valid tests


The Revolutionary Squad (Alexander, “Lafayette”, Hercules, and John) + their Instagrams

The Mystery DNA Test

So I was watching The Blacklist Panel at C2E (via The Blacklist Exposed) on 04-22-17 and a fan asked Jon Bokenkamp a great question. “No one’s heard of a blood test?” And below is Jon’s answer (referring to Liz):

And then after some audience laughter he said this in the next gif (and watch Amir shaking his head yes):

Well now! This got me thinking. We know that the only thing the audience will accept as the true answer to the “Is he or isn’t he the father” question is a valid blood test. So who thinks what Jon is hinting at here is how they will do this reveal? It very well could come out on the show that Liz did indeed do a DNA test and knows the answer. I mean we were all annoyed about how could an FBI profiler not consider doing a blood test to confirm or eliminate Red as her bio father? Remember she seemed obsessed about learning about her past. It made no sense. 

But maybe she did after all. She could have gotten a sample of Red’s blood on a few occasions. The Anslo Garrick episode and the Leonard Caul episode are two possibilities where it would have been easy for Liz to get a sample. And remember, Liz is a woman who wanted to know if she had the Warrior gene in Season 2 and in Season 1 wanted to run a ballistics test on Tom’s gun so she shot the gun into a pile of phone-books to retrieve the bullet. She takes matters into her own hands. So yes, I bet she did run a test and knows the answer. And the results will be revealed to us, hopefully at the end of 4C.

Now let’s assume that Liz knows the answer. Is Red her father or not? Let’s look at her comments and see. Heck, we can just focus on Season 4 to make it easy.

1) In 4A Kirk tells Liz he is her father. And it gets to a point where she believes him. Obviously if Liz knew Red was her father she would have told Kirk he was wrong. Instead she seems devastated to find out Kirk wasn’t her father.

2) After Red survives the ordeal with Kirk he comes to see Liz. Now Liz knows Kirk is not her father and she knows (according to Katarina’s journal) that Raymond had an affair with her mother (and that Kirk had wondered if Raymond was the father). So it would only be logical for Liz to assume that Red is her father - or at least ask again! But she doesn’t (leaving many fans frustrated as this would have been the perfect time). In fact she goes right into letting Red know she finally accepts that her father died when she was a little girl.

So why didn’t she ask him? Because she already knows from the DNA test that Red is not her father! Now this seemingly head-scratching scene all makes perfect sense.

And of course, Red confirms it himself once again.

Oh and one other thing. If Red is not a DNA match for her father he is not a DNA match for her mother either so why don’t we just throw the Red is Katarina theory out the window too?

And BTW, I am getting to be a fan of the impostor theory where the real Raymond Reddington was Masha’s father and Red took his persona after Raymond was shot and killed by Masha.  Why? Stay tuned……

Thanks for reading.

Tendencies of i-N-tuitive Types

The MBTI inventory classifies iNtuitive types as those who place more interest (and often more value) in theories, abstractions and the exploration of possibilities than they do in the concrete realities of the world around them. iNtuitive-dominant personality types (mainly ENFPs, ENTPs, INTJs and INFJs) are almost always more interested in what isn’t being said or considered than what is. But since we live in a sensor-dominant world, intuitive behavior tends to stick out like a sore thumb. Almost every iNtuitive personality will be able to recall many experiences in which their loved ones were thoroughly confused by their reasoning or behavior. Here are ten behaviors people often don’t understand are associated with being an iNtuitive personality.

1. Spurring debates.

iNtuitives don’t fully understand an issue until they’ve considered it from every possible angle. These types aren’t debating because they want to be difficult or impolite – they’re debating because they need to test the validity of the topic by arguing it from every side. They want to see if any holes arise in their reasoning as they go, and some of their best learning takes place through the process of debate.

2. Obsessively planning for the future.

iNtuitives live almost exclusively in the future – they love considering which options may arise for them, which goals they ought to set for themselves, what their lives may look like in twenty or thirty years, etc. Of course, it’s impossible to plan every detail of one’s life… so the plan is subject to getting readjusted. For extroverted iNtuitives (xNFPs and xNTPs), the readjusting happens almost daily. For introverted intuitives (xNFJs and xNTJs), readjusting happens as needed – but the need tends to arise regularly.

3. Viewing the rules as suggestions.

It’s not that iNtuitives are rebellious for the sake of it – it’s just that they analyze why a rule exists before deciding whether or not to follow it. These types despise arbitrary action, so if they perceive a rule to be outdated or ineffective, they have no problem casting it aside and doing things their way instead.

4. Over-analyzing everything.

For the iNtuitive, it isn’t enough to understand how a given issue applies to them – they have to also understand the globalimplications of the issue, or the underlying theory that ties is all together. iNtuitives want to know the intangible explanation for every tangible problem, and it can drive those around them a little bonkers.

5. Placing little trust in authority.

iNtuitives types trust competence over qualification, and they want to make their own judgments about how competent they find others to be. iNtuitives are highly aware of the human tendency to favor convenience and prestige above analysis, and they aren’t quick to trust any established system simply because it’s been in place for a long time.

6. Relentlessly seeking variety.

iNtuitive personalities are naturally drawn to the abnormal, the uncouth and the unconventional. These types spend their entire lives attempting to piece together a comprehensive worldview, which means that they seek to understand as many different oddities as possible. Whether they’re seeking novelty in their studies, their lifestyles or both, these types are always on the hunt for new lenses through which they can view the world.

7. Developing obscure interests.

Since what they don’t know is almost always more interesting to the iNtuitive personality than what they do know, these types are likely to take an interest in niche topics or theories. Many iNtuitives enjoy exploring conspiracy theories or other such ‘unfounded’ methods of reasoning, as they enjoy the ‘mental gymnastics’ aspect of linking seemingly unrelated things together (even though they often don’t believe the actual theories themselves at the end of the day).

