Advanced II Lesson 2: -(으)ㅁ, changing verbs/adjectives into nouns
That’s right, you can change not only verbs and adjectives into nouns in Korean, but also the copula 이다. Being able to change verbs/adjectives into nouns enables you to make noun phrases, which function as subjects, direct objects and so forth within larger sentences. This grammatical form is used most often in writing.
Adding -(으)ㅁ can be used with verbs, adjectives, and noun+이다. It can be used in the past, present, or future tense. The tense is reflected in the verb/adjective being changed. -음 is added following consonants. -ㅁ is added following vowels.
Past tense verbs and adjectives use -았/었음 (nouns: 였음/이었음) Present tense verbs and adjectives use -(으)ㅁ (nouns: 임) Future tense verbs and adjectives use -겠음 (nouns: 이겠음)
인생의 행복은 돈의 많고 적음에 있지 않아요. The joy of life does not lie in having a lot of or the lack of money.
In this example, the use of 음 with 적다 turns the phrase into a noun that can be acted on by the functioning verb of the sentence, the negative form of 있다.
Let’s go back to our above example.
인생의 행복은 돈의 많고 적음에 있지 않아요.
As I stated previously, the use of 음 is generally used only in writing (especially popular in poems!). However if you wanted to say the above sentence aloud, you would change the -음 to -는 것. Replacing this grammar form with -는 것 gives almost no change in meaning when used in speech, but its important to note that not every instance of -는 것 can be replaced with -음. To that end:
인생의 행복은 돈의 많고 적음에 있지 않아요.
인생의 행복은 돈의 많고 적은 것에 있지 않아요.
These sentences are identical, only one is better suited for writing, and one is better suited for speech.
This sort of thing is more common than you might think. You have
probably already come across several words in Korean that were taught as
nouns but are really verb/adjective + ㅁ. For example the word 꿈 (dream)
is simply the noun form of 꾸다 (to dream).
Some other incredibly common instances of this are:
한국에 처음 왔을 때는 한국말도 모르고 문화도 달라서 어려움이 많았어요. When I first arrived in Korea because I didn’t know Korean and the culture was different I had a lot of difficulties.
This sort of thing generally isn’t done to verbs that end in 하다 because if you simply remove the 하다 then what’s left of the stem of the verb is a noun in its own right.
Another way of turning verbs and adjectives into nouns is to use -기 however there are some fundamental differences between -음 and -기.
Using -음, it’s generally for things that are already known or that have occurred and completed or been finalized. Using -기 is for things that are expected, but unfinished or currently in progress.
When using -음 the 조사 particles cannot be omitted. You are required to use a subject/object particle when using -음. However when you use -기 the particles can be omitted without issue.
-기 cannot be used as a sentence final form (very few exceptions exist). -음 can be used as a sentence final form, and when it is, it is used to convey facts or information generally via public announcements, notices, in dictionaries, reports, and so on. For example: 타에 모범이 되어 이 상장을 수여함.
However both of them can be replaced with -는 것 in speech with no change of meaning.
As the place where I live has basically turned into a living cornucopia with the coming of summer, here are a few fruit etymologies to celebrate abundance. (And apples, as it turns out. All fruits are apples. Everything is apples.)
Apple: Perhaps a boring start, but I’ve always been fond of apples. Apple comes from Old English aeppel, from Proto-Germanic aplaz and PIE abel. There are similar words across most Indo-European languages, most of which also mean “apple” or just “fruit” in general. Apple started this way in English as well: it was a term for all fruit (except for berries) and also for nuts. Often other fruits would have “apple” in their names, like fingeraeppla, the Old English word for “dates”. Because “apple” was a generic term for fruit, it is often mistakenly referred to as the “fruit of the forbidden tree” in the Bible, though the text of Genesis does not name any particular fruit.
Melon:As much as apples were the generic fruit in English and many other languages, “melon” is the generic term for unknown fruits in Greek. (It means apple.) However, it was the root of melopeponem, the Latin word for several varieties of sweet gourds, from whence it wandered into English via Old French in the 1300s.
