venous thrombosis

Dr. Trousseau was the first to describe the association between  pancreatic adenocarcinoma and hypercoagulability, venous thrombosis, and migratory thrombophlebitis. He actually later diagnosed Trousseau syndrome in himself.
— 

Dr. Mike McInnis, DIT

Dr. Armand Trousseau (1801-1867) was a French internist who made many contributions to medicine, not in the least his two eponymous signs. I can’t imagine what it would have been like to discover the signs of a malignancy, and then later see them in yourself. He died from his cancer at age 65. 

kingjoffrrey  asked:

Hi. My parents are doctors (ear, nose throat and neurology) and they swear that everyone they've ever talked to, the highest academics in medicine etc say hormone therapy is dangerous. Do you have more resources to show them that this is not true? Other than that one beautiful study from last year. Thank you!

Your parents are fearmongering and (ab)using their professional status as doctors to manipulate you. This ties into what I’ve said before about not putting much weight behind what someone says if they can’t fully explain what they’re saying and/or can’t provide legitimate sources for their information. Their status as doctors is not a legitimate source in and of itself. They would need to provide evidence to back up their claims and the reality here is that all of the research into the use of HRT specifically for people transitioning is exactly the opposite of what your parents and the supposed “highest academics” they’ve talked to are saying. Current medical research and personal anecdotes of people who have been transitioning for 40+ years show that long-term monitored use of HRT is associated with very few negative health effects and that these negative health effects occur at similar rates in cis people. Here are a few formal studies your parents might be interested in (I’ll update this over time):

(2016) Metabolic effects of hormone therapy in transgender patients
(2014) Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment
(2014) Largest Study to Date: Transgender Hormone Treatment Safe
(2013) Short- and Long-Term Clinical Skin Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Trans Men
(2012) Long-term cross-sex hormone treatment is safe in transsexual subjects
(2012) Female and male transgender quality of life: socioeconomic and medical differences.
(2011) A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones.
(2010) Safety of physiological testosterone therapy in women: lessons from female-to-male transsexuals (FMT) treated with pharmacological testosterone therapy.
(2010) Incidence of thrombophilia and venous thrombosis in transsexuals under cross-sex hormone therapy.
(2009) Safety aspects of 36 months of administration of long-acting intramuscular testosterone undecanoate for treatment of female-to-male transgender individuals
(2008) Review of studies of androgen treatment of female-to-male transsexuals: effects and risks of administration of androgens to females.
(2008) Long-term treatment of transsexuals with cross-sex hormones: extensive personal experience.
(2007) Long-acting intramuscular testosterone undecanoate for treatment of female-to-male transgender individuals.
(2007) Long-term administration of testosterone undecanoate every 3 months for testosterone supplementation in female-to-male transsexuals.
(1997) Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross-sex hormones.

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Pulmonary emboli usually arise from thrombi that originate in the deep venous system of the lower extremities; however, they rarely also originate in the pelvic, renal, upper extremity veins, or the right heart chambers. After traveling to the lung, large thrombi can lodge at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery or the lobar branches and cause hemodynamic compromise.

Pulmonary thromboembolism is not a disease in and of itself. Rather, it is a complication of underlying venous thrombosis. Under normal conditions, microthrombi (tiny aggregates of red cells, platelets, and fibrin) are formed and lysed continually within the venous circulatory system.

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The human body is marvellous – but it doesn’t have a lifetime guarantee

Evolution has made us survivors, but that’s not the end of the story – as anyone with a bad back will tell you

  • by Alice Roberts

“Your body is far from perfect. You’re the product of millions of years of evolution, but this process doesn’t strive towards “perfection”. In fact, it doesn’t strive towards anything. It just happens: because there are differences between individuals in a species, and some have better chances of surviving and reproducing than others. There’s never a goal in mind. All that matters is those chances of survival and reproduction: a game played out in the moment, between organisms and their environment.

Looking in detail at human anatomy, I’m always left with two practically irreconcilable thoughts: our bodies are wonderful, intricate masterpieces; and then – they are cobbled-together, rag-bag, sometimes clunking machines. There are so many bits of anatomy that could be much better designed. If I was an intelligent designer of humans, I’d switch the retina around to eliminate the blind spot where the nerves leave the back of the eye; I’d put a little pump in the leg veins to help the blood back to the heart and lower the risk of deep venous thrombosis; I’d stick in a really good link between the two coronary arteries, so that if one became blocked, the other could easily take over; and I’d sort out the spine to reduce the chances of back problems. Some of these are niggling problems, some can be life-threatening. 

But they don’t seem to have greatly affected our ancestors’ chances of survival and reproduction, so natural selection hasn’t “noticed” them – and we’re stuck with them. The spine is a great example of something that straddles this perceptual divide: it looks like a consummate piece of engineering genius, but it seems almost designed to fail. At least, it seems to be designed to fail with age; it comes with built-in obsolescence” (read more).

***Several invasive and laparoscopic surgeries later, I can attest to this orthopaedic nonsense.

(Source: The Guardian)