8. Socializing selectively.

Extroverted iNtuitives (mainly ENFPs and ENTPs) are considered the most introverted of the extroverted types. Introverted iNtuitives (mainly INFJs and INTJs) may be more traditionally introverted in nature, but put any of these types around in a room together and the conversation is likely to flow on for hours (if not days, if not endlessly)! iNtuitive-dominant types are often quickly exhausted by engaging with their physical environment, but they are endlessly energized by quality conversation. These types tend to consider themselves to be ‘selectively social’ – they’d rather be alone than around people they don’t connect with, but put them around other iNtuitive types and their social side suddenly emerges with fervor.

9. Playing devil’s advocate.

If there’s a sure-fire way to get under an iNtuitive’s skin, it’s to insist that basically any issue is black or white. These types are quick to assume the role of devil’s advocate in any situation where they feel as though the opposing party is forming an opinion without considering the alternative point of view. These types are prone to vehemently arguing points they don’t even agree with, just to prove that an issue is more complex than those around them are assuming it to be.

10. Pursing an unconventional life course.

iNtuitives are naturally drawn to the strange, the provocative and the unconventional. They may be more prone than sensing types to have an entrepreneurial streak, to engage in non-traditional relationship structures or to experiment with lifestyle choices that are outside the societal norm. Because these types take a ‘why not’ approach to their lives (or in the case of introverted iNtuitives, their research and learning), they often find themselves unintentionally rebelling from the rest of society. It’s not that they want to do everything differently – it’s just that an iNtuitive’s lifestyle tends to reflect their mindset – and the mind of an iNtuitive is a very strange territory indeed.

4x17 “Identity and Change” Ask Round up.

Okay I got A LOT of asks on this so I’m combining here.

Anonymous said: hi! could you do a breakdown of the 17 promo if it’s not too much trouble? thanks!

Anonymous said: do fitz and aida really kiss again next episode? I had to watch the promo with volume off but the shots looked so similar to this weeks kiss that I wasn’t sure if it was a new one or they just randomly showed the kiss this week in the promo again to emphasise the ‘id cross the universe’ thing.

Anonymous said: Sorry to bother you, but what was your overal take on the promo for 4x17? And more specifically about another Fitz/Aida kiss being in it. I’m sure someone has probably all ready asked this question, so I’m sorry to bother you.

Anonymous said: could you do a post breaking down your thoughts on on 4x17 promo?

Anonymous said: Hi! :) What do you think about the promo for next week? I’m so sad about the kiss tbh, they’re trying to kill us

@the-nerdy-stjarna  said:  4x17 Promo questions. When Madame Hydra says “I need to find her and expose anyone who’s helping her.” Do you think she’s referring to Daisy or Jemma. 'Cause the latter would mean she presumably showed Fitz a picture (which may explain the surprises look on his face?) but the former would make more sense seeing Daisy clearly being hunted at HQ (and Aida’s interest in keeping info about Jemma as far away from Fitz as possible). (I’M SO EXCITED!)

Anonymous said: Analysis of the promo??

Okay lets break this puppy down!

Can we find out what it is with Mace and putting bags over people’s heads here?   And nice try Mace, both Jemma and Daisy know exactly where you super secret base is at.  

Mace gets his angel wing shot and is revealed as leader of the Resistance.  AKA nailed it.

He also says, “Welcome to Shield” and confirms the Resistance Shield.  I also love this shot for Coulson’s “What did you get me into look here?” look.  I’m also kind of interested who is standing behind them in standing behind them in the civilian clothes.  Come on Trip!  Or Hunter!

Jemma’s obituary again, though what caught my eye on the frame by frame is look how many Classified Files there are on Jemma….adding fuel to the fire that something is being covered up…and that no she did not die in a lab accident.  She was eliminated…maybe for being ‘contaminated’.  

The voice over talks about finding “Her” and anyone who is helping her.   So Her could be Jemma in which case Daisy, Ward, Shield, and soon Radcliffe will be in their line of sight.  Same goes for Daisy.  Those people are all helping her and in danger.  

And where we really start to have fun….That is not Fitz AIDA Is talking too.  There isn’t enough beard.  So this could be a random minion, Ward (double or even triple agent now), or another returning face…lets say Mr. Bakshi.

Fandom rejoice!   Its our Fitz!  That is actual puppy followed by I know something is up Fitz right there.  And I know the promo can be misleading with how its cut but it looks like he perhaps overhears AIDA talking to her minion.  Especially if part of AIDA’s conversaion is making sure “The Doctor” doesn’t find out who “Her” is.  So this could be a big turning point for Fitz or at the very least, enough for him to start digging on his own.  Where Fitz is going to be in major danger is when he starts to go against AIDA and starts to break free as he is who she needs.  

Going under the thing for length….kiss speculation is under it if that is what you are after.

Keep reading

bangtan as actual Shakespeare quotes
  • jin : i do not like her name
  • yoongi : thou mis-shapen Dick
  • hoseok : the bird is dead
  • namjoon : i am gone for ever
  • jimin : what's pity ?
  • taehyung : what you egg
  • jungkook : you are an ass

i don’t know if i already made a post like this, but for any of you that are self diagnosed and feel invalid because you don’t have a “proper diagnoses” i would like to remind you that my psychiatrist googled “ADHD Test”, printed the first one she saw, and that’s how she diagnosed me. so if you take those test and quizzes online for diagnostic reasons you are completely 100% valid

A test of validity

Are you Ace?
Are you Aro-Ace?
Are you ace and romantic?
Are you grey-ace? Biromantic ace? Heteroromantic ace? Ace and enjoy masturbation? Ace and have sex? Ace and single? Ace and an SO?
Do you feel you fall somewhere, anywhere on the asexual spectrum? 