Peach: Another fruit that is actually just an apple, “peach” comes from Latin malum persicum, translated from the fruit’s Greek name and literally meaning “Persian apple”. The name probably came about because the Persians introduced Europe to the peach, having gotten them from China.
Grape: In a shocking turn of events, grapes are not apples. “Grape” comes from Old French, probably a back-formation from the verb graper, meaning “to steal, to pluck”. (A back-formation is when a noun is created out of an adjective or verb. This is “backwards” because usually, verbs and adjectives are derived from nouns.) The French word replaced the Old English word, which was literally “wineberry.”
Ok, I didn’t want to talk about it, but I have met a lot of misconceptions about Russian obscene language, so I decided to touch on this topic.
•How to introduce your “bad language”?
> Извините меня за мой французский
Sorry *me for my french
> Как сказал один японский бог…
As Japanese god said…
> Я вообще не матерюсь, но тут….
Usually I don’t use obscene language, BUT…
•When can I use such words?
> Russians use it everywhere, like usual words, but only with friends and family, when we are in a formal situation, we don’t use obscene words (*usually;))
• Some rules
> You can change every obscene word into another part of speech. Absolutely. Verb-noun-adjective-adverb
> Women, especially old ones, become very angry when someone swears near them or in the dialogue with them. But actually, at home, they swear much more, than you can expect. Be careful:)
> Swearing in Russian language is a very emotional speech, the same word can show happiness and anger, pride and shame. Use your intonation;)
Ну всё блять, как-то ахуенно много получилось, пиздец, надеюсь, что хоть кто-то доебётся до конца.
What's the most interesting thing about tumblr for you linguistically?
It’s totally the tags.
Those tags where people write essays. I’m obsessed with those. They’re downright amazing linguistically!
I even proposed to do a research experiment on phrases, the juncture of syntax and semantics, and tumblr tags for my Computational Corpus Linguistics course. The teacher approved the project, but I ended up discarding it for a later time because of how difficult and involved the task would have been. There were too many problems to work out in the experiment and I realized I didn’t have enough time to do what I want.
The tags are intriguing for multiple reasons. They frankly make me run around like a chicken with his head cut off - except happier.
Syntax and Cognitive Science The tags show some very interesting things about phrasal structure. People divide up long sentences in tags during pauses. It’s unique “punctuation” and it says a lot for how people chunk thoughts, process them, and organize longer statements. It’s interesting where you see punctuation added or deleted; it helps you see cognitively how people are processing phrases.
Semantics The tags are full of very interesting expression techniques. One of the problems of written language has been that it lacks body language, which constitutes over half of our expression in conversation. It means that written language can be very easily misinterpreted for intent (think of how many texts get misinterpreted). But tumblrites and other social media savvy people have compensated and made written language HUGELY expressive. You see it in the tags. You see people use unique punctuation effects like deleting spaces, intentionally misspelling words, adding capitalization, and much more. There are emoticons, keyboard smashes, explosions of exclamation marks, and so many beautiful ways of expressing emotion. And people use lots of words in fascinating ways to get their thoughts across. It’s endless.
Diachronic Linguistics Historical linguistics is really cool. It’s about language change. Internet speech in tumblr has the latest, newest words and word units out there. You see so much beautiful language change happening. It’s how “Rickrolled” became a verb and “smol” grew its own set of recognized connotations. Word meanings change, take on new meanings, are filled with so much amazing sociolinguistic context. Abbreviations are made for fandom content. Abbreviations eventually become treated like real words, and then they take on new suffixes and become verbs and adjectives and nouns (”I lol’ed”). There are certain phonotactic paradigms English speakers subconsciously follow for creating new shipping names; I’ve even seen a linguistics paper on that topic. People are able to understand new terms they’ve never seen before; I’ve never heard of “Ruffheat,” but if someone said that to me, I’d know right away they’re talking about a Ruffnut x Heather ship. If someone told me “Hiccaang,” somehow I’d be able to figure out they’re talking about some Aang x Hiccup crack ship. We can just do that automatically because we’ve built our own compounding systems! And not only do we do that, but language changes SO FREAKISHLY RAPIDLY on tumblr it’s constant excitement.
