verb to be


1) to feel irritated; to feel offended; to feel angry; 2) to feel sick; to feel nauseous

きみ の あいかわらず の ぐち には、 むかつく よ!
I’m fed up with your constant complaining!

その じこ の しゃしん を みる と むかつく
The picture of the accident makes me sick.


The Five-Minute Linguist talks from the LSA are now online! These short, accessible lightning talks were a new feature of the annual meeting of 2017 and attracted a great crowd of people. 

The eight speakers and topics (not in order) were: 

  • Carina Bauman (New York University): Back GOAT in Asian American English
  • Rachel Steindel Burdin (University of New Hampshire): This you call a rise fall?
  • Rabia Ergin (Tufts University): Emergence of verb classes in a young village sign language
  • Jeff Good (University at Buffalo): Local dynamics to high level Patterns in Bantu
  • Heidi Harley (University of Arizona): Node sprouting and root suppletion in Korean
  • Kirk Hazen (West Virginia University): Southern vowels and shifting Appalachian identities
  • Carmel O'Shannessy (University of Michigan): What do children do in contact induced language change?
  • Gregory Scontras (Stanford University): Subjectivity predicts adjective ordering preferences

The emcee was John McWhorter, and the judges were myself, Ben Zimmer, Michael Erard, W.A. Brenner, and an audience poll. I’m not going to post the winner here, so you can watch and judge your favourite for yourself!

EGRESS - noun (ee-gress), verb (ih-gres

Definition (noun):

  • the act or an instance of going, especially from an enclosed place
  • a means or place of going out; an exit
  • the right or permission to go out

Definition (verb):

  • to go out; emerge

Example sentences:

  • After being denied egress, John knew he was a prisoner.

Stovenly thinks:

  • how did he remember without his brain
  • the brain looks like chewing gum
  • what if the brain is really just all the chewing gum you swallowed as a kid


[in-soo-see-uh nt; French an-soo-syahn

1. free from concern, worry, or anxiety; carefree; nonchalant.

1820-1830; Insouciant entered English from French, based on the French verb soucier meaning “to worry.” Ultimately it finds its roots in the Latin sollicitāre meaning “to disturb.”

“You need to be flagrantly insouciant.
You care way too much.
And because of that you will be paralyzed for life and miss out on everything.”
Wendy Wunder, The Museum of Intangible Things

High formality conjugation (하십시오체)

Here’s a post for the beginners! Korean verb conjugation is different than English verb conjugation, and the form you must use varies depending on who you’re talking to and the social formality of the situation, among other factors. While this form isn’t the one that learners can expect to use the most, it is (IMO) the simplest to conjugate. Let’s dive in~

NOTE: I will not cover or use any irregular verbs in this post! I’ll save those for another post since I don’t want to potentially confuse someone seeing this information for the first time. Also, I will focus on the present tense, again to keep things as simple as possible.


하십시오체 is a high-formality low-closeness conjugation that is often used for things like making presentations, news reports,  and some working environments. It puts a fair bit of distance between the speaker and the listener, making it suitable for those kinds of situations. If you want to know a bit more about the workings of social formality and closeness in Korean conjugation, you can check out this post and skip down to the “Formality levels” section (and I highly recommend you do so, as it’s very important in Korean society and thus, in the Korean language!). If you use this form outside of the proper context, you can sound cold and terse, so be careful!

Since this is a high formality structure, you should use 저 to refer to yourself and refer to others by their name or title. “나” (informal “I”) and “너” (informal “you”) would sound very out of place!


The conjugation of 하십시오체 changes depending on if your sentence is declarative (statement), interrogative (question), imperative (command), or propositive (suggestion).

Declarative (statement): -습니다 (consonant-ending) / -ㅂ니다 (vowel-ending)

If you want to make a simple statement, you can used -습니다 and -ㅂ니다. If the root of your action or descriptive verb ends with a consonant, use -습니다. If it ends with a vowel, use -ㅂ니다.


  • 먹다 - 다 -> 먹 + 습니다 = 먹습니다 
    • 저는 사과를 먹습니다. (I eat apples/I am eating apples. [Korea’s simple present tense is often used with a progressive meaning.])
  • 넓다 - 다 -> 넓 + 습니다 = 넓습니다
    • 이 방은 넓습니다. (This room is wide.)
  • 읽다 - 다 -> 읽 + 습니다 = 읽습니다
    • 언니는 책을 읽습니다. (My older sister reads books/My older sister is reading a book.)


