vertical orientation

opalescent-potato  asked:

You seem like the right person to ask this question: do spiders have to practice spinning webs to get good at it? Do young spiders fuck up their webs sometimes?

This is a really interesting question, and it took a bit of digging to find the right answer, which is… sort of yes and sort of no?

The ‘no’ part comes from the fact that spiders are born knowing how to spin webs- there’s no stepwise process of learning. They actually have, encoded within their genes, very specific algorithms to use when constructing webs.

Below are two figures from a paper that successfully imitated the process of building a spider web using a computer program by splitting the process into a few very simple rules:

So despite how complex the process seems to our eyes (and it would take a human some practice to get it right) evolution has split the process up into easily-encoded chunks for the spider brain to have ready from the get-go.

(This all applies to ORB webs, though. I didn’t find much information on how the construction of funnel webs, tangle webs, etc. are encoded- one would assume it’s similar, though.)

However, I DID say that the answer to your question is both yes and no. Despite the fact that the process of making a web is essentially hardwired into a spider from birth, there is still a surprising degree of plasticity (i.e., flexibility) to the behavior.

There is a lot of value to this for web-spinners because many species will build new webs every day. Studies have found that the spider’s personal experiences will modulate how they construct certain details within their webs.

For example, one study found that spiders which had recently eaten used less capture silk (that’s the sticky stuff) when they made their next web, probably because they didn’t feel like expending the extra energy when they were already full. (You and me both, spiders.)

In another study, researchers compared the number of webs a spider had spun over its lifetime with their top-bottom asymmetry. Let me explain that real quick before we go further: spiders tend to have better prey capture success when their webs have larger bottom halves than top halves. This is because orb webs are oriented vertically, meaning that a spider sitting in the very center of the web is going to reach the bottom faster than the top because of- well- gravity. Faster prey grabbing means prey are less likely to escape while the spider is scrambling over to it.

Here’s an asymmetrical web with a larger bottom half (left) compared to a more symmetrical one (right).

The researchers found two things: first, the more experienced a spider was overall, the bigger the bottom half of her web was compared to the top. However, when researchers placed more prey into the top half of the web than the bottom half, the spiders responded by making more symmetrical webs, i.e., putting resources back into the top half that they would have used in the bottom half.

Taken together, these two observations suggest that experience and learning do play a role in how a spider constructs her web, even if the main gist of it is encoded from the beginning. And that’s pretty neat!


Heiling, A. M., & Herberstein, M. E. (1999). The role of experience in web-building spiders (Araneidae). Animal Cognition, 2(3), 171-177.

Herberstein, M. E., & Heiling, A. M. (1999). Asymmetry in spider orb webs: a result of physical constraints?. Animal behaviour, 58(6), 1241-1246.

Krink, T., & Vollrath, F. (1997). Analysing spider web-building behaviour with rule-based simulations and genetic algorithms. Journal of theoretical Biology, 185(3), 321-331.

Venner, S., Pasquet, A., & Leborgne, R. (2000). Web-building behaviour in the orb-weaving spider Zygiella x-notata: influence of experience. Animal Behaviour, 59(3), 603-611.

The turtle-jawed moa-nalo (Chelychelynechen quassus) was a large flightless goose-like duck from the Hawaiian island of Kaua‘i. About 90cm tall (3′) and weighing around 7kg (15lbs), these birds and their relatives were descended from dabbling ducks and existed on most of the larger Hawaiian islands for the last 3 million years or so – before going extinct around 1000 years ago following the arrival of Polynesian settlers.

Chelychelynechen had an unusually-shaped bill, tall and broad with vertically-oriented nostrils, convergently similar to the beak of a turtle. It would have occupied the same sort of ecological niche as giant tortoises on other islands, filling the role of large herbivore in the absence of mammals.

fl0r7  asked:

What posture you use when you draw? I mean for example if you draw in a paper block you put it in angle, vertical or horizontal. And what posture you recommend? (sorry, my english is bad)

Well, if you’re talking about the orientation of the sketch book when I draw traditionally, I typically have it oriented vertically.  My tablet is oriented horizontally, though (because the computer monitor is horizontal).

If we’re talking about my posture, though…

This is what I do most of the time.  Straight back, head away from the monitor.