Sociolinguistics Language varies based upon different groups we are a part of, and tumblr is full of many communities. Fandom communities, the science side of tumblr, the social justice community, and more are all out there. Each group has its own diction, vocabulary, and more. It’s also amazing how this collides with the fact that tumblr is global; the conversations arising aren’t just from native English speakers, but individuals whose first language might be Malay, Khmer, German, Korean, Japanese, or Finnish.
So yeah. And where you see all this amazingness the most is in the tags.
Believe me, I tag browse a lot because the content there is GOLD. Pure GOLD.
Someday I do hope to take my tumblr experiences and conduct a legitimate linguistics research study. It can teach us a lot about contemporary English, internet English, and how it’s used around the globe linguistically.
your poetry is really beautiful. how do you write poetry without rhyming? does that style have a name?
the style that i write in is called free verse! unlike traditional poetic forms, it doesn’t adhere to any rhyme scheme or meter, so instead of sounding classical and highly structured, it ends up sounding more like something you’d say out loud. this is because free verse specifically takes inspiration from natural patterns of speech.
with free verse, there isn’t any set determination to how long or short your lines should be, or where your lines should break. that’s entirely up to the poet, and one of the reasons why i enjoy writing it. i personally approach poetry by writing a big block of text and then going back afterwards and putting in the line breaks where i see fit. sometimes you don’t even have to put in any line breaks at all if you don’t want to. that’s called prose poetry, and it can be just as fun to write.
an invaluable skill i’ve learned over the years is to break on strong words. ending your lines on a verb, a noun, an adjective, etc., allows the line to have a sense of emphasis, and all the more emphatic if you can start your next line with a strong word too. but you don’t have to adhere to these ideas either. it’s an arbitrary system that differs from piece to piece.
here are some free verse poems that i think do interesting things with the form:
hey, my name is ana, im from colombia, (i'm actually not sure why i'm writing this in english) anyway, i've been wanting to learn korean for a while now, i learned hangul but the thing is that i don't know where to continue or what resources i can use, since it's really hard to find something korean related here; so i just wanted to ask you how you started learning and how do you manage your study time. I hope i didn't bother you ^^
Hola Ana!! :D Learning hangul is the first step, asi que comenzaste bien! c:
What I did: learn hangul, build some vocab with memrise, and then not improve at all for months because I had so many resources that I didn’t know which one to pick. I did check a few lessons of TTMIK and I used the textbook My Korean 1 (made by an Australian University, I think), but to be honest I didnt improve as much as I could have. Now I know the two reasons why: 1. TOO MANY RESOURCES: I was accumulating resources, books, sites, EVERYTHING, but didnt actually pick one to use. 2. Lack of discipline: I didn’t make time to actually study.
Know that I’m more experienced I highly recommend yall to not repeat my mistakes lmao. PICK ONE TEXTBOOK OR WEBSITE AND STICK TO IT. Don’t worry about missing out extra information or whatever. Only look for another explanation if the first one you used wasnt clear enough and you really couldnt understand, but AFTER TRYING; annotate, practice, review, and if it is still unclear then switch to another (reliable) resource. I’m NOT saying that every explanation is going to be accurate and should be trusted, but if it isn’t correct you will probably realize it after you become more comfortable with the language.