  • 가다 - 다 -> 가 + ㅂ니다 = 갑니다
    • 그는 학교에 갑니다. (He goes to school/He is going to school.)
  • 춤을 추다 - 다 -> 춤을 추 +ㅂ니다 = 춥니다
    • 제 친구는 춤을 춥니다. (My friend dances/My friend is dancing.)
  • 착하다 - 다 -> 착하 + ㅂ니다 = 착합니다
    • 저 아이는 착합니다. (That child is nice.)

Interrogative (question): -습니까 (consonant-ending) / -ㅂ니까 (vowel-ending)

If you want to make high-formality questions, this is how you do it! The interrogative endings are similar to the declarative endings. Make sure you use -습니까 for consonant-ending verb roots and -ㅂ니까 if the root ends in a vowel!


  • 찾다 - 다 -> 찾 + 습니까 = 찾습니까
    • 무엇을 찾습니까? (What are you looking for?)
  • 입다 - 다 -> 입 + 습니까 = 입습니까
    • 오늘 무엇을 입습니까? (What are you wearing today?)
  • 좁다 - 다 -> 좁 + 습니까 = 좁습니까
    • 교실이 좁습니까? (Is the classroom narrow?)


  • 타다 - 다 -> 타 + ㅂ니까 = 탑니까
    • 자전거를 매일 탑니까? (Do you ride your bike every day?)
  • 보다 - 다 -> 보 + ㅂ니까 = 봅니까
    • 어떤 영화를 봅니까? (What kind of movie are you watching?
  • 하다 - 다 -> 하 + ㅂ니까 = 합니까
    • 오늘 뭘 합니까? (What are you doing today?)

Imperative (command): -으십시오 (consonant-ending) / -십시오 (vowel-ending)

Same thing as above with the declarative and interrogative forms! Just add the proper ending to the root depending on if the root ends with a consonant or a vowel.


  • 신다 - 다 -> 신 + -으십시오 = 신으십시오
    • 실내화를 신으십시오. (Please wear your indoor shoes.)
  • 닫다 - 다 -> 닫 + -으십시오 = 닫으십시오
    • 문을 닫으십시오. (Please close the door.)
  • 접다 - 다 -> 접 + -으십시오 = 접으십시오
    • 종이를 반으로 접으십시오. (Please fold the paper in half.)


  • 보내다 - 다 -> 보내 + -십시오 = 보내십시오
    • 편지를 보내십시오. (Please send the letter.)
  • 싸다 - 다 -> 싸 + -십시오 = 싸십시오
    • 짐을 싸십시오. (Please pack the luggage.)
  • 운전하다 - 다 -> 운전하 + -십시오 = 운전하십시오
    • 운전하십시오. (Please drive.)

Propositive (suggestion): -읍시다 (consonant-ending) / -ㅂ시다 (vowel-ending)

Got the hang of it now? -읍시다 for consonant-ending roots and -ㅂ시다 for vowel-ending roots!


  • 잡다 - 다 -> 잡 + -읍시다 = 잡읍시다.
    • 날짜를 잡읍시다. (Let’s set a date. <– In Korean, you can use the verb 잡다 [to catch, grab] for things like setting appointments and dates.)
  • 뽑다 - 다 -> 뽑 + -읍시다 = 뽑읍시다.
    • 하나를 뽑읍시다. (Let’s pick one. <– 뽑다 means “pick” in the sense of picking or drawing one out of a group.)
  • 씻다 - 다 -> 씻 + -읍시다 = 씻읍시다.
    • 얼른 씻읍시다. (Let’s wash up quickly.)


  • 자다 - 다 -> 자 + -ㅂ시다 = 잡시다
    • 잠을 잡시다. (Let’s sleep.)
  • 지내다 - 다 -> 지내 + -ㅂ시다 = 지냅시다
    • 시간을 재미있게 지냅시다. (Let’s have a good time [Lit. Let’s spend time funly].)
  • 초대하다 - 다 -> 초대하 + -ㅂ시다 = 초대합시다
    • 민호 씨를 초대합시다. (Let’s invite Minho.)

Feel free to ask any questions you might have. Happy studying, everyone~


Roma: Danny…

Danny, sighing heavily: I think I’m wrong, but…is it a gerund phrase?

Roma, smirking: See, you know your grammar!

Danny: But I forget it. All the time. Why is there even grammar on the Literature exam, anyway?

Roma: Because they want to know if you can read, write, and form a sentence correctly.