IF you answered yes to even one of those questions, CONGRATULATIONS, YOU ARE VALID. You are AMAZING. You are lovable, beautiful, and perfect. 

Don’t listen to anyone who tells you otherwise.

30 Day OC Challenge because I need to spam you guys

If anyone else wants to do this with me, I figure these prompts can be answered however you want whether it be telling everyone, drawing, making gifsets, writing a short blurb, whatever!

Day 1- First Impressions: Introduce your character as if we are meeting them on the street. How do they come across to us?

Day 2- If you wanna be my lover: Friends, Family, and SOs. Tell us all about them and their relationship with your OC!

Day 3- When I was a young OC: What was your OC’s childhood like? Were they a tiny terror or a little angel? Or did you give them such a traumatic past they didn’t get the chance to be a kid.

Day 4- Dress to impress: Is your OC a fashion icon or a throw on whatever is available type of person? What kinds of clothes will we find in their closet?

Day 5- My English teacher was right all along: What are some symbols that follow your OC throughout their journey/story? Do they have any emblems they identify with? If not, what’s an object that has meaning to them?

Day 6- Whoa, listen to the music: What is your OC’s theme song/theme songs? Explain.

Day 7- Sugar and Spice: How is your OCs relationship with children? Do they plan to have any?

Day 8- A feast fit for kings: What does your OC eat? Do they cook for themselves or are they hopeless in the kitchen?

Day 9- Phenomenal Cosmetic Powers: What three wishes would your character ask a genus for?

Day 10: Itty bitty living space: Where does your character live/ how is it set up? Messy? Minimal? Filled with books or movie posters? Do they share it?

Day 11- Dancing with Myself: How does your OC handle social interactions? Social butterfly or anxious corner go-er? What large scale social interaction do they face the most?

Day 12- Shop til you drop: (You can do grocery shopping, magic ingredient shopping, clothes, furniture, ect, or all of the above depending on what kind of world your character is in and how it would relate) How does your character feel about shopping? Do they buy until they’re broke or have to haggle everything?

Day 13- Hogwarts will always be there to welcome you home: What’s your OC’s Hogwarts house? Because we all know this is a valid personality test. (Alternately, if you aren’t a fan of hogwarts, what’s their Myers Brigg Personality)

Day 14- Self-depreciation at its finest: What does your character dislike about themself? Why? Do other people feel the same way about that trait?

Day 15- I don’t give a damn about my reputation: What kind of reputation DOES your OC have? Do they know or do they remain blissfully ignorant? If they do know, what do they think of it?

Day 16- Emperor’s New Clothes: Is your OC a fashion icon or more a throw on whatever kind of person? What kinds of things would we see in their closet?

Day 17- Everybody’s workin for the weekend: What is your OCs “job” (however they define that)? Do they love it or do their co-workers constantly make their life a living hell?

Day 18- I’m bored: What does your OC do in their free time/ for fun?

Day 19- Man’s best friend: How does your OC feel about animals (both wild and pets)? Do they have an animal companion?

Day 20- I can explain, I swear: What would your OC get arrested for? Would they try to weasel their way out of it, pay off bail, or do the time?

Day 21- On the road again: Does your OC travel? Do they want to? Where would they go? And how?

Day 22- Monsters in the closet: What is your OC afraid of the most?

Day 23- Hi mom: What would your OC get famous for and how would they/their friends feel about that? If they are famous- do they like it?

Day 24- Tropes are overrated: What tropes does your OC fall into the most?

Day 25- Are we there yet?: What are their ambitions and aspirations? Do they have any real chance at reaching them?

Day 26- Senior Quote: Pick a quote that perfectly describes your OC. Explain.

Day 27- Weapon of Choice: Does your character kill with kindness, slip out of things with a quick tongue, take an axe to the problem, or just fail miserably?

Day 28- A dream is a wish your heart makes: What/Who is the hope that keeps your OC going? What do they live for?

Day 29- They grow up so fast: If you’ve had this OC awhile, how have they changed from your original idea of them? If they haven’t, how have they changed as they aged in story?

Day 30- Before we go: Quirks, habits, and fun facts about your OC.

EDIT: I actually finished this once and then accidentally deleted most of it so what probably happened was that was something I remembered and didn’t realize was already on the list: 
Alternate Day 16- What are your OCs sleeping habits?

Empathy Discourse™ is annoying and I’m annoyed at how being able to feel what someone else feels is held up as the de facto measurement for if you’re a good person.

It means shit, and I’ve seen too many people use it in a self-centred way (it’s so haaaard for me to watch you struggle!) or as a test of validity: I am a better person because I suffer alongside the injured, never mind that I don’t actually do anything to help. It’s just another way to measure whether or not people feel the right way about something, and what does that ever accomplish?

And also: the majority of people who have been decent to me, and who have been kind, are people who either have little to no empathy, or who know how to keep it on a leash. And I think that’s precisely because they don’t over-relate to me, or assume that because they ~feel what I feel~ and can ~put themselves in my place~, that they know how to respond to me (ie to treat me as they would want to be treated if the roles were reversed, which sucks because I’m not them!)

Basically, fuck Empathy Discourse™ and fuck how empathy is heralded as the most virtuous virtue ever.

Subnetting 101 (Overview)

I will now be doing a subnetting tutorial in a nutshell in order to help those pips who are also inclined to my field. So first and foremost, let us start by defining some few terms. Some of the definitions are of my own words for simplicity’s sake and some might not be reflected in some books or reviewers. This tutorial is made with the assumption that the reader knows how to convert IP Address from Decimal to Binary or vice versa.

  • This is Decimal,
  • This is Binary, 00001010.00000001.00010111.00010011.

The two IP addresses are identical but of different format.