Everyone praises TTMIK and they deserve it, they have awesome lessons. My advice is that you find their curriculum (on their page) and start. But remember: DONT STOP. You dont know what to do? Go to the next lesson. As simple as that. Listen to the audios, repeat what they say, read aloud, make flashcards with the vocab and say “I will learn ALL THIS WORDS by the end of the week”, make your own sentences to practice vocab and grammar points, KEEP GOING. You can even skip some lessons (advanced learners are gonna kill me for saying this tho). Dont stress over “but what im a gonna do after i finish all their lessons?!?” You’ll cross that bridge when you get there.
that I recommend
for grammar is using the book Korean Grammar In Use (Beginner). It has a lot of grammar points with simple explanations, sample sentences, conjugations and exercises. You can pair it with the TTMIK lessons if you are a little worried about not getting enough practice.
For vocab I suggest the list of ‘Most common verbs/adjectives/nouns’, and I think some people have already created them on Memrise/Quizlet/Anki (I personally prefer quizlet).
I try to study at least 5 minutes a day. I’ll make a full post soon about how I’ve been managing my time these past few months, but this is what I try to do every week:
Grammar: it can take just 30 minutes to make notes for a grammar point. How many G.P. you do is up to how much time you have. I’m doing 3-5 per week (intensively selfstudying) but I think even one per week is fine!
Vocab: make a list at the start of each week (or month) and review every moment you can: before sleeping, while eating, on the bus. It shouldnt take you too much time either: 30 minutes for the list and 5 minute breaks for reviewing. Make goals: Ill memorize this list by the end of the week, Ill review 5 days of the week, Ill review 4 times each day. Be honest with yourself, but try to step out of your comfort zone.
Listening comprehension: listen to audios of the lessons, listen without reading the transcript and try to pick up words, listen to kpop too and other media like dramas or youtube videos. Doesnt take much time either and its fun to do.
Some kind of pronunciation practice: imitating the audios and reading aloud. If you have a native friend or anyone who knows/is learning korean, talk with them.
Some kind of writing practice like journaling your day, solving workbook exercises or making sentences with what you learn. Time varies with this. My journal entries take me 5-15 minutes (they are very short but sometimes I have to look up words that I dont know/remember)
Reading practice: write the dialogues from the lessons that you study and read them! they probably combine the grammar and vocab you are studying. Also write the sample sentences that they use. Read kpop lyrics and webtoons.
Hope this helps a little bit c: I’ll probably make more posts about this with more information. Lo mas importante es comenzar y seguir! No te bloquees. Si ves algo, aprendelo; no lo guardes para despues.
I'm studying a new language (Korean) and I'm really struggling with a notes format and color coding system. I've wasted an unnecessary amount of paper trying to work this out, and I can't feel like I've truly established a concept/lesson unless I have satisfactory notes for it. Do you think you help?
Hi there! Thanks for asking, and sorry for the late reply ^^’ Well I find that it’s easiest if you can work out a colour for each sentence part, e.g. adjectives, verbs, nouns and particles. Those are the main parts. Once you get used to common components like the subject in the sentence, you can skip colour coding them and just code the parts of the sentences that are new. It’s as simple as that! If you try and color code everything it’ll just make things confusing.
The other way you can code things is by coding subject, predicate, clauses, modifiers and phrases, but those can get a little confusing and aren’t as practical for learning a new language - it might be easier to code when learning a new grammar structure for example.
As for the format of my study notes, I always use new grammar structures as a heading. Then write an explanation beneath, and end with an example colour-coded sentence. For vocabulary, I use flashcards (either paper or digital with Anki works well) since writing lists is pretty pointless. There’s no point in writing words out again and again unless you’re doing handwriting practice - I was always taught to do this in Saturday Chinese school, and it was completely useless - I would write out maybe 200 characters (10 times for 20 new characters) and remember none of them.
I find this system super effective ^_^ Hope that helps!
Adverbs of place, time, etc. – Here. There. Where? To the right. To the left. Straight on. Already. Yet. Still. Now. When? How many? How much? Many, much, few, little, more.
Auxiliary words – Have to, must. May. Can. I’d like… Why? Because…
Inflected forms of “to be” and “to have” – [Language dependent]
Numbers (and dates)*– From one till ten, till a hundred. Days of the week, names of the months. Today, tomorrow, etc.
