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Voyager: The Golden Record

It’s the 1970s, and we’re about to send two spacecraft (Voyager 1 & 2) into space. These two spacecraft will eventually leave our solar system and become the most distant man-made objects…ever. How can we leave our mark on them in the case that other spacefarers find them in the distant future?

The Golden Record.

We placed an ambitious message aboard Voyager 1 and 2, a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials. The Voyager message is carried by a phonograph record, a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth.

The Golden Record Cover

The outward facing cover of the golden record carries instructions in case it is ever found. Detailing to its discoverers how to decipher its meaning.

In the upper left-hand corner is an easily recognized drawing of the phonograph record and the stylus carried with it. The stylus is in the correct position to play the record from the beginning. Written around it in binary arithmetic is the correct time of one rotation of the record. The drawing indicates that the record should be played from the outside in.

The information in the upper right-hand portion of the cover is designed to show how the pictures contained on the record are to be constructed from the recorded signals. The top drawing shows the typical signal that occurs at the start of the picture. The picture is made from this signal, which traces the picture as a series of vertical lines, similar to ordinary television. Immediately below shows how these lines are to be drawn vertically, with staggered “interlace” to give the correct picture rendition. Below that is a drawing of an entire picture raster, showing that there are 52 vertical lines in a complete picture.

Immediately below this is a replica of the first picture on the record to permit the recipients to verify that they are decoding the signals correctly. A circle was used in this picture to ensure that the recipients use the correct ratio of horizontal to vertical height in picture reconstruction.

The drawing in the lower left-hand corner of the cover is the pulsar map previously sent as part of the plaques on Pioneers 10 and 11. It shows the location of the solar system with respect to 14 pulsars, whose precise periods are given.

The drawing containing two circles in the lower right-hand corner is a drawing of the hydrogen atom in its two lowest states, with a connecting line and digit 1 to indicate that the time interval associated with the transition from one state to the other is to be used as the fundamental time scale, both for the time given on the cover and in the decoded pictures.

The Contents

The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University and his associates. 

They assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind and thunder, birds, whales and other animals. To this, they added musical selections from different cultures and eras, and spoken greetings from Earth-people in fifty-five languages, and printed messages from President Carter and U.N. Secretary General Waldheim.

Listen to some of the sounds of the Golden Record on our Soundcloud page:

Songs from Chuck Berry’s “Johnny B. Goode,” to Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony are included on the golden record. For a complete list of songs, visit: https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/golden-record/whats-on-the-record/music/

The 115 images included on the record, encoded in analog form, range from mathematical definitions to humans from around the globe. See the images here: https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/golden-record/whats-on-the-record/images/

Making the Golden Record

Many people were instrumental in the design, development and manufacturing of the golden record. 

Blank records were provided by the Pyral S.A. of Creteil, France. CBS Records contracted the JVC Cutting Center in Boulder, CO to cut the lacquer masters which were then sent to the James G. Lee Record Processing center in Gardena, CA to cut and gold plate eight Voyager records.

The record is constructed of gold-plated copper and is 12 inches in diameter. The record’s cover is aluminum and electroplated upon it is an ultra-pure sample of the isotope uranium-238. Uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.468 billion years.

Learn more about the golden record HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

The Real Annabelle 

Article by the Sun

he original doll, which is now locked up Ed and Lorraine Warrens’ Occult Museum in Monroe, Connecticut, was said to have unleashed a reign of terror on a group of flatmates in a chain of events that ended in a man’s death.

The rag doll, with huge black eyes, is very different from the film’s china doll but her story is just as terrifying.

Lorraine Warren said: “Looks are deceiving.

“It’s not what the doll looks like that makes it scary. It is what has been infused within the doll. Evil.”

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dear aquarium companies,

less tanks like this: 

more tanks like this:

thank 

Going to the Yule Ball with Draco Malfoy would include...