Danny: …I guess I’m lucky you’re my friend then, huh?

Intermediate I Lesson 4: -은/는 편이다

The Korean word 편 as a noun means “side”. For example it can be seen used in such instances as 오른편 (the right side) or 왼편 (the left side). It can also be used to describe taking sides in an argument, or debate, as well as for factions in games and the like.

But by combining 편 with -은/는, we are able to use it to describe approximations of different verbs and adjectives. Let’s take a look at an example and the implications of this grammar point.

Without the grammar point:

켄 씨는 테니스를 잘 쳐요.
Ken plays tennis well.

With the grammar point:

켄 씨는 테니스를 잘 치는 편이에요.
Ken plays tennis pretty well.

Now I know what you’re thinking–Soo, what the heck is the difference here? Based on these translations the sentences mean the same thing!

And this would be where most people get confused!

In Korean, using the -은/는 편이다 grammar point when describing something implies that you think that the fact or observation is close to or on a certain side instead of talking about it as a definite, sure thing. So if we go back to our example sentences:

켄 씨는 테니스를 잘 쳐요.
Not using the grammar point, this sentence’s implication is that Ken is a great tennis player. He plays tennis extremely well and it’s a definite, observable thing.

켄 씨는 테니스를 잘 치는 편이에요.
If we use the grammar point instead, this sentence implies that the speaker perceives Ken to be on the better side of being able to play tennis, but not that he’s definitely a great player.

Still confused? Have a look at this graphic:

So on a scale of 0 to 100, where 0 is the worst, completely unable to play tennis and 100 being the best, a great tennis player, Ken who is described as “잘 치는 편이에요” is somewhere between 50% and 100% on the sliding scale of good-at-tennis-ness.

Got it? Good. :)

-은/는 편이다 is used with verbs, adjectives, 있다/없다, and 이다/아니다.
-은 is added to adjective stems ending in a consonant.
-ㄴ is added to adjective stems ending in a vowel.
-는 is added to all verb stems.
-는 is also added to 있다/없다.
-ㄴ is used with 이다/아니다.

Let’s look at a couple more examples:

비비안: 수키 씨 한국어 실력은 어때요?
수키: 말하기는 좀 힘들지만 읽고 쓰는 것은 잘하는 편이에요.
Vivian: Suki, how’s your Korean speaking ability?
Suki: Well speaking is a little difficult but reading and writing are really good.

한설: 왜 이렇게 학교에 일찍 왔어요?
신행: 제가 아침에 일찍 일어나는 편이어서 그냥 일찍 왔어요.
Hansol: Why did you come to school this early?
Shinhaeng: Because I got up pretty early I just came [to school] early.

벤: 비비안 씨 성격은 어때요?
찬미: 비비안 씨 성격이 밝은 편이에요.
Ben: What’s Vivian’s personality like?
Chanmi: Vivian’s personality is somewhat bright.

레오: 새로 이사 간 집이 어때요?
켄: 깨끗하고 조용해요. 그런데 방값은 좀 비싼 편이에요
Leo: How’s the new house you moved into?
Ken: It’s clean and quiet. However the room rental fee is kind of expensive

벤: 그 영화가 재미있었어요?
비비안: 괜찮았어요. 재미있는 편이었어요.
Ben: Was that movie interesting?
Vivian: It was okay. Pretty fun.

In the above examples you can see that all the instances where the grammar point is used is when the speaker is expressing their thought or opinion on the topic at hand. This is because you cannot use this grammar point when the situation or fact being discussed is CLEAR and DEFINITE to everyone. In other words, if the fact is either 0% or 100% on the scale in the graphic posted up above, then you cannot use 은/는 편이다. For example, a Korean person born and raised in Korea with Korean as their native language would simply be good at speaking Korean (한국어를 잘해요  -  O) as opposed to being just somewhat good/alright (한국어를 잘하는 편이에요 -  X).

Another important thing to note is when using -는 편이다 with a verb, an adverb like 자주, 많이, 잘, 안/못, etc must be paired with the verb.

저는 매운 음식을 잘 먹는 편이에요.
I eat spicy food pretty well.

Also be careful when using this grammar point in the past tense. Both -은/는 편이었다 and -은 편이다 can be used when expressing something in the past, but -은/는 편이었다 is used when explaining a general situation in the past, and -은 편이다 is used when explaining some event or action completed at a point in the past. (-은 편이다 being the past tense form of -는 편이다 for verbs)

-은/는 편이었다

어렸을 때 저는 키가 작은 편이었어요.
When I was a kid, I was on the short side.