Important verbs – Leave. Arrive. Come, go. Start, finish. Eat, drink, look for, find, buy, get on, get off, have, know.
Nouns – It is a difficult question as their priority depends on the situation. For a tourist: room, bed, bathroom. In a restaurant: soup, bread, meat, water, beer, pasta. If you have some money for shopping, you don’t have to do anything but point. You will be understood.
Adjectives in the positive and comparative degree – Big, small. Cheap, expensive. Hot, cold. Good, bad.
This list, of course, can be extended and reduced at will. You can also play with it by checking how many forms you can instantly express in their foreign equivalents.
Unfortunately, there are a host of expressions that play a greater role in making you fluent than verbs, nouns, adjectives, and all other “responsible” word-classes. I call them filler words because their common property is that they don’t change the essence of a sentence, they only supplement it. Such filler words are quite, obviously, rather, of course, well, in fact, though, mostly, certainly, instead, a lot, still, anyway, etc. It is not easy to memorize them because there are no objective concepts attached to them, yet I recommend learning them with all my heart.
Since we are discussing filler words, let’s not forget filling clauses, either. These are usually sentence-launching expressions, not even bricks of the building of language but in fact ready-made slabs of it. They can be carried to the spot in prefabricated forms and plastered in immediately. Their great advantage is that they provide transitions between banal discourse and important discourse. In addition, they allow time to recall expressions that have sunk deep into your memory and to strike the tuning fork, which I have mentioned several times.
*originally this category was just “Numbers”, the (and dates) is my addition for clarity
So i've seen a lot people saying God doesnt have a gender, but then why does everyone always say God is male? I hope this doesnt sound offensive, i really like this concept, but do you have like a few sources?
Hi there! I don’t know many people who would outright assert that God is “male;” rather, the language they use for God implies it – using only masculine terms like “Father” and “Lord,” using only he/him pronouns, and so on. To keep it simple, the reason for this is patriarchy.
The Bible was written by people (either mostly or all men) in patriarchal cultures; it is also read mostly by people (us!) in patriarchal cultures. Whether they realized it or not, the writers couldn’t help weaving the mindsets and assumptions of their own world into their writing. Whether we realize it or not, we can’t seem to help weaving our mindsets and the structure of the world around us into our talk about God!
Here is one quote and here is another from theologian Shirley Guthrie on how the Bible was written by human beings within a patriarchal context. And here is a quote on avoiding anthropomorphizing God: part of how we end up viewing God as “male” is that we tend to anthropomorphize Them, to try to picture them as simply a person like us; and in our culture, a (white, cis, straight, able-bodied, etc.) man is the “default” human, we might even say the “ideal” human – and so surely God must be “male” too.
Edit: someone replied noting that Hebrew only has male and female verb endings – there is no neutral option. This is true, can’t believe I forgot to mention that! Hebrew’s verbs, nouns, adjectives, and pronouns are assigned genders. And again, because male was/is considered the “default,” and because men held more power in their society and they viewed God as powerful, it makes sense that, of the two options, the writers went with the male endings. (And for the Greek parts of the Bible, Greek is also a gendered language in this way.)
But God does not bless patriarchy; God does not fit into our boxes that aim to categorize humans into “superior” and “inferior.” God is genderless and God is every gender – God is God, and no human terms can hope to encompass the Divine.
Here is a post that talks about how we can view God as a woman, if we like; it includes passages from the Bible in which God is referred to with (or refers to Godself with) feminine imagery. These Bible passages show that even in these patriarchal times, the biblical writers did not confine God utterly to masculinity! The truth of God’s vastness shines through.
I’ll leave you all with a question and an invitation: how do you refer to God? do you see God as male? I invite you to experiment with language for God – expand the nouns, pronouns, and images you use for Them, for Him, for Her, for Xem. God is so vast, They defy pinning down with human words – but the wider we expand our language for Her, the bigger a “piece” of God we’ll see.
do you have any advice? im trying to self-learn german but im having a hard time organising it, is there a sort of checklist or something i can follow? (i need detailed plans to be able to work on stuff) thanks!