Originally posted by crystalgreene-justromance

request -  Dancing with Draco at the Yule Ball.

a/n - i kind of changed it up and made it into a yule all with draco thing since i had a lot more ideas to offer into the request, hope you don’t mind!!! xxx

- he probably asked you by using a charm to be all cutesy

- he only went all out because he thinks you’re the absolute cutest in the school

- also would probably beat crabbe and goyle up if they called they said anything about you that was negative

- him asking fellow slytherins to tie his bowtie

- ‘draco all you’ve ever told me to do is go stick a dragons egg up my arse why should i help you now’

- ‘I KNOW BUT JUST THIS ONE TIME CMON’

 - waits for you at the bottom of the staircase in front of the great hall

- might i mention that you’ve already tripped on your dress a good 5 times already

- your mom sent you that dress okay!!! it was special and you hope he would like it

- and oh boy did he

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Gavr’inis cairn (around 3.500 B.C.), Île de Gavrinis, Breizh 2017.

The burial chamber is reached from the outside by a 14m long corridor. Of the 29 orthostat slabs that form the sides of the passage, 23 are decorated with carved symbols and patterns.

“It is for its art that Gavrinis is famous. No fewer than twenty-three of it’s twenty-nine upright stones have been carved, not in single or isolated motifs but in a profuse series of compositions so that stone flows into stone or is mirrored by another in patterns engraved in low relief. The art is balanced in panels horizontally and vertically in symbols of which the main elements are concentric arcs and axes. These latter implements have splayed cutting edges like the big, prestige axes from the Carnac Mounds.” - A. Burl

The last stone in my photos has 3 horizontal hand sized holes about 10 cm deep similar to kerbstone 52 at Newgrange (which was built supposedly around 300 years later).

Lighting in The Last Jedi trailer and that scene we are all talking about.

Like many of you that last bit of the trailer had me screaming at the tv. After the initial freak out phase had passed, I began to slowly shift into the what if phase, meaning– are they baiting me? Now there are several theories out there about who Kylo is holding his hand out too. Some say its Leia and not Rey. What if I told you the proof is in the shot itself? 

I am about to give you a quick lesson in lighting, visual storytelling, and cinematography. 

Let’s go back to The Force Awakens as a reference guide. The lighting on Starkiller base bridge you know that scene where he kills his dad? 

Lighting was something they made sure to get right in this scene. Notice how Kylo’s face is half hidden in shadow and the other in light. Signifying his split.

JJ says this  “ And you see the light go away. And now they’re in this darkness. And darkness takes over.”

The play with light was even more apparent when Kylo and Rey face off against the edge of the cliff. 

Now I’m about to throw some cited literary sources about Film and Lighting just so it’s importance is established. 

“In visual storytelling, few elements are as effective and as powerful as light and color. They have the ability to reach the viewers at a purely emotional gut level”(Brown, 2012, p. 8).

Light becomes mood that gives its tone to a film. It calls upon our memory to react to physical phenomena such as cold, rain, fog, sun, or dryness, and come up with psychological equivalents such as annoyance, sadness, mystery, fear, anguish, comfort, joy, gaiety, etc. As these effects produce immediate impressions in viewers, the cinematographer is able to obtain psychological reactions out of mere technical means (Geuens, 2000, p. 153).


Architecture and Film both use perceptual psychology to get people to see spaces in a certain way. Architecture lighting designers skillfully illuminate buildings and rooms with psychological intentions.

Lighting designers think about a psychological response and how behavior is affected by lighting. Some examples are:

1. Visibility of vertical and horizontal junctions aids orientation.

2. People follow the brightest path.

3. Brightness can focus attention.

4. Facing wall luminance is a preference.

5. Lighting can affect body position (Ginthner, accessed April, 2013 p.2).

Just as lighting designers light spaces to stimulate human mood and behavior, Cinematographers light the space inside a movie frame with the intent to persuade a viewer’s perception. The way objects are lit in the frame will focus the viewer’s attention, the amount of shadows cast will limit perception, and changing lights can indicate a change in a character or opportunity (Brown, 2012).

However, unlike film, architecture has had a psychological study on how different light in a physical space effect human arousal, concentration, memory, work productivity, and Mood.

If you take any type of filmmaking class, this is one of the first things you learn. Nothing is a mistake in these films everything is as designed to serve a purpose. 

So let’s dive into the scene in question. 

Originally posted by mine-loves

First of all, let us talk about how these two shots are framed. They are close up only showing the faces of our characters. 

Close up shots typically contain just the face and shoulders of a subject, with a little headroom above. This prevents ‘floating head syndrome’ as the shoulders suggest to the brain that there is a body below! These shots are the most common of all as they can convey a real sense of emotion and help the audience to connect with the subject.