  • Network - a group of two or more computer systems linked together.
  • Subnetwork - is commonly called as subnet, is a subdivision of an IP network. Which in we use it in a pie analogy, the pie would be the network and the slices in the pie would be the subnetworks.
  • Subnet mask - a 32-bit combination that would describe the portion of the subnet and the portion of the host.
  • Host/User - a computer or another device that is connected to a network.
  • Prefix Length - is the number of bits set in the subnet mask. Your prefix length will determine you subnet mask. The reverse is also possible by converting your subnet mask to binary and counting the number of 1’s in the set.
  • Subnetting - the practice of dividing a network into two or more networks.

Sample Problem:

Ayala has a Network IP of Ayala needs 3 subnetworks namely: Net A, Net B and Net C. Net A have 20 users. Net B have 10 users. Net C have 10 users. Provide the subnetworks that would accommodate Ayala’s needs.

Steps in Solving the Problem:

Given this question, we will now use the 5 basic fundamental questions in problem solving.

  • What is asked?
  • What is given?
  • What operation to be used?
  • What is your solution?
  • Is this your final answer?

What is asked?

  • The subnetworks that would accommodate Ayala’s needs.

What was given?

  • Network IP -
  • Net A with 20 users
  • Net B with 10 users
  • Net C with 10 users

What operation to be used?

Unlike in mathematics were we have multiple operations to choose from, we will be followings steps here instead of choosing operations. There is actually no sequence that was taught in the books or reviewers but I follow this sequence that I came to be quite fond of after four years of doing it. It is straight forward and easy to follow step that I put together.

Validate the Network IP

Why do we need to validate the Network IP? We need to verify if the Network IP is valid because some professors test their student’s analysis. Some professors will put an invalid Network IP so the problem will be invalid in an instant. Most students will just solve the problem without even considering if the problem was actually valid. This will result to waste of time especially during exams when you realize later after solving that the Network IP could not handle the client’s needs. (How to validate Network IP will be discussed in details in another post.)

Determine the biggest needed Network (Subnetting)

Now that you already validated your Network IP, you can start subnetting. In order to have a organize flow, we need to get the biggest needed network out of the client’s demand. In our sample problem that would be Net A since it has 20 users. (How to subnet a given IP will be discussed in details in another post.)

After subnetting the given Network IP, you will get 8 subnet IPs that could handle 30 users each with a prefix length of /27.


We will now assign the first set for our Net A. So our Net A will now be using the IP set -

Technically, we can use the remaining sets to assign to Net B and Net C since each subnet IP could handle 30 users. But in making an effective network plan, this is considered a bad practice since you will be wasting 20 users resource on each subnet because you will only be using 10 valid IPs for each.

To correct this, we need to subnet again the next subnet IP ( ) in order to maximize the resource that we have.

After subnetting the next subnet IP, you will get 2 subnet IPs that could handle 14 users each with a prefix length of /28.


We will then now use these two subnet IPs with 14 users capacity to our remaining needed networks which are Net B and Net C.

What is your solution?

From our subnetting process. We can now produce a solution which is:

  • - Net A
  • - Net B
  • - Net C

Is this your final answer?

Normally, this is an enough solution and your professor will already understand this. However, as a student, we need to secure our grade so just to be on the safe side we will need to dissect this into a more detailed solution.

How? We simply present it in this format:

General IP: (Given Network IP)

Network Name: (Given Needed Network)
Network IP: (Subnetted IP for this Network)
First Usable: (First Usable IP of this Subnet)
Last Usable: (Last Usable IP of this Subnet)
Broadcast: (Broadcast Address of this Subnet)

So our final answer will look like this:

General IP:

Network Name: Net A
Network IP:
First Usable:
Last Usable:

Network Name: Net B
Network IP:
First Usable:
Last Usable:

Network Name: Net C
Network IP:
First Usable:
Last Usable:

And there you go! This is an overview of how you will solve a subnetting problem. (How to determine the FUA/LUA/BA will be discussed in detail on another post.)

Congrats! Happy Subnetting!

13 Reasons to Have an Out of This World Friday (the 13th)

1. Know that not all of humanity is bound to the ground

Since 2000, the International Space Station has been continuously occupied by humans. There, crew members live and work while conducting important research that benefits life on Earth and will even help us eventually travel to deep space destinations, like Mars.

2. Smart people are up all night working in control rooms all over NASA to ensure that data keeps flowing from our satellites and spacecraft

Our satellites and spacecraft help scientists study Earth and space. Missions looking toward Earth provide information about clouds, oceans, land and ice. They also measure gases in the atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide, and the amount of energy that Earth absorbs and emits. And satellites monitor wildfires, volcanoes and their smoke.

Satellites and spacecraft that face toward space have a variety of jobs. Some watch for dangerous rays coming from the sun. Others explore asteroids and comets, the history of stars, and the origin of planets. Some fly near or orbit other planets. These spacecraft may look for evidence of water on Mars or capture close-up pictures of Saturn’s rings.

3. The spacecraft, rockets and systems developed to send astronauts to low-Earth orbit as part our Commercial Crew Program is also helping us get to Mars

Changes to the human body during long-duration spaceflight are significant challenges to solve ahead of a mission to Mars and back. The space station allows us to perform long duration missions without leaving Earth’s orbit. 

Although they are orbiting Earth, space station astronauts spend months at a time in near-zero gravity, which allows scientists to study several physiological changes and test potential solutions. The more time they spend in space, the more helpful the station crew members can be to those on Earth assembling the plans to go to Mars.

4. Two new science missions will travel where no spacecraft has gone before…a Jupiter Trojan asteroid and a giant metal asteroid!

We’ve selected two missions that have the potential to open new windows on one of the earliest eras in the history of our solar system – a time less than 10 million years after the birth of our sun!

The first mission, Lucy, will visit six of Jupiter’s mysterious Trojan asteroids. The Trojans are thought to be relics of a much earlier era in the history of the solar system, and may have formed far beyond Jupiter’s current orbit.