If you want more guidance, I’d recommend sticking to a textbook. Schritte+ is a popular one, as far as I know. They’ll introduce you to any new concepts in a sensible way, and you can be sure that the basics come first. I can recommend hueber, they also have special courses for German depending on what your native language is. Other possible publishers are Cornelsen, Langenscheidt, and Pons. Key words to look for are “Deutsch als Fremdsprache/DaF” (German as a Foreign Language) and you’ll likely find good results!
While I can very much relate to wanting a detailed plan for stuff (I do too), I don’t know if a “checklist” for any language exists tbh - maybe for Latin, but that’s about it. The problem is that while I could easily write down a list of German grammar that you need to know, that doesn’t mean that if you follow that list you’re automatically fluent.
problem 1: a big part of language learning is speaking/writing/actually using the language. I know a fair share of French grammar but that doesn’t help me if I lack vocabulary etc.
problem 2: I don’t think there is a way to learn a language just one topic after another. For every single sentence, you’ll need verbs and nouns, later adjectives and adverbs etc. I could tell you to just start with verbs, learn the tenses etc, but even if you did, you still couldn’t form a single sentence if you don’t know any nouns. That’s why I’d recommend following a textbook - they introduce you little by little to new concepts, but also show you how to use them simultaneously.
If you want more motivation and some prompts to fulfil, you could partake in @notglot ’s Summer Language Challenge. That way you’ll have small goals to achieve every week so you can hold yourself accountable!
Idk if this is what you were looking for, but I still hope it helped a little! If you need any help with German, feel free to ask. :)
The five card spread is typical in Lenormand and works well in terms of the sentence-like reading style. The middle card acts as the significator card, so you can either draw cards randomly and the card that falls in that space is the central theme, or you can shuffle and then find the significator card within the deck and draw the two cards in front of and the two cards behind in order to get your spread. The significator does not need to be a card that represents you or the one asking the question–in fact I never read like this–I pick the significator based on the content of the question being asked. So, for Lenormand, love questions I seek the heart or the ring based on the context, but with Tarot you can use The Lovers, or Two of Cups, etc. as the significator.
For those already comfortable with Lenormand, the next steps should be easy. For those who have never read Lenormand, single card draws are rarely done, or if they are, they give you minimal information. Cards are usually drawn in pairs and the one card modifies or flavors the context of the other. I say sentence-like reading style because you can think of it as subject+modifier/noun+adjective, etc. When it comes to multiple card draws, it follows like a sentence/additional sentences–noun+verb+adjective, noun+verb+adverb, etc.
So in reading the first card plus the second card, the first card is the subject and it is being modified or flavored by the second card. In the example reading above, you have The Moon + The Priestess. The Moon is the subject, so you would pull out a noun from the keywords for that card, e.g. mystery, unknown, dream, madness, unconscious, symbol, illusion. The Priestess is the modifier so you would pull out adjectives from the keywords of the card, e.g. intuitive, mysterious, emotional, clairvoyant, perceptive, insightful, sensitive, innate. Then you combine the two. Examples of this could include:
In the five card spread, you pull out pairs and string together their meanings to construct a narrative. Here I break down the example card pull.
1+2: The Moon + The Priestess = Emotional madness. 1+3: The Moon + The Devil = Oppressive madness. 2+4: The Priestess + 6 of Cups Rx = Immediate emotions. 3+5: The Devil + The Empress Rx = Restrained oppression. 4+5: 6 of Cups Rx + The Empress Rx = Restrained (to) present.
Then you string together to create the narrative. So in this example, you have:
Emotionally overwhelming times (emotional madness, oppressive madness). In order to stabilize the situation (restrained oppression), dwelling in the past or on the future needs to be limited (Immediate emotions, restrained to present).