Second, let’s talk about the choice of lighting

They are both in a warm fiery glow. 

You can judge the quality of light in a film scene through the hardness or softness of its shadows. Hard quality light has dark shadows with sharp edges and often feels more raw than soft quality light. Soft lighting, often used in older films, has lighter, diffused shadows and tends to feel more sentimental.

And with advances in film technology, sharp shadows can also be quite romantic. Case in point, this still from the end of the 2005 version of Pride and Prejudice:

Third, let’s talk color 

Color temperature is one of the first things to note when studying the lighting in a romantic scene. Is it orange? Bluish? White? Most often, warm colors add to an inviting, romantic atmosphere. For example, the warm light in the sunset scene in Titanic draws the audience in, unlike the cold, blue lighting later in the movie, after things get dire.

Forth let’s talk context

This is not the same scene with Kylo. Rey is still wearing her resistance clothing. This is the beginning of the film. 

The context matters especially in this scene where Rey is talking about needing someone to show her where she belongs. Is this romantic? The answer is, no. Is it intimate? Yes. The scene can be set up this way without any romantic implications. But it is definitely meant to be intimate. Rey is vulnerable at this moment and is speaking from her heart to Luke. Please show me what to do with myself. 

Now let’s move to Kylo’s scene which is no doubt at the end of the movie (because his scar is healed.) 

Our big bad villain is bathed in nearly the exact same lighting and color as Rey’s shot, even the framing is the same. In no other shot ever has Kylo Ren been depicted in these colors. Not in the teaser and not in TFA. Kylo is always in red or dark. The context of this shot is very very important. He is reaching out palm up as to take someone’s hand. He does this slow and gentle. His face is soft with what I would say a plea. 

Yes, this is a call back to Darth Vader asking Luke to join him on the Darkside in Empire Strikes Back. But if you go back and watch that scene it is intimately framed (remember context matters), but the colors are pale. Lukes’ face is in agony. Vader extends his hand it’s rigid and forced.


Before I get into more examples, I want to point out that yes trailers are meant to give you an idea, and intrigue you but they are also meant to misdirect. 

Trailer Misdirects/Visual Storytelling and Dialogue

The misdirect of this scene is to make you believe Rey might join the dark side with Kylo or at least first glance. General Audience viewers casual fans who do not give it any second deep thought will accept this and move on. However, more dedicated fans will step in and try to dissect the scene by looking at the image and not the overall meaning behind everything we discussed above. The trailer isn’t designed to give anything away. Which leads me to say this is very smart editing on Rian’s behalf. While it doesn’t give us the answer of will, she or won’t she? It provides us with the question that we will inevitably discuss in length until the movie is released. 

 I would also like to point out there is a visual storytelling aspect of this trailer when it comes to the dialogue. 

One example of this not related to the scene in question comes from Poe Dameron.  He states “We have the spark that will ignite the fire to bring the First Order down.” The next scene we get is Finn. It is pretty clear that bit of dialogue was meant for Finn. He will no doubt help bring the FO down as other Stormtroopers defect as he did. Finn is that spark for the rebellion. Now let’s talk about the Rey/Kylo scene. The same thing happens here. Her dialogue coincides with the next shot of Kylo. Also, notice (scroll up if you need to) how their faces are opposite each other Rey is looking slightly to our left while Kylo is looking slightly to the right. Their positions are mirrored which is a recurring theme in the TFA (see the snow fight). This is beautiful visual storytelling. TFA was full of the same imagery lighting and storytelling. I have a post about it HERE

I went through and found scenes that mimic that of what we saw in the trailer, down to color, lighting, and frame.  I also chose male and female characters. Guess what, all of them were romantic. 

I chose this because of the flares in the background and the close-up framing of their faces. Notice yes the color is blue because they are parting (remember CONTEXT). 

Next, we have a scene from Pride and Prejudice, but beyond the romance aspect, I want you to watch the light change of this scene. Elizabeth is bathed in blue until she accepts Darcy, taking his hand. The sunlight beams between them warming the scene.  Skip to 3:10

Here is an oldie but a goody. I chose this due to the color. Now remember this film is old, lighting techniques have come a long way since the 1930s, but their choice of color is important, along with the shadows on their faces. 

Ah, Jon and Dany. This is very romantic (even tho its incest lol) But take a look at the lighting between them also this part is (NSFW) if you are gonna watch till the end. You were warned. 