The second mission, Psyche, will study a unique metal asteroid that’s never been visited before. This giant metal asteroid, known as 16 Psyche, is about three times farther away from the sun than is the Earth. Scientists wonder whether Psyche could be an exposed core of an early planet that could have been as large as Mars, but which lost its rocky outer layers due to a number of violent collisions billions of years ago.

5. Even astronauts eat their VEGGIES’s

NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough collected the third and final harvest of the latest round of the Veggie investigation, testing the capability to grow fresh vegetables on the International Space Station. 

Understanding how plants respond to microgravity is an important step for future long-duration space missions, which will require crew members to grow their own food. Crew members have previously grown lettuce and flowers in the Veggie facility. This new series of the study expands on previous validation tests.

6. When you feel far away from home, you can think of the New Horizons spacecraft as it heads toward the Kuiper Belt, and the Voyager spacecrafts are beyond the influence of our sun…billions of miles away 

Our New Horizons spacecraft completed its Pluto flyby in July 2015 and has continued on its way toward the Kuiper Belt. The spacecraft continues to send back important data as it travels toward deeper space at more than 32,000 miles per hour, and is nearly 3.2 billion miles from Earth.

In addition to New Horizons, our twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. Continuing on their more-than-37-year journey since their 1977 launches, they are each much farther away from Earth and the sun than Pluto. In August 2012, Voyager 1 made the historic entry into interstellar space, the region between the stars, filled with material ejected by the death of nearby stars millions of years ago.

7. Earth has a magnetic field that largely protects it from the solar wind stripping away out atmosphere…unlike Mars

Findings from our MAVEN mission have identified the process that appears to have played a key role in the transition of the Martian climate from an early, warm and wet environment to the cold, arid planet Mars is today. MAVEN data have enabled researchers to determine the rate at which the Martian atmosphere currently is losing gas to space via stripping by the solar wind. Luckily, Earth has a magnetic field that largely protects it from this process. 

8. There are humans brave enough to not only travel in space, but venture outside space station to perform important repairs and updates during spacewalks

Spacewalks are important events where crew members repair, maintain and upgrade parts of the International Space Station. These activities can also be referred to as EVAs – Extravehicular Activities. Not only do spacewalks require an enormous amount of work to prepare for, but they are physically demanding on the astronauts. They are working in the vacuum of space in only their spacewalking suit. 

When on a spacewalk, astronauts use safety tethers to stay close to their spacecraft. One end of the tether is hooked to the spacewalker, while the other end is connected to the vehicle. Spacewalks typically last around 6.5 hours, but can be extended to 7 or 8 hours, if necessary.

9. We’re working to create new aircraft that will dramatically reduce fuel use, emissions and noise…meaning we could change the way you fly! 

The nation’s airlines could realize more than $250 billion dollars in savings in the near future thanks to green-related technologies that we are developing and refining. These new technologies could cut airline fuel use in half, pollution by 75% and noise to nearly one-eighth of today’s levels!

10. You can see a global image of your home planet…EVERY DAY

Once a day, we will post at least a dozen new color images of Earth acquired from 12 to 36 hours earlier. These images are taken by our EPIC camera from one million miles away on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). Take a look HERE.

11. Employees of NASA have always been a mission driven bunch, who try to find answers that were previously unknown

The film “Hidden Figures,” focuses on the stories of Katherine Johnson, Mary Jackson and Dorothy Vaughan, African-American women who were essential to the success of early spaceflight. 

Today, we embrace their legacy and strive to include everyone who wants to participate in our ongoing exploration. In the 1960’s, we were on an ambitious journey to the moon, and the human computers portrayed in Hidden Figures helped get us there. Today, we are on an even more ambitious journey to Mars. We are building a vibrant, innovative workforce that reflects a vast diversity of discipline and thought, embracing and nurturing all the talent we have available, regardless of gender, race or other protected status. Take a look at our Modern Figures HERE.

12. A lot of NASA-developed tech has been transferred for use to the public 

Our Technology Transfer Program highlights technologies that were originally designed for our mission needs, but have since been introduced to the public market. HERE are a few spinoff technologies that you might not know about.

13. If all else fails, here’s an image of what we (Earth) and the moon look like from Mars  

From the most powerful telescope orbiting Mars comes a new view of Earth and its moon, showing continent-size detail on the planet and the relative size of the moon. The image combines two separate exposures taken on Nov. 20 by our High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on our Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

In the image, the reddish feature near the middle of the face of Earth is Australia.


What is Intelligence?

  • Intelligence: mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
  • It’s a socially constructed concept that differs from culture to culture.
  • Controversies on intelligence: 1. Whether it is one overall ability or many, and 2. Whether neuroscientists can locate and measure intelligence within the brain.
  • To reify intelligence is to treat it as though it were a real object, not an abstract concept.
  • Most psychologists now define intelligence as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.

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How do we know the Bible is true?

A friend recently asked about reasons as to how we know the Bible is true. One of the things that has been the absolute most helpful to me, and has stuck with me for years, is what I learned in my elementary Awana books. So I thought I’d share it with y'all :)

- We know the Bible is true because the Bible is God’s Word (John 17:17b)

The sited verse simply states, “Your Word is truth.” The Bible does not simply contain truth, it IS truth. It is the foundation on which all reason and morality rests. It is God who defines truth and it is to God that all supposed truths must be compared.

- We know the Bible is true because God says His Word is pure. (Proverbs 30:5-6)

God is incapable of flaw, fault, or error. Therefore His Word also is pure and true. We can believe what He says and know that 100% of the time it is 100% accurate.

- We know the Bible is true because people witnessed the events of the Bible (2 Peter 1:16)

There are COUNTLESS eyewitness accounts of the events of the Bible, many of which are recorded. It is important to note that Jesus is not one for subtlety. He appeared to MULTITUDES. Everywhere He went, crowds followed. Tens of thousands of people witnessed miracles and heard His teachings. His very crucifixion was in front of a great audience. Even after He rose from the dead, Jesus appeared to many so that there would be no doubt that these wonders actually occurred.

