velits

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anonymous asked:

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Is this Latin? Have I been cursed? Or am I just a dumb American who doesn’t understand other languages…

ROME CASTS ITS SHADOW OVER GALATIA, THE HELLENISED GALLIC NATION OF ASIA MINOR

This is an excerpt from my post, ‘GAULS OF THE EAST: PART 2 – HELLENISED GALATIANS OF ASIA MINOR’.

During the Roman-Seleucid Wars (192-188 BCE) in mainland Greece and coastal Asia Minor the Seleucids were facing significant setbacks. Roman consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso decided to focus his attention on the Galatians, who aided the Seleucids in said war. Consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso led this campaign, saying that as long as the Galatians were a threat, the Seleucids would never permanently be forced out of Asia Minor. Before engaging in this war, Consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso made a speech before his army where he first complimented then insulted the Galatians.

Just as in the case of fruits and cattle, the seed is not so effective in keeping up the strain as the nature of the soil and climate in which they are reared are in changing it. The Macedonians who occupy Alexandria, Seleucia, Babylonia and their other colonies throughout the world, have degenerated into Syrians and Parthians and Egyptians. Massilia, situated amongst Gauls, has contracted something of the temperament of its neighbors. How much of the rough and stern discipline of Sparta has survived amongst the Tarentines? Everything grows most vigorously in its own home; when planted in an alien soil its nature changes and it deteriorates into that from which it gets its subsistence.” – The History of Rome by Titius Livius (Livy), 38.17.9-12.

Do not imagine that it is only wild beasts which preserve their ferocity when newly-captured but after being fed for some time at the hands of men grow tame. Nature works in the same way in softening the savagery of men. Do you suppose that these men are the same as their fathers and grandfathers were? Driven from their home by want of room they wandered across the rugged coast of Illyria, and after traversing the whole length of Paeonia and Thrace and fighting their way through warlike nations took possession of these countries.

After becoming hardened and savage by all they had to go through, they have found a home in a land which makes them fat with bountiful supplies of every kind. All the ferocity which they brought with them has been tamed by a most fertile soil, a most genial climate and the gentle character of the people amongst whom they have settled.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.17.14-17.

Eposognatus, “was the only Gaulish chief who had remained friendly to [Eumenes II of Pergamon] and refused assistance to [Antiochus III of the Seleucid dynasty] against the Romans” at the Battle of Magnesia. Eposognatus begged Consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso to allow him to try to convince his brethren Tectosages into submitting to the Romans. When the Romans arrived at the city of Gordium, home to the famed Phrygian king Midas (golden touch myth) and the Gordion Knot, the city was a ghost town. Eposognatus arrived and informed the Romans that he had failed to pacify his brethren – the Galatians were instead retreating to more defendable positions.

They were abandoning their villages and farms in the open country, and together with their wives and children were carrying their portable property and driving their flocks and herds before them”. – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.18.

The Galatian Tolostobogii group headed towards Mount Olympus (Asia Minor, modern Uludag) and the Galatian Tectosagi headed towards Magaba while the Galatian Trocmi “had left their wives and children in the care of the Tectosagi and gone to the assistance of the Tolostobogii (The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.19).” Their reason for this departure was that they sought to hold and defend themselves here on these steep and rugged heights. They also dug up trenches and constructed fortifications. The first day ended in a short cavalry skirmish which fell in favor of the Galatians, the second day the Romans reconnoitered, the third day the Romans made sacrifices and prepared for battle. 

Battle of Mount Olympus

The Galatians held the advantage of a superior position but the Romans had “velites (javelin-throwers), the Cretan archers and slingers and the Tralli and Thracians under Attalus (38.21).” The Galatians fell in droves as their shields, despite being large, weren’t broad enough to cover them completely. Since the majority of the Galatians were either swordsmen too far to be effective in ranged combat or slingers with no stones, there was nothing the Galatians could do.

Their practice of always fighting naked makes their wounds more visible, and their bodies are white and fleshy as they never strip except in battle. Consequently more blood flowed from them, the open gashes appeared more horrible, and the whiteness of their bodies showed up the stain of the dark blood. Open wounds, however, do not trouble them much. Sometimes, where it is a surface bruise rather than a deep wound, they cut the skin, and even think that in this way they win greater glory in battle.

