Memory is also very intertwined with emotion, so any experience that is associated with very strong emotions (especially negative) is more likely to get stored whether you like it or not, which makes sense in evolutionary terms because you should have an easy and reliable mechanism to remember the things that may be harmful or detrimental for your survival. What provokes strong emotions can oftentimes be related to cognitive functions and the strong expectations that they produce:

  • Si expects familiarity in physical details
  • Se expects physical stimulation/engagement
  • Ni expects one’s extrapolations to be true/real
  • Ne expects mental stimulation/inspiration
  • Ti expects knowledge to be correct for problem solving
  • Te expects actions to be successful or get results
  • Fi expects respect for subjective moral boundaries
  • Fe expects respect for social harmony/cohesion

As you go through life, knowledge of the world grows through experience and emotionally-laden memories accumulate. These emotional memories can drive unconscious behaviors, where you gradually learn to avoid, dismiss, or become hypersensitive to the things that may violate your cognitive expectations, e.g.: SJs may become oversensitive to confronting unfamiliar things/situations, SPs dull or slow-moving people/situations, NJs reality and its constraints, NPs conventional/routine situations, TPs areas where they lack knowledge/expertise, TJs areas where they can’t feel success/competence, FPs whatever impinges on authentic self-expression, FJs disruptive people or socially toxic environments. Memory, knowledge, perception, emotion, reasoning, judgment, decision making processes are all tied together and neuroscientists have had a very tough time trying to separate the areas and map each process because not everything about subjective human experience corresponds neatly to a physical counterpart and every person’s neural map is somewhat unique.