This is what I caught myself in when I saw your question, and what happens if I’m not paying attention.  Don’t, uh… don’t do the second one, it kills your back.

Coran Zine: About

What is The Gorgeous Man? 👀

This is a Voltron charity zine dedicated to celebrating our beloved space uncle Coran, Coran, the gorgeous man! The zine features 36 artists, 9 writers, 3 merch creators, and copious amounts of moustaches! Check out our current schedule and our list of talented participants!


Do you want to share your headcanons about what an Altean Royal Advisor does?  Or what life is like in space boot camp?  Or what needs to be done around the Castle of Lions when you’re the main mechanic?  Luckily for you, the theme of our zine is Coran’s many roles and skills throughout his lifetime!  We’re very excited to see what people come up with.

Money Money Money

All of this zine’s profits (i.e. remaining money after production/shipping costs) will be donated to a charity of the zine participants’ choice. A vote for the charity will be held during production and a final decision will be announced publicly on both tumblr and twitter.

New zine, who dis?

Your mustachioed mods are @marz-squared (Mod M) and @legendarydesvender (Mod S)!  We look forward to creating this zine with you!

{ Zine guidelines, and creator requirements below the cut. }

Keep reading


Sketch commission for @askthepokedaycare of a group of their ocs~
Thanks so much for commissioning me!

Goodness you have some neat characters~ Aria the Raikou is definitely my favourite though! I just love the colour combos! Glad I could do her, and the rest of your lil squad, justice c:

If I could change one thing, it’d be to have this vertically oriented instead of horizontally, but considering I have a scolipede as a muse this is nothing new sadly. Please fullview, these images are quite big and there’s a lot of detail despite it being just sketches

The above artwork was created by myself, and is for my and askthepokedaycare’s use only. Please don’t reupload or use without my say!

pronetowanderborntolead  asked:

Hey Greer, do you have any favorite indoor stimulation tools for Pangur & Grim? I've recently moved into the city for grad school and the lack of a big fenced in yard has been a much harder adjustment for my cat than my dog 🤷🏻‍♀️ His incessant screaming makes it pretty difficult to study.

yeah, I can understand that! I lived in a little condo for 4-5 years, & Pangur required a lot of daily play to keep her happy

everytime her screaming began, I’d spend ~10 minutes running about w a string toy trying to tire her out, or sit on the ground & push her ball toy through its tunnel, so that she could pounce & kill it. both these activities are made better by cheap critter tunnels, bc they make the cat feel super sneaky

here’s my list of cat-occupying stuff: catnip pillows sprinkled about, cat trees, scratching posts with different orientations (vertical/horizontal), fold-up tunnels, self-play tube things, cardboard boxes with holes cut in ‘em, feeder toys, catios, harness walking, other cats

glisean  asked:

Could I ask which program you use for your pixel art? Just picking up using graphics gale but am not happy with the palette settings. Also how do you choose the canvas size you work with and the appropriate scale for objects and characters?

1. Software for pixel art

I use GIMP. But it doesn’t matter too much.

Sometimes I’ll use Photoshop for its better animation tools. Although some GIFs are easier to edit using GIMP’s more raw system (it uses layers for animation frames).

If you want to check out GIMP, I made a tutorial about it: GIMP Pixel Art Tool Setup Tutorial

2. Canvas size

Choosing canvas size for me has evolved over time. TL;DR is that it is always based on the context (how the work is going to be used/displayed and your personal quirks). Examples:

Physical print size

Tribute is 660x900, because that was a round number that fit nicely on the magazine cover for which it was made. (Nicely = I imagined how big I wanted the physical pixels to be.) 

For the scale I looked at my inspirations at the time (eBoy, Army of Trolls, PixelFreak) and simply chose something similar. I set people height to 24px and created a composition of rooms, hallways and shafts that would look nice assuming that 25 pixels ≈ 2 meters.

As you can see I made a reference box for the size of a human (to the right of the doors), which I moved around the scene and pixel all objects relative to.

Traditional display resolutions

You will often find pixel art works done at 320x240px size since that was the screen size of many DOS and Amiga games. It’s nostalgia.

In my case, being obsessed with the British home computer ZX Spectrum, it’s 256x192 pixels.

At one point I wanted to make a ZX-styled scene from the movie Speed Racer. To match its widescreen aspect I simply put two ZX Spectrum screens together for the 512x192 final image (8:3 ratio).