-은 편이다

A: 어제 시험 잘 봤어?
B: 잘 본 편이야. 별로 어럽지 않았어.
A: You do well on the test yesterday?
B: I did pretty good. It wasn’t even hard.

As far as irregular verbs/adjectives go with this grammar point, the standard rules apply, notably:

If the word stem ends in ㄹ, the ㄹ is dropped. eg: 멀다 becomes 먼 not 멀은

If the word stem ends in ㅂ, the ㅂ is dropped, 우 is added and then the word is conjugated. eg: 춥다 becomes 추운 using this grammar point.

More info about irregular verbs and adjective rules can be found by clicking here!

That’s all for today. :)

not that I’m qualified to criticize popular writing tips or anything, but I’m sick of ppl hating on adverbs

stop reducing adverbs to just “a word that probably ends with -ly”. an adverb is a word or phrase that describes adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. adverbs answer the questions how, when, where, and why. it doesn’t just describe “how”!!


“Tomorrow,” she beamed proudly, twirling in her new dress. “I’ll be travelling there to see the circus!”

look at all those adverbs!!!!

  • “tomorrow” - adv, when is she travelling?
  • “proudly”, “twirling in her new dress” - adv and adv phrase, how is she beaming?
  • “there” - adv, where is she travelling?
  • “to see the circus” - adv phrase, why is she travelling?
I cannot stand ppl who say “don’t use adverbs all the time!!” and then list eight examples which all have adverb phrases. I understand not a lot of ppl bother, or even know how to diagram a sentence, but I promise you…. those are adverbs. you’re still using adverbs!!!

anonymous asked:

Hello. I wanted to say that your blog is really good and i really like how you give good answers to everyone. I wanted to ask you, how do i start learning korean? Like.. I know the hangul, verbs/nouns but now should I learn vocabulary and then practice? I'm really lost and i don't know how to start.. Have a wonderful day!

maybe one of these will help~

sorry guise i know i need an faq but just the thought of making one exhausts me lol

anonymous asked:

Hi! In the lesson about -어/아 and -게됐어요 can you explain a little further about the last part mentioned? About adding -고 instead of -어/아? I didn't really understand that part. Could you also explain more about -져서? thanks! I love your blog by the way!

Hi anon!

There’s really not too much more I can say about that part, if I am honest. The rule for that grammar point is pretty straight forward. Simply, when using the -게 되다 pattern after 듣다, 보다, and 읽다, you should substitute -고 for -아/어서 in the preceding clause of the sentence.

eg: 게시판에 있는 광고를 보 그 동아리에 대해 알게 됐어요.
I learned about that club because I saw an advertisement on the bulletin board.

This sentence uses the verb 보다 in the first clause, so -고 is used instead of -아/어서. That’s just the way the rule is. :) Make sure to take note of it for those three verbs!

The -져서 used in some examples in that particular lesson is a beginner level grammar point (아/어지다, used only with adjectives and means “to become” or “to get”) that I’ve not gotten around to making a beginner post for yet. But grammar not yet introduced on this blog is used in higher level posts because intermediate and up learners would know them already, and it’s kind of impossible to make higher level grammar posts without using grammar lower level learners haven’t seen yet. And it isn’t feasible for me to explain grammar points like that within the posts they appear in, because 1) the people the lesson is geared for already know it and 2) it would derail the post.

Hope that helps. :D

(the lesson this posts references can be found by clicking here)

u owe other people greater clarity (read: unambiguity) than u owe urself. people generally want to hear decisive statements, true or false, yes or no… u cant give voice to all the contradictions within u. our language isn’t so well equipped for that. i used to resent so much the way my mother would trail off in the middle of sentences… if u start a sentence, complete it. subject, verb, object. so i owe people explanations, and somehow i provide them. while i am in complete confusion, and my mind is lost in fragments of ideas, i manage to speak some sentence, and u take it as the contents of me. anyhow just some stuff i was thinking about as i sit alone in the cafeteria getting oatmeal on my pants leg

Korean Grammar - Verbs [Part 3/∞]