For people used to doing very in-depth readings using Tarot, this might seem really off-putting as you are boiling down the meanings to the bare-bones, but that is exactly why I love Lenormand. Most people doing a 5 card spread could probably write several paragraphs explaining the nuances, but for people who want quick, direct responses, I think this is an awesome way to achieve it. When reading for myself, this helps me to avoid over-analyzing to get the answer I want. It’s hard to fudge the results in a biased way when it’s this simple.
So for someone who prefers Lenormand but still loves Tarot, you can have your cake and eat it too :)
Hey bret! Big fan, I was wondering how you choose which features you to exaggerate on a person when drawing them from life? or designing a character based on them?
I’d say that what a designer chooses what features they gravitate towards is a personal and long journey. Instead, I’ll try to explain the brain functions behind the theory….
I think of designs as a
simple Hierarchy. The first thing I do is quickly decide “Why am I
looking at them?!?!
This is your story/compostion/idea
It could be their good or bad taste in or lack of, clothing. Or it could
be their hair, Tattoos, facial expression, attitude, or whatever thing it is that grabs my attention and go “Oh
yeah, I gotta draw them!”
My rule of thumb, Listen to Mr. Bing Crosby……
Identify, remember, and
accentuate those positives.
And I don’t mean positives as positive attributes, but more mathematically. Colors, clothing, details, etc you see as a designer that pluses your design all while getting rid of the negatives that detract from that design and idea.
All design decisions will reinforce that main idea with shape choices, gesture, colors, and whatever else I have in my veritable repertoire. (Ed- My goodness I love words. Say that again….Veritable repertoire)
I believe there are 2 paths
to drawing people. Nouns and adjectives/verbs.
Nouns are for anatomical and analytical study
in your sketchbook. I am paying attention to the hands, feet, ribs,
muscle, eyes, how things are lined up properly. Very important. (I am closely observing and drawing them as them)
Adjectives Verbs are
for observing life and feeling something. The opposite of analytical.
Here’s where I am drawing “pointy, aggressive, angular, round, silly,
childish, tired, droppy, etc.” (I know I will never be paid to
draw that person so I don’t bother trying. I am merely taking the pieces
I, as a designer, like and changing the rest.)
You, as a designer, choose
which is best and at which time. These 2 methodologies eventually blend
together and just become choices of the designer in one image.
But that’s how I mentally think about designing from people, observations in
life, and how to take them somewhere. Hope that makes sense.
Guys. Learning Ancient Greek isn’t that difficult.
Sure, it isn’t as easy as English or Spanish or even Latin, but it’s not impossible either. All you need to do is get used to a different way of thinking. Beyond that, it’s the same as any other case-based language - you just need to learn the declensions of verbs, nouns and adjectives, a few grammatical points, a bit of vocabulary, grab a dictionary for the rest, and you’ll be fine.
Seriously. It’s not that hard. If you really want a difficult language, try Sumerian or Hittite. Ancient Greek is a pleasure next to those two.
I don’t mean to sound snobbish or pedantic - I’m just trying to encourage people to try it out. All too often, I see people going on about how difficult Ancient Greek is, and while it’s definitely not a stroll in the park, it’s discouraging to hear. Whenever I tell people about my studies, they are impressed and tell me they’d never have the determination to do what I’m doing (closely followed by the question: and what will you do after your studies?). **Mini rant: this is the reason there are only nine of us doing an Ancient Greek BA at my university, and I’m the only first year taking classes in the Mesopotamia department - and I’m not even enrolled there. People seem to think that ancient languages are difficult and that there’s no point anyway. Please don’t believe this. History is valuable and teaches us not only to understand our past, but to make linguistic, cultural and societal connections to our present and future. Ancient history is the childhood memories that make us who we are. It may not seem so important now, but the efforts that extremist regimes such as Nazi Germany, Mao’s China and Daesh have taken to destroy memory proves what power it has to influence people. Rant over** My answer is that it’s just like any other language. You need to love it to study it, but no more than someone studying Arabic or Armenian or Japanese would.