I liked the super-wide proportions a lot so I made Pixel China Mountains the same. It all goes back to liking the ZX Spectrum.

Desired display size 

If you want pixel-perfect images on Tumblr, you have to size them to the exact width of the dashboard (500px before October 30, 2014, 540px today). 

To avoid cropping or image scaling I started doing pieces at 250px size to fit perfectly on the then 500px-wide feed at x2 scale.

After Tumblr’s change to 540px, I started doing 270px wide pieces. :) It’s a nice number for pixel art. Depending on how big you want the pixels to be you can set the canvas width to:

  • 270px (540/2)
  • 180px (540/3) 
  • 135px (540/4)
  • 108px (540/5)
  • 90px (540/6)

Additionally, the biggest size you can display on the dash is vertical (portrait orientation) at 2:3 ratio, so these days my final display target would be 540x810px (canvas at 270x405px). I know at least mazeon​ also sets things up this way (he usually goes for 300% magnification on a 180x270px canvas).

For complete reference, current pixel perfect sizes are:

  • Tumblr: 540x810.
  • Twitter: 506x1195 for the main feed. Only the middle 253px will be shown before user clicks on it.
  • Facebook: 470x470. However, make it just one pixel higher and Facebook will scale the height down to 394px (so all images > 470px will display at 394px high).

3. Scale

Scale controls the tradeoff between the smallest items you can represent and the size of the scene you’re trying to show (given a fixed canvas size).

The smaller you go, the more abstraction you need to use, but a larger scene will fit into the same canvas. The bigger you go, the more details you can add, but the scene will show less physical space.

For example, I can draw a whole city with people as small as on the left, but I can only draw a part of a room using people on the right given 540px of space. 

To directly answer your question, “appropriate scale for objects and characters” will depend on the style, the scene and desired canvas size. So there’s no direct answer, you’ll just have to find something that fulfills all three variables for your illustration.

Or as Yoda would say:

“That which you seek, inside you will find.“


Autistic Gansey

please note that i am just doing this for fun and i’m not claiming anything about canon and if you disagree with me, feel free to do so, just do so quietly thank you. i am small and stressed out enough as it is. All quotes were pulled from the first book, The Raven Boys. so, obviously, some spoilers ahead

  • Stimming
    • He likes rubbing his fingers over things: 
      • Gansey rubbed a finger slowly along the pocked chrome of the Camaro’s bumper.” (p22) 
      • Gansey rubbed a finger over his lip” (241)
      • Gansey’s thumb worried over his bottom lip.” (281)
    • the mint leaves is a repetitive chewing motion, also the taste and smell of the leaves themselves. 
      • The area around him smelled strongly of mint from the leaf he chewed absently.” (p42) 
      • Taking a mint leaf from his pocket, Gansey put it into his mouth…” (201) 
      • He put a mint leaf in his mouth and climbed out of the car.” (263) 
    • Gansey himself sat at an old desk with his back to them, gazing out an east-facing window and tapping a pen” (p42)
    • He spun the knob on the window crank.” (291)
  • Special Interest / Info-dumping
    • Obviously Glendower and the Ley Lines
    • Not to mention info-dumping he will literally talk to anyone who will listen about this shit. 
      • Even his teachers, “He hasn’t talked to you about it? He wouldn’t shut up about it yesterday. it’s that ley line stuff he’s always on about.” (p54) and “We talking about Gansey the third and his New Age obsession?” (p55) . 
      • Also later on when Blue comments “ The easy way that he began the story… let Blue know that he had told it many times before” (216) 
    • He’s so into it that he doesn’t even consider the fact that other people might not know what he’s talking about. 
      • (”Nobody knows who Ned Kelly is, either, Gansey.” “Really?” Gansey asked, so innocently startled by this that it was clear that Adam had been right before- he hadn’t meant to be condescending.” -217) 
  • Social Issues
    • for someone who calls Adam “socially inhibited” Gansey’s honestly not that much better off. He tries his best, but he doesn’t know what the hell he’s doing, so he often comes off as condescending or offensive on accident. 
      • He hadn’t meant to be offensive but, in retrospect, it was possible that he had been” … “He vowed, as he had a hundred times before, to consider his words better” (p65)
      • Also, he was still watching Adam, taking his cues from him as to how he should react to her” (p195) 
    • This causes him a lot of distress, 
      • Gansey’s words had somehow become unwitting weapons, and he didn’t trust himself to not accidentally discharge them again.” (352) 
    • And he spends a lot of time obsessing over what he’d done wrong / how to avoid fucking up next time
      • This was going to eat at him all evening.” (65) “All night. This was going to bother him all night.” (66)
      • Since then, he’d considered a dozen different ways he could’ve done it better.” (TDT p 78)
  • Other
    • “Difficulty making decisions”: “”I don’t know how to choose. Could you pick a card for me? Will that work?”” (p149) 
    • “trouble with left/right/other directions” : “he wasn’t very good at flying a helicopter, despite several lessons. he seemed to lack the important ability to orient himself vertically as well as horizontally, which led to disagreements involving trees” (199) 
    • “unusual walking patterns”: “He strode over to the ruined church. This, Blye had discovered, was how Gansey got places- striding.” (264)
    • “dislikes uncertainty” : “What Gansey needed out of life was facts, things he could write in his journal, things he could state twice and underline, no matter how improbable those facts were” (279) 
    • “distinct moral code” : “This all felt inherently wrong to Gansey. It was like the truth, but turned sideways” (402, concerning Whelk’s death) 