At long last, here’s a list of some very common verbs in Korean!~


*remember to try and sound out each word before peeking at the romanization!~

오다 (oh da) - to come

가다 (ga da) - to go

먹다 (meok da) - to eat

마시다 (ma shi da) - to drink

주다 (joo da) - to give

갖다 (gaj da) - to have

받다 (bad da) - to receive 

배우다 (bae woo da) - to learn

가르치다 (ga reu chi da) - to teach

공부하다 (gong bu ha da) - to study 

연습하다 (yeon seub ha da) - to practice

일하다 (il ha da) - to work

준비하다 (joon bi ha da) - to prepare

앉다 (anj da) - to sit

운동하다 (oon dong ha da) - to exercise

쉬다 (shwi da) - to rest

일어나다 (yi reo na da) - to stand up

걷다 (geot da) - to walk

달리다 (dal li da) - to run

춤추다 (choom chu da) - to dance 

일어나다 (yi reo na da) - to wake up

자다 (ja da) - to sleep

꿈꾸다 (kkum kku da) - to dream

악몽 꾸다 (ak mong kku da) - to have a nightmare  

울다 (ool da) - to cry

웃다 (oot da) - to smile/laugh

듣다 (deud da) - to listen/hear

말하다 (mal ha da) - to talk, speak

보다 (bo da) - to see

감다 (gam da) - to close (one’s eyes)

빌리다 (bil li da) - to lend/borrow

돌려주다 (dol ryeo joo da) - to return

열다 (yeol da) - to open

닫다 (dat da) -  to close to open

사다 (sa da) - to buy

내다 (nae da) - to pay

팔다 (pal da) - to sell 

신다 (shin da) - to wear (shoes, socks, footwear)

입다 (ib da) - to wear (clothes)

벗다 (beot da) - to remove/take off/undress (clothes)

이기다 (yi gi da) - to win

지다 (ji da) - to lose 

읽다 (ilk da) - to read 

쓰다 (sseu da) - to write/to wear

기억하다 (gi yeok ha da) - to remember

잊다 (it da) - to forget

시작하다 (shi jak ha da) - to start

끝나다 (kkeut na da) - to finish  

묻다 (moot da) - to ask

대답하다 (dae dab ha da) - to answer 

출발하다 (chul bal ha da) - to depart

도착하다 (do chak ha da) - to arrive 

생각하다 (saeng gak ha da) - to think

알다 (al da) - to know

모르다 (mo reu da) - to not know

결혼하다 (gyeol hon ha da) - to marry

축하하다 (chuk ha ha da) - to congratulate

태어나다 (tae eo na da) - to be born

살다 (sal da) - to live

헤어지다 (hae eo ji da) - to separate

운전하다 (oon jeon ha da) - to drive

좋아하다 (joh ah ha da) - to like

싫어하다 (shil eo ha da) - to dislike

사랑하다 (sa rang ha da) - to love

미워하다 (mi wo ha da) - to hate

있다 (yit da) - to have

없다 (eob da) - to not have

들어오다 (deul eo oh da) - to enter

나가다 (na ga da) - to exit

씻다 (shid da) - to wash

청소하다 (cheong so ha da) - to clean

약속하다 (yak sok ha da) - to promise

거짓말하다 (geo jit mal ha da) - to lie

고백하다 (go baek ha da) - to confess

요리하다 (yo ri ha da) - to cook

끓이다 (kkeul yi da) - to boil

썰다 (sseol da) - to chop, slice

튀기다 (twi gi da) - to (deep) fry

재다 (jae da) - to measure, weigh

섞다 (seok da) - to mix, blend

굽다 (gub da) - to roast, grill, bake

볶다 (bokk da) - to stir fry

찌다 (jji da) - to steam

휘젓다 (hwi jeot da) - to stir

까다 (kka da) - to peel

만나다 (man na da) - to meet

주문하다 (joo mun ha da) - to order

전화하다 (jeon hwa ha da) - to make a phone call

타다 (ta da) - to ride

필요하다 (pil yo ha da) - to need

도와주다 (do wa joo da) - to help

하다 (ha da) - to do

걱정하다 (geok jeong ha da) - to worry

보내다 (bo nae da) - to send

사용하다 (sa yong ha da) - to use

싸우다 (ssa woo da) - to fight

Hope this helps and happy studying!~


shoutout post for all u dms and gms out there (especially you newbie ones), y’all have such a difficult medium of storytelling to work with and it must feel like you’re herding cats 99.8% of the time but you guys have the absolutely amazing ability to engage your players in such a rich world where their words and actions matter and you turn absolute chaos into such a beautiful story that your players are so proud and happy to have had a hand in shaping and just….you’re all fantastic and i love you