But when the head of an arrow has gone in or a leaden bullet buried itself and it tortures them with what looks like a slight wound and defies all their efforts to get rid of it, they fling themselves on the ground in shame and fury at so small an injury threatening to prove fatal.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.21.

The Galatians who sought the safety of their shields perished and those who desperately charged at the Romans fell also, their hope of victory had dwindled so many fled back to camp.

Osprey – ‘Warrior’ series, issue 030 – Celtic Warrior 300 BC-AD 100 by Stephen Allen and Wayne Reynolds (Illustrator). Plate B: The Battle of Telamon, 225 BC. 

He pointed to the bodies of the Gauls scattered over the ground and said: “If the light infantry could fight as they have done, what may I not expect from the legions, from those who are fully armed, from the valour of my bravest soldiers? Surely after the light infantry have driven the enemy in confusion into their camp, you legionaries must storm and capture it.”” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.22.

A heavy shower of missiles was now directed upon the masses in the camp, and the mingled shrieks of women and children showed that many of them were hit.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.22.

As the gates were now open, the Gauls fled in every direction from the camp before the victors burst in. Blindly they dashed along the paths and over places where there was no path; no precipices, no cliffs stopped them; they feared nothing but the enemy. Most of them fell headlong from the heights; they died, maimed and crushed.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.23.

Ten thousand Galatians were killed while thirty thousand were taken captive. The captives were most likely women, children and the elderly. The most famed captive was a beautiful and intelligent woman named Chiomara who happened to be the wife of the Galatian Tectosagi chief. A centurion who was “notorious even amongst soldiers for his licentiousness and greed” “took advantage of her servile condition and violated her.” This centurion then attempted to ransom her back to her people, during the ransom exchange Chiomara either signaled her friends by way of a nod or outright ordered them in her native tongue to decapitate the centurion. Chiomara then wrapped the head in her robe, ventured toward her husband and threw the centurion’s head at his feet.

^ Celts charge a Republican Roman line, circa 2nd century B.C. by Angus McBride.

Wrapping up the murdered man’s head in her robe, she took it to her husband, who had fled home from Olympus. Before embracing him she flung down the head at his feet, and whilst he was wondering whose head it could possibly be, or what such an unwomanly act could mean, she told him about the outrage she had endured and the revenge she had taken for her violated chastity.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.24.

When the Gauls crossed and after handing him the money were taking possession of Chiomara, she signed to one of them to strike the man as he was taking an affectionate leave of her. The man obeyed and cut off his head, which she took up and wrapped in the folds of her dress, and then drove off. When she came into the presence of her husband and threw the head at his feet, he was astonished and said, “Ah! My wife, it is good to keep faith.” “Yes,” she replied, “but it is better still that only one man who has lain with me should remain alive.” – The Histories by Polybius, 38. 4-6.

Battle of Mount Magaba

The Romans now advanced toward the Galatian eastern capital of Ancyra where they were once again visited and asked not to advance against the Galatian Tectosagi until he spoke with the Galatian chiefs. Consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso agreed but time and time again the Galatians either failed to come to terms or had excuses for not following up on scheduled meetings. It was obvious that the Galatians were buying time

The Gauls had a double object in delaying negotiations; first, to gain time, so that they might transport their property, which might, they feared, expose them to danger, across the Halys, together with their wives and children; secondly, because they were hatching a plot against the consul, who was not taking any precautions against treachery at the conference.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.25.

^ Barbarians - Celtic raiders approach Etruscan town, northern Italy, 375 BC. by Angus McBride. 

During one such meeting the Romans were assaulted by Galatian cavalry charges, but lucky for them they were saved by six hundred Roman soldiers guarding foragers nearby. Few Galatians survived their failed ambush and the rest were killed. Angered by the betrayal of the Galatians, Consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso had the Romans march toward Mount Magaba (near Ancyra). The Romans were then divided into four bodies; two were to advance straight towards the mountain stronghold while the other two would march on the Galatian flanks. What followed was an almost identical defeat as the one that befell their brethren at Mount Olympus.

After the Gauls had collected from their scattered flight, most of them wounded, without arms, and stripped of all their belongings, they sent to the consul to sue for peace. Manlius ordered them to go to Ephesus. He himself, anxious to get out of the cold district near the Taurus - it was now the middle of autumn - led his victorious army back to the coast for their winter quarters.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.27.