- We know the Bible is true because the Bible is historically correct. (1 John 1:1)

The Bible is the most authenticated ancient text we have. What does that mean? It means that the manuscripts have been checked a staggering amount of times against every other historical text we have. The greatest historians of ancient times (Josephus, Socrates, Herodotus, Julius Caesar, ect.) have been authenticated a pitiful amount in contrast to the hundreds upon thousands of times the Bible has been verified. It has gone through the most rigorous test of validity and it never once contradicts either itself or outside sources. Additionally, archeology is a huge advocate for the Bible! One of my favorites is that of Jericho. The manner in which the walls fell, how it matches the otherwise unlikely description in the Bible, the section of wall that was Rahab’s house that remained unharmed. It’s one of my absolute favorite historical discoveries, and there are many more! History always supports the Bible.

- We know the Bible is true because God used at least 40 men to write the Bible and yet it all fits together. (Luke 1:1-2)

Forty men, most of whom never met. They came from all different cultures and walks of life - from kings to shepherds, from prophets to tent makers, and so many more. They spoke different languages, lived on different continents, but yet the Bible fits together in perfect coherency without any errors or contradictions. Have you ever tried working on a group project with a handful of others? It can be quite the endeavor to make everyone agree and work together effectively. Most of these men couldn’t talk to each other, most of them lived centuries apart. The continuity of the Bible shows that it is from God alone.

- We know the Bible is true because the Bible was written over a time period of 1500 years and yet it all fits together. (2 Peter 1:21)

I’m going to say that again. ONE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED YEARS. Compare this to the Quaran or the Book of Mormon or any other so-called “holy” book. Most all of them were written by one man, over a comparably short period of time, with the writer as the sole witnesses to this “divine revelation”. Not so with the Bible. The enormous time span, the diversity among the people who wrote it, the flawlessness of the Bible, can leave only one conclusion: this is the Word of the One True God.

- We know the Bible is true because events that were prophesied really happened. (Deuteronomy 18:22)

It’s not just the hundreds of prophesies that came to pass, it is the staggering detail in which they did. Take Jesus’ birth for example. First of all, it was said that a virgin would conceive. Please take a moment to think about how insane that alone sounds. It can’t physically be possible. So that right there points to the supernatural power of God. It was also told that Christ would come out of Bethlehem, which was a town pretty low down on the list of esteemed cities. Bethlehem was not something to be proud of. This was where their king of glory was supposed to hail from? It was ridiculous. And those are just two examples. The list continues on and on. And seeing as we humans can’t accurately predict the weather half the time, that’s a pretty downright incredible thing, to say the least.

- We know the Bible is true because the Bible changes people’s lives. (Acts 16:29-31)

This is, perhaps, the most vivid representation of the power of Christ. I don’t know how to summarize the effect that He has on people. Just PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE read the stories of Nate Saint, Corrie Ten-Boom, Joni Erickson-Tada, and the thousands of others that faced the greatest trials with JOY because of Christ. The Bible itself contains the most incredible accounts. Paul, who killed Christians by the hundreds, BECAME one himself. David killed a giant with a single pebble. An impenetrable fortress came down by people walking in circles and blowing trumpets. A girl became queen to save her and her people from annihilation. The love of God does the most indescribable things. It gives strength and peace against all odds. This love that saves us from sin and the punishment in Hell that we all deserve. This love that sets us free. God is so much more astounding in glory than we could ever imagine.


She rubs her nose against his neck eliciting a content groan from him, her curls catching the sound, lightly bouncing across his chest with the huff of air cascading around them.

Her leg moves to rest on him, his hand resting on her smooth knee, his other arm trapped beneath her, a happy sacrifice he’d all but surrender feeling to just to keep her close.  His hand wanders, pushing up her striped cotton dress.  Callused fingers tracing the line of her spine, causing her to arch into his side, a ghost of a shiver running through, traveling over him, sharing the sensation.  A parade of goosebumps dancing over them both.

The sun catches them in its glare, the rays bronzing the hue of the room, surrounding them in a soft glow spreading serenely over them, trapping them in a moment, one filled with a contentment they’d cocooned themselves in, not at all prepared to surrender the tranquility to the chaos awaiting them outside - the real world threatening to tear them apart, strip them of their declarations, and test their validity against the judgment of their peers, their critics.

He pulls her closer, attempting to fuse her to him permanently.  The fear of what’s to come lingering in the back of his mind.  They’d spent the majority of their relationship shrouded in secrecy.  Quick kisses, quiet fucks, silent I love you’s passed between them while in public.  Their only time together, when she would scream his name, loudly proclaiming all she felt, her pleas for more held within the glass walls of this house - all of which were about to shatter.

Placing a gentle kiss on her forehead, she hums against him, eyelashes fluttering open, tickling his neck with their flight.

Her phone buzzes against the night stand for the twentieth time in the last ten minutes, its vibration the only disturbance in an otherwise peaceful setting.  They ignore the alert, instead choosing to relish what little privacy they have left.

She moves to rest her chin against his chest, staring up at him, and he peeks down at her, her brown eyes shining at him, a glistening of moisture threatening to sneak down her cheeks, laying tracks towards their future.

“You regret it?” She asks, a quiver in her voice, giving permission for the tears to fall, quietly and treacherously.

He shakes his head.  “Not even a little bit,” he says in a whisper with such reverence, it washes over her like a prayer, a request of sorts, to please spare them from the worst.

Her flat stomach rests against his side, a soft rumbling tearing him from the serious moment of reflection.  And she lets out a hoarse giggle, the kind that has her hiding her face from him, not even in embarrassment but the timing of it all.  His chest is left to soak up her tears, happy to steal the pain away from her.