And now for the grand finale TFA cliff scene. Oh, I chose this little diddy to drive home a point. Kylo and Reys’ faces are framed intimately (which signified they would have a more profound connection later and at that moment they were finding the Force together) But also notice their faces are bathed in mostly pale colors due to it being cold. Yes, the lightsabers flicker red and blue onto them. Yes, that holds meaning as well, the fight between the dark and the light. But the overall pallet is pale frigid colors. Also, the context -- there’s that word again– of this scene is they are enemies fighting. Kylo does want to teach her, but he’s aggressive and forceful, to say the least. It is a stark contrast to what we see in TLJ trailer. Where he is calm relaxed and in warm, inviting lighting. No aggressive posture, no forceful plea.

If you want to contrast another couple, please refer to Pride and Prejudice again. I can’t upload it here, but this is the link. This is where Darcy says he loves Elizabeth, but she rejects him. They have close-ups, but the color and lighting are not intimate. Its pale lighter and blue. All things that are associated with sadness rejection etc. You get the point. 

So in conclusion. It is my opinion based on all information gathered on cinematography, that yes the relationship between Kylo Ren or perhaps Ben Solo at this point has drastically changed. It is no longer one of animosity or hate. Judging by the warm colors, and the soft shadows and above all else the context of the gesture/posture/facial expression of Ben it is romantic or at the very least (for the skeptics) a special relationship– Remember Rey and Ben are similar in Force power according to Luke- this gives them a bridge to each other one that will take them to understanding and COMPASSION. I am not saying they kiss, I am not saying they are a couple at the end of this movie. I am saying that it’s possible that it will move in this direction. They no longer hate each other. How did we get to this point? Well, we have a whole Act 1 and 2 to get through for that answer. 

I will stress that I believe that yes Ben/Kylo is holding his hand out to Rey. And no, it is not out of malice or deception. He is not asking her to join him on the Darkside… He is asking her to go with him and for acceptance. 

I made a follow-up post to this because this was so long! Please click here to see more examples and extra information

le-trash-can  asked:

Hi, as a very young artist, if you can even call me that, I've recently noticed by looking at your art that a lot of my drawings with people in them seem quite boring at the moment. Not really any interesting perspectives or poses, just a character standing there, doing next to nothing. How do you come up with such dynamic poses and perspectives?

There’s are two general types of composition: static and dynamic.

The static one is composed of lines intersecting at right angles, everything is either perfectly horizontal or vertical. Horizontal/vertical lines inform as that there is no movement so the composition is “fixed“ and may come off as boring to one’s eye.

Dynamic one lacks the perfectly horizontal/vertical lines and that introduces “movement” to the scenery making it more eye catching and saying “there is action happening”.

The lines are indicated by the position of objects in the picture. Note that dynamic and static are not defined by whether the objects are moving or not. If you had a person standing still on two feet then it’d be a static composition. But if the same person decided to lean on a wall then it’d become dynamic even if the person would still be in one place.

Another thing is the horizon line. The general rule I’ve been thought goes “the closer to the frog perspective the more epic the pic is; the closer to bird perspective the more you are an observant”. Putting “the camera” below a character will automatically create something more extreme and therefore more interesting. Same goes for placing it above a character however this option will additionally show more of the background and depending on what you fill it with it can be both filled with action or pretty static.

And the last thing I can think of at the moment is the line of flow within a composition. If it’s there the picture becomes more pleasant to look at.
There are also the rules of accurate perspective in the picture and exaggerations in the sizes of objects. All of that can make a picture more interesting.

If we combine all of that I mentioned:

 And obviously the most important part is practice :) Good luck <3

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My dear newbie yarn benders,

I love you. You’re wonderful and fabulous and energized about seeing a cool project on the inter-webs and have finally said “yes! I think I could do that! This is the one that will get me into knitting/crochet” With all the excitement and joy in the world you go to the craft store, grab the coolest looking yarn (in the best color, duh) and the cheapest needles/hook you can find (If if needles are too intimidating, you opt for the knitting loom. It comes in a 3 pack! score!). You follow the instructions as best you can with dreams of your project turning out exactly like the professionally taken photograph. Oh my naive, beautiful newbie yarn bender, you are on a craft high. Head so far in the clouds that you don’t realize what has happened until it’s done. We’ve all been here at some point, no matter how skilled a person is. 