During this winter Cn. Manlius, who was passing the season in Asia first as consul and then as proconsul, was visited by deputations from all the cities and nationalities west of the Taurus. Whilst the Romans regarded their victory over Antiochus as a more notable one than their subsequent victory over the Gauls, their Asiatic allies rejoiced more over the latter than the former. Subjection to the king was a much easier thing to bear than the ferocity of the ruthless barbarians and the terror which haunted them from one day to another, for they never knew in what direction that ferocity might sweep them like a storm upon plundering and devastating raids. They had regained their liberty through the repulse of Antiochus and their peace through the subjugation of the Gauls, and now they brought to the consul not only their congratulations and thanks but also golden crowns, each according to their ability.” – The History of Rome by Titus Livius (Livy), 38.37.

The Galatians were defeated and subjugated, what followed was a general peace. The next time we see the Galatians spoken of with any true relevance it is under the time of the Galatian chief known as Deiotarus I (“Divine Bull”). The Gauls continued to see the Romans as enemies but after their tetrarchs were massacred at a banquet assembled by the paranoid Mithridates VI of the Pontic kingdom (Greco-Persian) of northern Asia Minor in 89 BCE the Galatians saw a common enemy in the Pontians. Deiotarus swiftly assembled a force and expelled the Pontians from Galatia, Pisidia, Cilicia and Isauria.

First, he put to death the tetrarchs of Galatia with their wives and children, not only those who were united with him as friends, but those who were not his subjects – all except three who escaped”. – The Mithridatic Wars by Appian, 46.

The Romans, who were low on supplies and on the verge of suspending their campaign, were now bolstered by “30,000 Galatians followed in his train, each carrying a bushel of grain upon his shoulders (Plutarch, Lucullus, 14)”. Deiotarus even assembled the Legio XXII Deiotarian c.48 BCE which consisted of 12,000 infantrymen and 2,000 cavalrymen, about three times the size of most legions of the time. It is evident that without the aid of the Galatians, Roman expansion throughout Asia Minor wouldn’t have been achieved this early. During the Civil Wars that plagued Rome, Deiotarus supported Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (“the Great”) against Julius Caesar and after the death of the latter he again supported the anti-Caesarian party against the Triumvirs.


  • Head over to my post, ‘GAULS OF THE EAST: PART 2 – HELLENISED GALATIANS OF ASIA MINOR’. In this post I cover the Celts who migrated into Asia Minor, established a Greco-Gallic state, became renowned as warriors and mercenaries, played an integral part in the Hellenistic ‘Game of Thrones’ of the Diadochi (Alexander the Great’s successor), ravaged and terrorized the region, as well as forcing “tribute on the whole of Asia west of the Taurus” (Livy, 38.16.12). I also speak about their armors, weaponry and how they may have inspired some Greek and Roman arms as well as some military units.
  • You can also read the prequel to the above mentioned post. The prequel is titled ‘GAULS OF THE EAST: PART 1 – BANDITS OF THE BALKANS’, the rarely spoken of Gauls of southeastern Europe, their invasion of Greece, employment as mercenaries under Ptolemaic Egypt, their rebellious and warlike society as well as their little known kingdom of Tylis in Thrace.

me, trying to perform an excorcism: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ulliam corper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem veleum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel willum lunombro dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi…

Every writer, editor, web developer, priest, Supernatural fan, Winchester, and anyone within hearing who actually knows any real Latin: No, that’s not–

me, sobbing: IT’S ALL I KNOW, OKAY? IT’S ALL I KNOW!

the demon: *sympathizes*

heyo! so i quickly finished the bio layout i posted earlier. there are only a few flights b/c i rely off of @osiemfr ‘s wonderful resources from their page.

new ones will be added once they also add the respective flight’s emblem/dividers.

apologies if you can’t read the names, you can edit those to your preference.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

I suppose you are familiar with the work of Denis Dighton, so do you have any idea which "french" hussar Regiment he depicts in this painting from the Royal collection: "fight between the 14th Light Dragoons and French Hussars around 1813". To my best Knowledge there was no french regiment with this uniform. Neapolitan Guard Velites, perhaps? Though theyshouldn't have light blue cuffs & collars. Any ideas?