And let me tell you a secret.
Unlike those languages, you’re not expected to be fluent.
You’re allowed to take five hours to read a text, look up the vocabulary and analyse the structure before translating it. In fact, that’s what you’re expected to do. You’re allowed to not know what a word means. You’re allowed to be passionate about Plutarch but know nothing about Aristotle. You’re allowed to struggle with Herodotus’ Ionian dialect. You’re allowed to forget the third person plural aorist form of παιδεύω. It’s normal, and it happens to everyone. Even my professors don’t know the answers sometimes.
If you want to learn Ancient Greek, good on you. Don’t be discouraged. It’s possible to learn - it’s even possible to reach a confident reading level, believe it or not - and it’s fine to make mistakes while you’re doing it. Ancient Greek isn’t something that only big-headed bourgeois who name their kids Socrates and Terpsichore study. Anyone can do it. Yes. Even you.
If you’re interested, here’s a few tips:
love what you do. Obviously, nobody is going to learn an ancient language that they hate. But if you’re passionate about it, the motivation will be enough to carry you over the tedious bits.
be analytical in your approach, but keep an open mind. Ancient Greek is very structured and has a lot of rules, but it’s still a language that was once spoken by real people. Don’t take the rules as Word of God. Look at the global structure too, and get a feel for how it came intuitively to the Greeks.
but don’t forget about the rules. By that I mean grammar and most of all, declensions. I know it’s a lot to learn by heart - I, for one, hated doing it - but it’s really important. Think of it as the foundations of a solid house. Building them isn’t as fun as painting the walls and designing your bedroom, but they’re a necessary step to get to the more interesting parts.
start with the easy texts. Late authors, as a rule, are easier than earlier ones. Xenophon is easy. Pausanias is easy. Lucian is easy and also features one-legged lamps living on the moon. The Bible is easy. Things that are not easy: Homer and Homeric Greek, Sappho and her Aeolic dialect, Pindar, Hesiod, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Mycenaean Greek. (If you start with Mycenaean I will personally erect an altar in your honour.)
try Hittite instead. I promise you’ll come running back to Ancient Greek within a few days :D
This grammar point is used to affirm a guess of the conversation partner or to agree with what was previously stated. ‘정말 그렇다’ 또는 ‘그렇게 하겠다’의 뜻을 나타내요. Hence, it can translate to ‘of course’ or ‘I will do it that way’.
It is often used to show willingness to do something or agreement with an idea.
There is no change to a verb/adjective stem when used. Nouns ALWAYS use 이고말고요 regardless of the ending.
Past tense is placed before the grammar point; e.g 었/았/였고말고요.
We can say that ‘queer’ is more verb than noun or adjective, that it involves bodies but distrusts restrictive rhetorics of 'nature’ and 'identity,’ that it seeks and finds boundaries and plays with them, that it challenges judgements of the pious and licit in general and in particular. It deals with questions of great moment in experiences often deeply painful, but queering is fundamentally about the discovery of new pleasures and relationships. It expects and encourages fluidity, risk, and play. Christian queerness experiences the paradoxical workings of divine grace and love in all this. The Christian mystery is, after all, a scandal to law, foolishness to thought. Its appetite for disruption is prophetic.
Mark Larrimore’s “Introduction” to Queer Christianities: Lived Religion in Transgressive Forms, ed. Kathleen T. Talvacchia, Michael F. Pettinger, and Mark Larrimore.
The older that we get, the more experience we get with writing, the more we realize that we need to widen our vocabulary and delve into words that’ll make our writing more beautiful, more memorable. I’ve compiled a large list of adjectives, verbs, and nouns to use in your writing to make it flow better and to make it more mature. Don’t overuse these words or use them too closely together, to avoid lack of sense and sounding pretentious. Do not repost and claim as your own, that’s very rude!