Villanovan Pottery Urn with Crested Helmet Lid, 9th-8th Century BC

With a handle on one side, a flaring rim, and incised geometric designs of meanders, triangles, hatched fields, and swastikas. The pottery helmet lid has similar incised decoration.

The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders which was followed by the Etruscan civilization. Villanovan culture and people branched from the Urnfield culture of Central Europe. The name Villanovan comes from the first archaeological site where artifacts were discovered near Villanova, not far from Bologna in northern Italy.