Hello! Yes, I have posted some works of Denis Dighton and here is the painting in question, I believe:

According to the history of the 14th Light Dragoons they saw action in the Peninsular war between 1808 -1814. According to Osprey’s colour scheme for the French hussars there was no regiment with white dolman:

I checked other units such as Scouts, Chasseurs a cheval, I took a look at the Velites you spoke about  but I found nothing that matches this uniform. I guess it is the imagination of the artist, I like the combination of the colours and the painting itself is very dynamic and dramatic. Here’s another historically inaccurate painting of Denis Dighton:

Here the 1st Life Guards has cuirasses on what’s supposed to be the battle of Waterloo although they adopted it several years later.

Thanks for the question! I am glad I had the excuse make a small research!

Dolorem Ipsum (Sorrow Itself) 

Chapter 1: “Sagwa”

Read it on ao3

+Rating: Explicit
+Pairing: Taehyung x Yoongi
+AU: Werewolf / Lore
+Tropes: Non-Traditional Alpha/Beta/Omega Dynamics, Enemies-to-Lovers
+Chapter Warnings: Angst
+Beta’d / Co-wrote / Moodboard By: @validjimin

+Chapters: 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8



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Nor again

is there anyone

who loves

or pursues

or desires

to obtain sorrow itself ,

because it is sorrow,

but because occasionally

circumstances

occur in which

toil and sorrow

can

procure him

some

great

Pleasure.


The day is just breaking by the time Yoongi opens his eyes.

Early morning streaks of pinks and oranges dance across the horizon, scattering the last shades of dark blue that mark the dawn. Fluffy clouds dot the sky in sparse clumps, telling of a calm and warm summer day, wind low and the threat of rain nearly non-existent. The green of the trees outside the cave are darkened by the shadows and rays of sunlight create a crowning glow around them; dust motes and pollen float effortlessly in the light, giving the forest a gentle fairytale aura. The mouth of the small shelter faced northeast, detailing a picturesque view of the sun as it rose in the mornings, save for the scattered trees that stood tall on the slope of the rock face that fell away from the entrance.

Yoongi wakes to the sounds of birds chirping, starting their crescendo of music like an alarm to his large ears. He curses himself in the back of his mind for choosing such a cave to stay in that echoes their songs. They ring almost endlessly on the rock walls, even deeper into the soft dirt toward the back of the small cavern the song reaches and pierces his ears, stinging his brain as he’s forced to open his eyes and get going with the available daylight.

He supposes it’s not a bad thing to be up so early. More opportunity to eat and scout the land for others. The wolf stretches as he stands finally, yawning wide as his claws dig into the dirt, fangs a faded white on full display. They gleam in the shattered light of the cave, a sharp contrast to the thick black of his fur.

In the dim cave, he’s camouflaged, the dark coat seamlessly blending with the dark rock walls. Limestone, he thinks. As he steps to the wide mouth of the cavern, the light of the peeking sun shines off of his coat, showing off the vague streaks of copper and umber that give him a soft ebony appearance. His large paws fade into a jet black that see none of the browns in his undercoat, only one of his paws a sharp white, as clear as the winter snows in the north, untouched by the humans’ coal.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

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NO

anonymous asked:

I'm trying to edit the pop up tabs and i want to align the text, but it's only letting me center,right, or left it. I want to make a sort of container within the pop up tab i was wondering if you knew how

hi there nonny,

sure - you can check out the ‘how to style popups’ tutorial for another explanation of adding features e.g. links - but this works in exactly the same way.  to add any feature to your theme, whether it’s in a pop-up or just generally, you will need to add two things - the css to style the object and the html to add it to the theme… ( all tutorials, including installing popups are on my tutorials page )

so here, i’ll show you how to add an offset text box… 

going from this - 

to this…

read on!

Keep reading

Reading unsolicited advice on this website like:

‘hey, when I’m feeling down I Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. I hope this advice helps you feel better and doesn’t become total background noise because you’ve read the same thing 500 times and it’s never worked!’

Testing theme stuff, ignore this.

Testing theme stuff, ignore this.

Testing theme stuff, ignore this // h2

Testing theme stuff, ignore this // h3

Testing theme stuff, ignore this // h4

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