He gestures with his head towards her.  “Pretty soon it’ll be an actual person kicking for attention,” he says in wonder.  Her eyes alight with awe whenever he makes mention of the baby nestled inside her.  The one he constantly reminds himself that he put there.  His statement earning him a dimpled smile, and he reaches up, running his thumb of the indent of sunshine radiating from her.

“Although, I’d say she’s already demanding attention, given the statement that just went out,” he breeches the subject, the news that was currently raining down over them, it’s backlash thundering at their door.

“Well she is a Lawson, after all,” she says with a wink.  “Let’s just hope it doesn’t go to her head like some people,” she teases with a finger to his ribs, his attempt to twist away from her failing, as he lays entangled, her legs still wrapped around him.

The phone buzzes again, and she glances at it, the screen filled with messages, their response met with silence, as he turns the phone over, choosing instead to live in ignorance just a little longer.

She settles back down, snuggled into him, the scent of lilies and strawberries invading his senses, as she surrounds him, lulling them both into comfortable silence, her hand gripping his side tightly, refusing to let him leave - not that that thought had ever crossed his mind.

He’d spent months denying his feelings, smothering them down, running as far from her as he could get, only to be met with resistance, the pain in his ass worming her way into his heart, gripping tightly, and squeezing whenever she got too far, entangling their veins and syncopating their beats until it was so loud all he could hear was her, all he could feel was her.

And as he lay in bed with her, the sound of only their equal breaths intermixing in such close proximity, he can’t help but be thankful he’d found her, or rather that she’d found him.  A partnership born out of teamwork, evolving into something that amounted to nothing short of waking up each morning and choosing each other every day.

The product of their countless choices expected to make it arrival in eight months time.

He sinks further into the bed, settling them both against the stark white sheets, the rise and fall of their life felt in the movement of her stomach against his side in time with his own.

“I love you,” he whispers into the quiet room, his words settling over them, as he closes his eyes, letting the rest of the world wait just a little longer so he can have one more peaceful night with his girl.

Time travel theory mimics the tension in physics between quantum mechanics and general relativity.

On the one hand, you have “forward” time travel (future-bound), which is relatively straightforward if you understand parent-daughter universes.  (Which Flash made canon and I called).

Then you have “backward” time travel.

Quantum mechanics is the rules that governs the very small; general relativity governs the very large.  They are incompatible, but both of them are widely tested, valid theories.  That’s the problem: they cannot both be true, but they are.

Forward and backward time travel rules are like cubes and spheres: they don’t like each other.  (To add to the fun, our brains are primed to understand pyramids.)  You can find a formula that works for one or the other, but the more refined your singular theory becomes, the less likely both elements will fit into the same box.

For my theories, the tension splits with “Parent-Daughter Universes” on one side and “Continuous Arc” on the other.  Continuous Arc does beautifully with understanding who time travelers are relative to their environment and their origins, their relationship with other universes, and the existence of Divergent Universes even when you don’t see them.  But it struggles with odd scenarios like Out of Time, because it’s hard to find where the causation chain begins and ends: it starts to get tangled even in my head. 

Parent-Daughter Universes – Placeholder Universes – excel at explaining why you can travel to the future, where the post-Flashpoint Barry went after Our Barry arrived, and why Wally was affronted that Barry implied that post-Flashpoint hadn’t always been there (he said something to the effect of “You didn’t make this universe; we were here before you”).  But they offer no guidance on jaunts into the past; it doesn’t echo both ways.

Honestly?  I love the tension.  It forces me to up my game, and the best stuff comes from the hardest theories.  (Heck, Barry vs. The Flash is still my favorite and it wasn’t straightforward at all.)


Now, few of my own illustrations to show the future of the ISS!  With the success of the Commercial Cargo program, bringing SpaceX’s Dragon and Orbital’s Cygnus spacecraft to the station, the Commercial Crew program is set to bring the US back to manned spaceflight to the ISS.  To this end, in 2015, the station was reconfigured to allow for 2 berthed cargo vehicles, while converting the 2 Space Shuttle PMAs (Pressurized Mating Adapter) to NASA Docking Standard ports with support for autonomous docking.

With SpaceX’s Crew Dragon and Boeing’s CST-100 spacecraft servicing the station, station crew capacity will be extended to 7.  The International Space Station has proven to be an excellent place to validate and test new spacecraft, serving as the testbed for ATV, HTV, Dragon and Cygnus while looking to do the same for CST-100 and Crew Dragon in 2017.

Meanwhile, the orbiting outpost will play a role in validating new spaceflight technology.  In 2015, the Bigelow Aerospace BEAM (Bigelow Expandable Activity Module) will be flown to the station.  This technology, based on the cancelled NASA Transhab, will be validated by astronauts on-orbit.  Using expandable modules, future space stations can be built for a fraction of the cost of ISS while gaining large amounts of living space.  Other experiments on orbit include micro satellite servicing and deployment and the testing of small reentry vehicles from a proposed small airlock.

As the station’s future has now been all but completely extended to 2024 (awaiting Japanese and European approval), and the possibility of use until 2028, the question arises of what will succeed it after the station’s lifetime is complete and it is de-orbited.  Current NASA dialog suggests a similar arrangement to the commercial programs whereby NASA would purchase space on a commercial space station as an “anchor client” while purchasing commercial rides to reach them.  

when yoongi dropped his mixtape
  • *in class*
  • teacher: *to me* why didn't you do yesterday's homework?
  • me: agust d's 1st mixtape was released last night.
  • teacher:
  • me:
  • teacher: you're excused

Over the past week I have been on an archaeological/paleontological dig in Victoria, Australia. Here, I assisted a honours student by doing some bone abrasion cataloguing to test the validity of the scale we have now. This was done on bones that had been recovered previously on the dig, from the pes of Macropus titan giganteus. 

anonymous asked:

youre not valid

Validity is the extent to which a concept,[1] conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world. The word “valid” is derived from the Latin validus, meaning strong. The validity of a measurement tool (for example, a test in education) is considered to be the degree to which the tool measures what it claims to measure; in this case, the validity is an equivalent to accuracy.