I’ve got more in terms of headcanons but this is just the stuff i pulled out of canon. i had a lot of fun with this, i might wind up doing books 2 and 3 also. 


LuxType: The Rationals

I started with INTJ as a technique test, and it ended up turning into a full-blown project. Each one has multitudinous attributes that correlate with the respective type; I’ll leave it to y’all to speculate.

EDIT: I made a new INTJ image because the initial one was the only vertically oriented image compared to the other 15. See the first INTJ one here!

Artisans Idealists Guardians

The Rule of Thirds Aug 14th - 27th

Basic? Perhaps. Fundamental? Yes, in many cases, vital to giving the viewer a reason to look longer and deeper into your photo. Something we all should try to achieve with every single one of our photos. Practice, as always, makes perfect.

What is it? It is a technique for composing an image that predates photography. Developed originally by artists working to find a way to convey more depth, more of a story in their artwork. It has stood the test of time, and is still very relevant today if you want to give anyone a reason to spend more than a few moments looking upon your work. 

Put simply enough, it’s a grid pattern (think tic tac toe) laid out on an image. The grid lines (and their intersections) are the areas in which we want to have our focus points.

Here we see the tree fixed right on the bottom right intersection, as well as the horizon line, lined up closing with the bottom third. The intent is to showcase the sky. 

If we center every subject the eye tends to look at that center and move on. It should always be our goal as photographers to give any viewer a reason to pause and explore.

I wanted a shot of one of the iconic lions and to showcase the front of the Art Institute.

Now, I drew the lines on top of my photos. Why? Well they aren’t exact, and that was the point. You don’t have to perfectly line everything up, though it’s never a bad idea to try and achieve.

As you can see, the rule applies to photos in landscape or portrait (vertical) orientation. Photo credit @tvoom

In portraits lining up the eyes is best, as the viewer will naturally look to them where ever they are in the photo. Even better if we can line up another focal point (tattoo) as well. Photo credit @tvoom

We can always always crop if needed in any post work. 

Many cameras, including smartphones, will allow you to turn on this grid pattern making this composition technique a snap to use.

Show us your best. Get out and find a story to share. Let your photos convey a story and give anyone a reason to look a little longer. After all photos with a story are the best photos.

If you wish to participate simply share your photo on your own blog and tag it #photoprompt within the first five tags. Your first entry will be reblogged to @pws-popup, and a selection of those will be selected for feature, with comment on @photosworthseeing.


Edit: You do not need to put lines on top of your photos!


AN ACT To set apart a certain tract of land lying near the head-waters of the Yellowstone River as a public park.

Yellowstone Park Act, 3/1/1872
Series: Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 - 2011Record Group 11: General Records of the United States Government, 1778 - 2006

One hundred and forty-five years ago on March 1, 1872, President Ulysses S. Grant signed H.R. 16 into law, creating Yellowstone National Park, the nation’s first Federally protected national park.