My lovelies. Please learn from the mistakes that have already happened. Take the time to learn about gauge and value the materials needed. I am most definitely NOT saying buy the most expensive stuff. I am saying that skien of yarn that is one dollar more will likely make you enjoy the finished product bounties more than the value of one dollar. 

Take the top picture. This was most definitely made on a knitting loom. Im personally not a huge advocate of these. They’re great for learning how knitting works. Not great for endless feats of creativity. You’re limited by the size of the loom which limits you to the size of the yarn as well as the size of the object you make. For something that will not ladder (the long horizontal bits between the “V” stitches) you need yarn thick enough to touch the stitch next to it when wrapped around the loom. In the case of the photo, yarn far too thin was used. 

The next picture looks like it could be arm knitting. Which was a fad I loved. Can we bring this back instead of those pony tail hats? The larger the needle, in this case your arm, the larger yarn you need. The original appears to have multiple yarns being used. Perhaps our newbie knitter didn’t realize that’s an option? Lesson here: Larger needles, larger yarn. Smaller needles, smaller yarn. 

The last picture. This crocheted hippo went through the stretcher! oh no! This is a case of right yarn, wrong size hook. When your needle/hook is larger than your yarn and you put it under tension (in this case, stuffing it) the created fabric will stretch (more-so demonstrated in the first picture). Amigurumi is also hard as shit. The people who do it very well are incredible talented. We should all bow before their prowess. Please don’t try an amigurumi (small figurine knitting/crochet) as your first or even 5th project!

General rule of thumb: if you don’t want holes in your work look for yarn and needle/hook approx same size in diameter.

Alas, you have returned for the craft store. Heading the advice you’ve gotten complimentary yarn and needle/hook. TIME TO START THE CRAFT JUICE!

NO.

NOT YET.

“but whyyyy?” you whine

Because we must first test the yarn.

“But tests are boooooring” says the yarn. 

I agree, talking yarn. Tests are boring and terrible and holy crap tell you if you’re doing something right or wrong. This is useful information to know before creating something beautiful with your HANDS

Also my dear newbie yarn bender, practice makes a better yarn bender. Resist the urge to pump out something fast. Pinterst lied to you. It’s not going to take 1 hour. It will take at least 3 hours and two trips to the craft store. Accept this now. Knitting/crochet is slow ASF. Accept this now. Or find a different hobby. 

So loop on some stitches and knit or crochet your joyous heart out. Then measure it once you get around 5 inches. Count the stitches horizontally and vertically. Then refer to the chart above and make sure everything agrees. Got 12 stitches per 4 inches and using DK (3) yarn? Time to change needles sizes or get your gorgeous self some bulky yarn. Or get yourself some bulky yarn anyhow. Treat yo’self. 

i love you newbie yarn benders! Go forth and create and learn

<3 Stitch

I would like to share with you guys the list of game sliders(not custom sliders).

I always discover a new slider every times I make a new sims. @@

Until now, I think I have master all the sliders. So I decided to make this list for those who might missed out some sliders like me or those who are new to sims 4 and want to understand the sliders. :)

I’m not sure if somebody done this before but whatever. XD 

WARNING: TONS OF GIF IMAGES UNDERNEATH

Keep reading

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Here’s part 2 of the collaboration project between me and @daer0nYou can find part 1 here. Part 3 will be shared soon as well. :)

Some of the objects (like the bottle next to the laptop and the cake slice) that are shown in the previews will be included in part 3. The barstool was converted from TS2. The grey chair was inspired by a Sims 2 chair as well. I’ve been looking for that chair forever, but never found it, so I decided to make it for TS4.

Included items in this set are: Hanging TV, table with sockets and the same table without sockets, menu stand for table, plants (5 different plants in 2 sizes, 10 meshes), Window, Salt and pepper (1 mesh), posters and wallframes (5 meshes), ceiling air vent, ceiling, pipes (horizontal and vertical pipe), beer bottle, barstool, single door, wallclock, floortiles, kitchen door, ceiling lamp, neon signs (pink panther and coffeecup), toilet sign, laptops (with and without charger, decorative), chair, arcade machine (decorative), walls, doormat (1x1), booth bench, booth table and wires (2 meshes).

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