Esperanto features a set of words that are not derived from any language but are, instead, formed logically from two smaller parts. These are called the correlatives. The “smaller parts” of these words do not appear outside of the correlatives, and each correlative is seen as a standalone word.

The correlatives ending in -o refer to inanimate objects or abstractions. They are kio, tio, io, nenio, and ĉio. These roughly mean “what,” “that,” “something,” “nothing,” and “everything.”

Kio estas propraĵo? Propraĵo estas ŝtelo.
What is property? Property is theft.

Mi ne estas riĉa, kio instigas min al revolucia agado.
I am not rich, which instigates me to revolutionary action.

Kiel venki kapitalismon? Tio estas la plej grava demando.
How to defeat capitalism? That is the most important question.

Io devas ŝanĝiĝi.
Something has to change.

Nenio estas farita de firmaoj, ĉio estas produktita de laboristoj.
Nothing is made by companies; everything is produced by workers.

These correlatives can also take the accusative ending -n.

Kion fari? Kaptu la produktilojn.
What to do? Seize the means of production.

Kion ni ĉiuj bone scias estas, ke kapitalismo aĉas.
What we all know well is that capitalism sucks.

Tion ni devas memori.
We must remember that.

Firmaaj markoj kaŝas la homojn, kiuj produktis ion, por faciligi ilian ekspluaton.
Company marks hide the people who produced something in order to facilitate their exploitation.

Firmaoj faris nenion; laboristoj faris ĉion.
Companies have done nothing; workers have done everything.


Oh snap! Our short 3D film that I’ve been working on for the past 5 months with the amazing @pyvozaur & Venki (who doesn’t have a tumblr yet) at Gobelins is finally out! Viva la international!

It’s the first full 3D thingie that I’ve worked on in my life and this experience would’ve never been so fun if it wasn’t for my awesome classmates! Thanks to you guys I’ve learned a lot and I’m eager to learn more!

And thank you for all the comments and shares! Don’t take our little film seriously and enjoy the show!

after the absolutely wonderful remake of bangalore days to tamil in an era of subtitles and dubbing, we can all now look forward to;
charlie in tamil
premam in telugu
2 countries in telugu
thani oruvan in telugu
puthiya niyamam in hindi
visaaranai in hindi
ok kanmani in hindi
and varsham in hindi.

Originally posted by dildaar

Fear of ventriloquist’s dummies is called automatonophobia. It also includes fear of wax dummies or animatronic creatures.

History of Ventriloquism

Originally, ventriloquism was a religious practice. The name comes from the Latin for to speak from the stomach, i.e. venter (belly) and loqui (speak).The Greeks called this gastromancy (Greek: εγγαστριμυθία). The noises produced by the stomach were thought to be the voices of the unliving, who took up residence in the stomach of the ventriloquist. The ventriloquist would then interpret the sounds, as they were thought to be able to speak to the dead, as well as foretell the future. One of the earliest recorded group of prophets to utilise this technique was the Pythia, the priestess at the temple of Apollo in Delphi, who acted as the conduit for the Delphic Oracle.

In the First Book of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible, King Saul (who lived in the middle of the 11th century BCE) seeks advice about a coming battle from the Witch of Endor, who supposedly summons a spirit. The Hebrew text can be translated as a voice speaking from a jug, or wineskin, typically ventriloquism. One of the most successful early gastromancers was Eurykles, a prophet at Athens; gastromancers came to be referred to as Euryklides in his honour. The New Testament (Acts 16:16-18) relates the story of a girl who had a “spirit of Python” (ἔχουσαν πνεῦμα πύθωνα) and followed Paul and his companions around the city of Thyatrira, crying out after them.

In the Middle Ages, it was thought to be similar to witchcraft. As Spiritualism led to stage magic and escapology, so ventriloquism became more of a performance art as, starting around the 19th century, it shed its mystical trappings.
Other parts of the world also have a tradition of ventriloquism for ritual or religious purposes; historically there have been adepts of this practice among the Zulu, Inuit, and Maori peoples.

Emergence of ventriloquism as entertainment

The shift from ventriloquism as manifestation of spiritual forces toward ventriloquism as entertainment happened in the eighteenth century at the travelling fairs and market towns. The earliest recorded ventriloquists date back to as early as 1753 in England, where Sir John Parnell is depicted in an engraving of William Hogarth as speaking via his hand. In 1757, the Austrian Baron de Mengen implemented a small doll into his performance.

By the late 18th century, ventriloquist performances were an established form of entertainment in England, although most performers threw their voice to make it appeared that it emanated from far away, rather than the modern method of using a puppet. A well known ventriloquist of the period, Joseph Askins, who performed at the Sadler’s Wells Theatre in London in the 1790s advertised his act as “curious ad libitum Dialogues between himself and his invisible familiar, Little Tommy”. However, other performers were beginning to incorporate dolls or puppets into their performance, notably the Irishman James Burne who “… carries in his pocket, an ill-shaped doll, with a broad face, which he exhibits … as giving utterance to his own childish jargon,” and Thomas Garbutt.

The entertainment came of age during the era of the music hall in the United Kingdom and vaudeville in the United States. George Sutton began to incorporate a puppet act into his routine at Nottingham in the 1830s, but it is Fred Russell who is regarded as the father of modern ventriloquism. In 1886, he was offered a professional engagement at the Palace Theatre in London and took up his stage career permanently. His act, based on the cheeky-boy dummy “Coster Joe” that would sit in his lap and ‘engage in a dialogue’ with him was highly influential for the entertainment format and was adopted by the next generation of performers. (A blue plaque has been embedded in a former residence of Russell by the British Heritage Society which reads 'Fred Russell the father of ventriloquism lived here’).

Fred Russell’s successful comedy team format was applied by the next generation of ventriloquists. It was taken forward by the British Arthur Prince with his dummy Sailor Jim, who became one of the highest paid entertainers on the music hall circuit, and by the Americans The Great Lester who used only figure, Frank Byron, Jr., and Edgar Bergen. Bergen popularised the idea of the comedic ventriloquist.[citation needed] Bergen, together with his favourite figure, Charlie McCarthy, hosted a radio program that was broadcast from 1937 to 1956. It was the #1 program on the nights it aired. Bergen continued performing until his death in 1978, and his popularity inspired many other famous ventriloquists who followed him, including Paul Winchell, Jimmy Nelson, David Strassman, Jeff Dunham, Terry Fator, Shari Lewis, Willie Tyler and Jay Johnson. Another ventriloquist popular in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s was Señor Wences.

The art of ventriloquism was popularised by Y. K. Padhye in North India and Mr M M Roy in South India, who are believed to be the pioneers of this field in India. Mr Y K Padhye’s son Ramdas Padhye took from him and made the art popular amongst the masses through his performance on television. His son Satyajit Padhye continues to carry on the legacy of his grandfather. Similarly, Mr Venky Monkey, Mr Mimicry Srinivos and Mr Shanthakumar, the students of Mr M M Roy, popularize this art by giving shows in India and abroad.

Ventriloquism’s popularity waned for a while, probably because of modern media’s electronic ability to convey the illusion of voice, the natural special effect that is the heart of ventriloquism. A number of modern ventriloquists have developed a following as the public taste for live comedy grows. In 2001, Angelique Monét performed on Theater Rowher one-woman off-Broadway show Multiple Me(Written by Edgar Chisholm) where she portrayed several personalities using multiple dummies to display the shifts. In 2007, Zillah & Totte won the first season of Sweden’s Got Talent and became one of Sweden’s most popular family/children entertainers.

Source Wikipedia