“Yellowstone Falls,” Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (Vertical Orientation)
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984, Photographer .  Series: Ansel Adams Photographs of National Parks and Monuments, 1941 - 1942Record Group 79: Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006

Find more photos of Yellowstone National Park by photographer Ansel Adams in the @usnatarchives online catalog.

Erupting, against dark sky, “Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park,” Wyoming. Ansel Adams, Photographer. NAID 519994.

anonymous asked:

What are the key features of dinosaurs though, exactly?

Kind of a long story and it’s a fluctuating list. Here is a list from Nesbitt: 

  • in the skull, a supratemporal fossa (excavation) is present in front of the supratemporal fenestra, the main opening in the rear skull roof
  • epipophyses, obliquely backward pointing processes on the rear top corners, present in the anterior (front) neck vertebrae behind the atlas and axis, the first two neck vertebrae
  • apex of deltopectoral crest (a projection on which the deltopectoral muscles attach) located at or more than 30% down the length of the humerus (upper arm bone)
  • radius, a lower arm bone, shorter than 80% of humerus length
  • fourth trochanter (projection where the caudofemoralis muscle attaches on the inner rear shaft) on the femur (thighbone) is a sharp flange
  • fourth trochanter asymmetrical, with distal, lower, margin forming a steeper angle to the shaft
  • on the astragalus and calcaneum, upper ankle bones, the proximal articular facet, the top connecting surface, for the fibula occupies less than 30% of the transverse width of the element
  • exoccipitals (bones at the back of the skull) do not meet along the midline on the floor of the endocranial cavity, the inner space of the braincase
  • in the pelvis, the proximal articular surfaces of the ischium with the ilium and the pubis are separated by a large concave surface (on the upper side of the ischium a part of the open hip joint is located between the contacts with the pubic bone and the ilium)
  • cnemial crest on the tibia (protruding part of the top surface of the shinbone) arcs anterolaterally (curves to the front and the outer side)
  • distinct proximodistally oriented (vertical) ridge present on the posterior face of the distal end of the tibia (the rear surface of the lower end of the shinbone)
  • concave articular surface for the fibula of the calcaneum (the top surface of the calcaneum, where it touches the fibula, has a hollow profile)

Here’s a picture of the spinning face wheel I was able to get for reference. Man I wonder what it is

Nice! Thanks!

So I’m going to throw out some of the guesses for what it might be:

  • So what’s the midpoint between the likes of Zeus and Kali Ma? Proto-Indo-European mythology. Some representation of known reconstructions of these ancient religious figures.
  • A counterpart to Mem Aleph that leans on the side of being an original creation. Note the mask (!) has a third eye, vertically oriented (MA’s is horizontal). 
  • Though speaking of Jewish concepts, perhaps the Shekinah.
  • Shakti, another supreme female aspect that can also happen to be tripartite in form.
  • Worst case scenario: Sophia (I would throw up over this one). Better case Gnostic representation: Barbelo, who is androgynous (one of the faces looks male, but if this were the case it’d probably only have two faces instead of at least three).
  • Something we’d never be able to guess from a picture alone. If I’d seen YHVH 2 from Apocalypse without a name or context I would have never guessed it was supposed to be him.

Audience participation adds:

  • zedarshadow: YHVH phase 7. Actually… (I’ll get into that in the reblog)
  • turnipfritters: Three Wisemen. Soren and I were convinced that’s what the faces on the boxart were, but now that they’ve shown off the actual 3WM in trailers I’m less certain they have anything to do with it. Still not outside the realm of possibility for them to morph into some boss form, though.
  • postmortempsychosis: Hecate. That one is out there, but we’ve seen more out there out theres than that.
  • anonymous: Mahadevi. Any concept that encompasses or includes many in one I think is a decent guess.

And I built the last of the initial houses for the neighborhood, too. It’s supposed to be a classic chalet, but it has a dorky and non-classic dormer on the side because I forgot to leave space for a bathroom upstairs, and I didn’t want to rip it apart. Derp. :p But even with the dorky dormer, I kinda like it because I have a gigantic soft spot for chalet style in general. It’s the only building in the neighborhood that doesn’t use the log walls because IMO chalet style looks better with vertically-oriented exterior cladding, and I don’t have vertical log walls. So, it got wood-tone board-and-batten siding instead.

The interior isn’t done (and it’s still not done on the fifth house, either), but otherwise all the initial houses are built now.