In psychometrics, validity has a particular application known as test validity: “the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores” (“as entailed by proposed uses of tests”).[2]

It is generally accepted that the concept of scientific validity addresses the nature of reality and as such is an epistemological and philosophical issue as well as a question of measurement. The use of the term in logic is narrower, relating to the truth of inferences made from premises.

Validity is important because it can help determine what types of tests to use, and help to make sure researchers are using methods that are not only ethical, and cost-effective, but also a method that truly measures the idea or construct in question.

Validity (accuracy) [


]See also:

Precision and accuracy

Validity[3] of an assessment is the degree to which it measures what it is supposed to measure. This is not the same as reliability, which is the extent to which a measurement gives result that are very consistent. Within validity, the measurement does not always have to be similar, as it does in reliability. However, just because a measure is reliable, it is not necessarily valid (and vice versa). Validity is also dependent on the measurement measuring what it was designed to measure, and not something else instead.[4] Validity (similar to reliability) is a relative concept; validity is not an all-or-nothing idea. There are many different types of validity.

Construct validity[


]Main article:

Construct validity

Construct validity refers to the extent to which operationalizations of a construct (e.g., practical tests developed from a theory) measure a construct as defined by a theory. It subsumes all other types of validity. For example, the extent to which a test measures intelligence is a question of construct validity. A measure of intelligence presumes, among other things, that the measure is associated with things it should be associated with (convergent validity), not associated with things it should not be associated with (discriminant validity).[5]

Construct validity evidence involves the empirical and theoretical support for the interpretation of the construct. Such lines of evidence include statistical analyses of the internal structure of the test including the relationships between responses to different test items. They also include relationships between the test and measures of other constructs. As currently understood, construct validity is not distinct from the support for the substantive theory of the construct that the test is designed to measure. As such, experiments designed to reveal aspects of the causal role of the construct also contribute to construct validity evidence.[5]

Content validity[



Content validity is a non-statistical type of validity that involves “the systematic examination of the test content to determine whether it covers a representative sample of the behavior domain to be measured” (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997 p. 114). For example, does an IQ questionnaire have items covering all areas of intelligence discussed in the scientific literature?

Content validity evidence involves the degree to which the content of the test matches a content domain associated with the construct. For example, a test of the ability to add two numbers should include a range of combinations of digits. A test with only one-digit numbers, or only even numbers, would not have good coverage of the content domain. Content related evidence typically involves subject matter experts (SME’s) evaluating test items against the test specifications. Before going to final administration of questionnaires the researcher should consult the validity of items against each constructs or variables and accordingly modify measurement instruments on the basis of expert’s opinion.

A test has content validity built into it by careful selection of which items to include (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). Items are chosen so that they comply with the test specification which is drawn up through a thorough examination of the subject domain. Foxcroft, Paterson, le Roux & Herbst (2004, p. 49)[6] note that by using a panel of experts to review the test specifications and the selection of items the content validity of a test can be improved. The experts will be able to review the items and comment on whether the items cover a representative sample of the behaviour domain.

Face validity[



Face validity is an estimate of whether a test appears to measure a certain criterion; it does not guarantee that the test actually measures phenomena in that domain. Measures may have high validity, but when the test does not appear to be measuring what it is, it has low face validity. Indeed, when a test is subject to faking (malingering), low face validity might make the test more valid. Considering one may get more honest answers with lower face validity, it is sometimes important to make it appear as though there is low face validity whilst administering the measures.

Face validity is very closely related to content validity. While content validity depends on a theoretical basis for assuming if a test is assessing all domains of a certain criterion (e.g. does assessing addition skills yield in a good measure for mathematical skills? To answer this you have to know, what different kinds of arithmetic skills mathematical skills include) face validity relates to whether a test appears to be a good measure or not. This judgment is made on the “face” of the test, thus it can also be judged by the amateur.

Face validity is a starting point, but should never be assumed to be probably valid for any given purpose, as the “experts” have been wrong before—the Malleus Malificarum (Hammer of Witches) had no support for its conclusions other than the self-imagined competence of two “experts” in “witchcraft detection,” yet it was used as a “test” to condemn and burn at the stake tens of thousands women as “witches.”[7]

Criterion validity[



Criterion validity evidence involves the correlation between the test and a criterion variable (or variables) taken as representative of the construct. In other words, it compares the test with other measures or outcomes (the criteria) already held to be valid. For example, employee selection tests are often validated against measures of job performance (the criterion), and IQ tests are often validated against measures of academic performance (the criterion).

If the test data and criterion data are collected at the same time, this is referred to as concurrent validity evidence. If the test data are collected first in order to predict criterion data collected at a later point in time, then this is referred to as predictive validity evidence.

Concurrent validity[



Concurrent validity refers to the degree to which the operationalization correlates with other measures of the same construct that are measured at the same time. When the measure is compared to another measure of the same type, they will be related (or correlated). Returning to the selection test example, this would mean that the tests are administered to current employees and then correlated with their scores on performance reviews.

Predictive validity[



Predictive validity refers to the degree to which the operationalization can predict (or correlate with) other measures of the same construct that are measured at some time in the future. Again, with the selection test example, this would mean that the tests are administered to applicants, all applicants are hired, their performance is reviewed at a later time, and then their scores on the two measures are correlated.

This is also when measurement predicts a relationship between what is measured and something else; predicting whether or not the other thing will happen in the future. This type of validity is important from a public view standpoint; is this going to look acceptable to the public or not?